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Study Guide for Test 1 ( A and P 2)

by: Kimberly Krause

Study Guide for Test 1 ( A and P 2) 2402

Marketplace > Tyler Junior College > Biology > 2402 > Study Guide for Test 1 A and P 2
Kimberly Krause
Tyler Junior College
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover all the material we have covered in the first 3 weeks. It covers everything from Chapter 17 (Endocrine) and Chapter 18 (Blood). Use this guide to help you review for the test!
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Cates
Study Guide
Endocrine system, Hormones, red blood cells, Blood, ovary, thyroid, Plasma
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Krause on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2402 at Tyler Junior College taught by Dr. Cates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Tyler Junior College.

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Date Created: 09/10/16
Study guide for Test 1 - Chapters 17 and 18 Color key: Red = Main points to study Blue = Endocrine glands Green = Hormones Purple = main components of Plasma 1. Compare NS vs. ES Nervous System vs. Endocrine System
 Coordination vs. Communication Nervous System Endocrine System Message Impulse Hormone Nature of Electrochemical Disturbance Molecule - physical object. Something that has to be Ex. Talking: vibrations disturb air made, moved, cleaned up. Source Neuron Endocrine Gland - Exocrine (has duct and goes out). Endocrine gland (ductless and goes into blood). Path Axon (like a phone call, path is from one caBlood stream (like snail mail) to another) Speed Fast Slow Direct Very direct Very indirect (dropping hormones into blood, they have a long way to travel with 60,000 miles of blood vessels!) Clean Very clean (like a phone call) Very dirty (pamphlets being dropped to everyone by a plane dropping them over a city) 2. Review three types of hormone control 1. Humoral Control - 1 gland -Release of hormone because of changes in blood chemistry -1 single gland can act as all three in maintaining homeostasis: receptor, control center, and effector. 2. Hormonal Control - 2 glands
 -Release of a hormone when another hormone sends message -Gland 1 recognizes changes and makes a “releasing” hormone (think “relay”) to tell the Gland 2 to make the real hormone. 3. Neural Control - easiest one -Release of hormone because of nervous impulse -Adrenalin releases from the Adrenal Medulla when Sympathetic Nervous system switches on. Page 1 of 9 3. Review Endocrine Glands and the hormones they secrete • Hypothalamus 1. ADH 3 things that cause more ADH to be secreted: 1. Deep sleep for eight hours 2. Body temperature is up 3. Dehydrated “save the water mode” 2. Oxytocin -is released to help uterine contractions • Posterior pituitary Question on test: Posterior lobe does NOT produce hormones. But it does release 2. • Adenohypophysis (Anterior pituitary) 1. ACTH Hormone (Adrenocorticotropic hormone - Releasing hormone) ACTH’s target is the Adrenal cortex which secrets cortisol (cortisone). Cortisol can be referred to as the “stress hormone.” More about that below in Adrenal Cortex. 2. FSH (Follicle Stimulating hormone - Releasing Hormone) Summary: Stimulates follicle growth in ovaries. FSH works with LH to regulate woman’s cycle. How FSH is secreted: a) Hypothalamus sends releasing hormones to signal b) Anterior pituitary gland, which secretes FSH. Which signals: c) ovaries (during 1st half of cycle) to produce estrogen. FSH target Gonads (Ovaries in women, testes in men). Page 2 of 9 3. LH (Luteinizing Hormone - Releasing hormone) Summary: Causes follicle to rupture, releasing egg. Follicle shell turns into yellow corpus luteum which produces progesterone that nourishes egg. How LH is secreted: a) Hypothalamus sends releasing hormones to signal b) Anterior pituitary gland to secrete LH. Which signals: c) ovaries (during 2nd half of cycle) to produce progesterone. 4. TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone - Releasing hormone) Target: Thyroid. Causes: Thyroid to secrete T and T 3 4 What is T 3nd T ? 4 T3and T r4fer to the levels of iodine in the hormone. Effect: -Increased metabolic rate -Increased glucose uptake -Increased fat breakdown -Increased aerobic cellular respiration- -Hypothyroidism is caused by low iodine 5. Growth Hormone Two things stimulate more secretion of GH: -Deep Sleep -Active exercise 6. Prolactin -Milk production before and afterbirth • Thyroid Gland 1. 3 2. 