Music 101, Unit 1 Study Guide
Music 101, Unit 1 Study Guide Music 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zackary Windham on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Music 101 at Brigham Young University taught by Hannah C. McLaughlin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Unit 1: Materials of Music- Study Guide Melody (a musical line; the tune) 1. The shape of a melody, like a curve or graph is its _____. 2. ___________ play off and underneath the melody. 3. Melodies with small, connected intervals are _______. 4. A ______ is a musical sentence. 5. _______ melodies have large, disconnected intervals. 6. At the end of a phrase is a _____ or rest. Words- cadence, conjunct, contour, countermelodies, disjunct, phrase Harmony (the simultaneous combination of sounds) 1. Three or more notes sounding together form a _____. 2. ________ is the organization of a piece around a tonic. 3. A ____ is a single sustained pitch. 4. A stable combination of notes, __________ is where dissonance resolves. 5. A ____ is a chord built by choosing a starting note and adding every other note on the scale for a total of three notes. 6. The first note of the scale is the _____. 7. __________ is an unstable combination of notes that is sometimes harsh sounding. Words- chord, consonance, dissonance, drone, tonality, tonic, triad Rhythm (what moves music forward in time) 1. ______ is how rhythm is organized in patterns. 2. In ____________, the beat is subdivided into 3. 3. ________ is a deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accents. 4. The basic unit of rhythm is ____. 5. Notations for meter are called ________ or bars. 6. The first accented beat of a pattern is the ________. 7. In _________, the beat is subdivided into 2. 8. When is beat is stronger than others, it is ________. 9. A measure ends in a _________ or measure line. Words- accented, bar line, beat, compound meter, downbeat, measure, meter, offbeat, simple meter, syncopation Tempo and Dynamics (musical expression) 1. ____ is the speed at which a piece moves. 2. _______ are the volume of a piece. 3. ______ means loud; ______ means soft. Words- dynamics, forte, piano, tempo The Organization of Musical Sounds Pitches, also referred to as notes, are named with the first seven letters of the alphabet, A through G. An octave is when two notes sound the “same” but one is higher or lower. An octave is eight notes apart on a scale (not the chromatic scale). In western music, an octave is divided into 12 equal semitones, or half-steps (that’s where the chromatic scale comes in). 2 Non-western music divides an octave into even smaller steps called microtones. The chromatic scale is the 12 half steps in an octave. A sharp raises a note one half step, and a flat lowers a note one half step. One whole step is two half steps. A key is defined by the tonic (tonics discussed in Ch. 3); the key of C is centered around the tone of C. A major scale is important; it always begins on the tonic and follows this specific pattern (W= whole step, H= half step): W-W-H-W-W-W-H. Following this pattern, a major scale can be built using any pitch as the tonic. Within a scale there always exists tension and resolution. The seventh pitch wants to move on to the eighth pitch, the second wants to move down to the first. The fifth pitch is called the dominant pitch; this represents an active harmony with the tonic. The minor scale follows this pattern: W-H-W-W-H-W-W. This means the third, sixth, and seventh have all been flatted from the major scale. Diatonic (Baroque, Classical) pieces a firmly rooted in a major or minor scale, but chromatic (Romantic) pieces use the full range of pitches. Non-western scales included the pentatonic, 5 note scale, and tritonic, 3 note scale. To produce microtones on a Western instrument, one must use inflection of pitch, shifting it slightly up or down without moving all the way to the next half step. The triad (triads discussed in Ch. 3) built on the first note in the scale is the tonic chord, I chord, or rest chord. Active chords are built on other notes in the scale and look to be resolved in the rest chord. 3 The dominant chord is formed on the fifth note; it is the main active chord, the V chord. The subdominant chord is built on the fourth note, the IV chord. Modulation is a changing of key to a related key, such as shifting from C major to G major. Transposition is different because it is not a key change in the middle of the song; it is when the entire song is shifted to a different key, usually to make it easier to play. Musical Texture Match the word to the definition. Monophony One melodic line with an accompaniment Heterophony Homophony where all voices move in the same rhythm Polyphony Just a single melodic line Homophony Two or more melodic lines against each other Homorhythm One melodic line that varies between several musicians Musical Form Form refers to a work’s structure or shape. In music, repetition and contrast are very important. A popular structure in vocal music is strophic form (repetition), where the same melody is repeated with each stanza of text. The opposite of this is through-composed 4 form (contrast), where no section of the music or text is repeated. Between repetition and contrast lies variation; the tune is altered, but still recognizable. Each composer creates his or her own unique form; sometimes, in improvisation, the performers join in. Binary form has a statement and departure, without return to the opening section. Ternary form returns the first section after departure. A theme is a melodic idea used as a building block in a larger piece. When it is varied and changed and expanded, this is thematic development. Melodic ideas may be restated at different pitch levels; this is a sequence. A theme can be divided into melodic-rhythmic units called motives; i.e. “Land where my fathers died,” is a motive, like “Land of the pilgrim’s pride,”. Call and response, or responsorial music usually involves a singing leader imitated or answered by a chorus. Ostinato is a short musical pattern (melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic) repeated throughout a work or a major section of a piece. A movement is a complete and comparatively independent division of a large scale work. Music and Words 1. Scat-singing is an example of _______ syllables. 2. A _____ is a long syllable moving through several notes. 5 3. The three text-setting styles are ______ (one note per syllable), _______ (a few notes per syllable), and ______ (many notes per syllable). 4. _____ is a technique where the timbre of the voice is used like an instrument. Words- melisma, melismatic, neumatic, nonlexical, syllabic, vocalise Instrument Families Voices- “a cappella” literally means in the chapel, but now refers to “without instruments”. Chordophones- instrument with a vibrating string. Playing with a bow is arco but plucking the strings is pizzicato. Aerophones- wind instruments, anything you blow into. There are brass instruments, where you buzz into a mouthpiece. There are also woodwind instruments, that usually have a reed that vibrates when air is blown past it (except the flute, the reed mechanism is inside the tube). Membranophones- something that has a membrane that vibrates when it is hit; most drums. Idiophones- anything that vibrates by itself when hit. Cowbell, maracas, symbols, etc. Keyboards- piano, organ, harpsichord, etc. Electronics Musical Ensembles 6 A chamber ensemble is a small group of usually instrumental musicians; each player has his or her own unique part. Quartets, quintets, etc. A band often uses winds or percussion. The orchestra is the large, full ensemble. Strings come in the front. Woodwinds go in the middle, and the percussion and brass go in the back. The conductor goes in the very front. Instrumentation means which instruments are being used. Orchestration is how the instruments are being used. Important for the test. Style and Function of Music in Society There is a style of music for every occasion, but many cultures do not have the same occasions, so styles become unique to culture. A genre is a general term that suggests something of the overall character of the work as well as its cultural function; different from form, the structure. Genres include songs, symphonies, operas, etc. A medium is the specific group that performs the piece. Works are sometimes identified through a cataloguing system, using opus numbers (opus means “work” in Latin). Some music is not written down, but transferred by oral transmission. Remember, though we don’t study them, vernacular music (popular or traditional music) is just as culturally important. 7 Style is the characteristic way an artwork is presented. 8
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