4 Summary of T an3 T 4 Anterior Pituitary sends TSH to thyroid which stimulates the production of T3 and T4. (See above in TSH hormone for more details) 3. Calcitonin What it does: -The thyroid gland is constantly scanning the blood and when it discovers too much calcium in the blood it releases the hormone calcitonin. -Calcitonin then stimulates the osteoblasts (of the bones) to take that excess calcium from blood and build it up in bones. Page 3 of 9 • Parathyroid Gland Secretes: Parathyroid hormone -This hormone is the counterpart to the thyroid hormone, calcitonin. PTH scans the blood and if the blood calcium levels are low, then they stimulate the osteoclasts to break down calcium from the bone in order to put it in the blood. Think of the bones as a “storage” for calcium and these two hormones working together to regulate the correct amounts of calcium in the blood. Either taking it out of the bones, or putting it back in to achieve a balance in the blood. Adrenal Cortex • 1. Cortisone (same as Cortisol) Summary: Anterior Pituitary sends ACTH to tell Adrenal Cortex to secrete Cortisol during times of stress. Cortisol releases glucose into the blood for fuel. If no glucose is found, then fat or protein are broken down for fuel. The outcome is the toxic ketones. That is why stress eventually breaks down the body. 2. Androgens Causes: -Stimulate bone growth -Secondary sex characteristics aka facial hair, large ears, deep voice. 3. Aldosterone Summary: -Adrenal cortex will sense that either potassium is high or sodium is low, or blood pressure is low. That will cause aldosterone to be secreted to help maintain balance. Effects: Causes kidney to save some of the sodium from the urine and secrete potassium. Saves water. Imbalance can lead to death. The blood pressure goes down. • Adrenal Medulla 1. Epinephrine 2. Norepinephrine Both of these secrete Adrenalin to increase sympathetic nervous sy tem. • Pancreas 1. Insulin -Take glucose from the blood and stores it in cells for later use. 2. Glucagon -When “glucose is gone” from your blood stream, glucagon unpackages stored glucose to put into blood. When you are fasting, glucagon is working to supply glucose. • Testes Testosterone -Secondary sex traits - Male features. Bone growth and skeletal muscle growth. Page 4 of 9 • Ovaries 1. Estrogen -plays key roll in the menstruation cycle. -bone growth -Female features 2. Progesterone -plays key roll in menstruation cycle. Nourishes egg. • Placenta HCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin) -Placenta produces this when there is baby. Pregnancy tests scan urine for this hormone. 4. Review Body Fluids (on “ballpark numbers” page) 1. Plasma -least consistent, most controlled by you. 2. Interstitial Fluid -Must be the correct balance to survive. Body is constantly working to maintain balance. -Only way to alter this directly with a hypodermic injection. 3. Intracellular fluid (cytosol) -inside the cell -Most consistent, least controlled by you. -Body keeps perfectly regulated to keep cells alive and running. 5. Percentage of water in humans 70% infant - Baby’s have the most percentage of fluids, but they have a smaller body, so there must be care in treating them. They can’t control their urine or sweat, so they get dehydrated fast, even though they have a lot of fluids. Think of how smooth and soft their skin is, that is caused by their high amounts of fluid. 60% male - have a lot of fluid and their bodies are a little more forgiving if the meds are wrong. 50% female - float better, they have more fat. 40% senior - seniors get dehydrated very easy. Be careful when giving them medicine. They have a decreased sense of thirst and they are achey so they don’t want to get up to use the bathroom. 6. Edema What is it? It is where the interstitial fluids have excess fluid. So, swelling in the interstitial fluid. What are the effects? -Harder to diffuse nutrients (everything become diluted) -Long term edema can cause cells to die. Fibroblasts will put down their “scar tissue” in the tissue where there is edema. -Allergic reactions cause edema. Like allergic reaction to peanut butter or bee stings. -Blood volume goes down and blood pressure goes down. Page 5 of 9 7. Blood contents 1. Plasma 55% 2. Buffy layer <1 3. Erythrocytes 45% 8. Plasma contents (55% of Blood) -Proteins of Plasma (7% of Plasma) Kind Percentage About Albumin 58% -Al “white” as in the white of the egg. It’s clear, but when you fry it it’s white. That’s the protein. -Albumin is made in liver -In capillaries albumin is needed to create the osmotic pressure. The osmotic pressure is important because it allows the fluids back into arteries. Without the pressure pulling back in, all the fluids would drain out and cause edema. -People who’ve been drinking, take tylenol, or have had Hep B will have problems with liver. -Buffers from harmful acids like the acid in dill pickles. Helps balance that pH. Globulin 37% -made by liver -transport system. -Enzymes -Alpha and Beta are the escort service Protein plus a lipid are a lipoprotein. They can travel across the plasma membrane if connected. -Lipoproteins come in two forms -HDL (Happy- High density lipoproteins) -LDL (Lossy - Low density lipoproteins) -Transport metals -Iron (free ion can be dangerous, but with a carrier it’s fine. Don’t give a kid an adult vitamin. ex. escort prisoner in a jail.) -Gamma - B cells and T cells are Lymphocytes -Ig - Immunoglobulin - Antibodies Clotting 4% Fibrinogen -made by liver -alcohol makes spotty skin -suffix -ogen means not active. Thrombin means active. Thrombin activates fibrin to blood clot. Other <1% 1.Enzymes -Lipoprotein lipase -This one is breaking down the fat and protein. The fat is being used as fuel for the muscles. Fat is constantly being broken down from the fat cells and being put into the blood for availability to muscles. In order to burn this fat for good, make big muscles which require more fat as fuel. Loose weight. 2. Complement Page 6 of 9 -Complement to the antibodies 3. Hormones -Water (92% of Plasma) -Other Solutes (1% of Plasma) 1. Electrolytes a) Cations b) Anions Most important Cations Cation Normal range About + (Sodium) is most abundant cation in extracellular fluid Na 140 CA ++ (Calcium) 5 is most abundant cation in entire body. Why is the number so low in the plasma? The number is so low because it’s being store in the bones. Think of it as a CA bank. Calcium is absolutely essential for nerve transmission and muscle contraction. That is why there is a little floating in the plasma. Potassium is the most abundant cell in the intracellular fluid. If you have K + (Potassium) 4 a dramatic influx of potassium it means you have something wrong with your kidneys, you blew up cells, or you did something weird to your diet. ++ Mg 2 (Magnesium) Most important Anions Anion Normal range About Chloride is the same mm as NA. Because they CL and NA go together. Cl - (Chlorine) 100 Ex. You’ve tasted the “saltly” flavor of blood. - -buffer in plasma. Broken down CO You hi2 the CO the HCO 3 24 bicarbonate in order to get it through your blood plasma. If it hides it, it (Bicarbonate) can help maintain the pH of your blood. It’s clever! -Reversible reaction. Next to lungs there’s n2t a lot of CO . Next to heart more CO 2 -2 Least important HPO 4 2 (Hydrogen phosphate) SO 4-2 (Sulfate) 1 Least important Page 7 of 9 2. Respiratory Gasses: a) O is 2% in plasma. RBC’s carry 98% of O . 2 - 2 - b) CO 2s 7% in plasma. HCO is t3e 70%. CO has been2converted to HCO 3 and that’s why most of the CO is2being carried by HCO in bl3od. 3. Nutrients: a) Glucose 100mg normal fasting blood. b) Cholesterol 200 mg/dl 200 (HDL 40+, LDL 160-) These two combined. 4. Wastes: -Found in plasma of blood. Kidney decides what is waste. Even excess good molecules kidney will flush out. -Urea, uric acid, ammonium - all these have nitrogen and major waste products. Bad smell in pee or sweat is the ammonia. That’s the urea or uric acid. Nitrogen is being thrown out. -Lactic acid - when your body does not have O whe2 working out, lactic acid builds up. 9. Buffy Layer (<1% of Blood) 1. Thrombocyte (platelets or blood clots) Characterists: -NOT moving = thrombocyte -Moving clot = embolus 2. Leucocytes (“white cells”) 8000 cells. 2 types: 1.Granulocytes Grainy cytoplasm 1. Neutrophil - PMN. Polymorphonucleus. Many shaped nuclues. 60% -Young ones are called “bands” - acute infection (recent infection) -Old ones are called “segs” -chronic infection (long term infection) 2. Eosinophil 3% - absorbs red dye bilobed - allergic reaction or worms. 3. Basophil <1% - looks black. Mast cells - histamine 2.Agranuloctye Not grainy cytoplasm. 1. Lymphocyte T cells and B cells (smart cells) Specialists or SWAT teams. B cells - antibodies. Gamma gobulins 2. Monocytes - HUGE. floating brain looking nucleus. When they leave the blood stream they turn into macrophages. Junk yard dogs. Ratio: White blood cells 1 to RBC 700 Page 8 of 9 10. Hematocrit (45% of Blood) Red Blood Cells -They are made in red bone marrow. -Hemocytoblast - can become RBC, WBC, or Platelets. -Baby RBC’s are making a lot of hemoglobin that will help it in its jobs later on. -Rough ER makes a freckle pattern called reticulocyte. Represents about 1% of RBC’s. -When they stop making hemoglobin, and the cell is left with a package of hemoglobin the name gets changed to Erythrocyte which represents 99%. All it can do is carry the respiratory gasses. Sizes: Thrombocyte 4 RBC 8 WBC 16 Lifespan: RBC’s have a 120 days lifespan. The outside gets ratty like someone who wears the same clothes every day. Amount you find: 5,000,000, mm3 - most abundant elements. HUGE number of ratio. Hemoglobin like a taxi - 2 . and CO2carrier. 65% Iron is in RBC. Hemoglobin concentration 15 g/100ml Blood Types Type O most abundant Rh+ 85% Type A - Antigen called A (Antigen means a target) Makes a antibody for B. Type B - Antigen B Makes an antibody for A. Type AB - Antigen AB no antibody - universal recipient Type O - NO antigen makes antibody against both. - universal donor The thing that attacks the antigen is the antibody. Antibody is a weapon. Rh + = antigen Rh - = NO antigen Page 9 of 9


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