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Ch. 1Study Guide ASTR 1307

by: Julian Sanchez

Ch. 1Study Guide ASTR 1307 ASTR 1307

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Science > ASTR 1307 > Ch 1Study Guide ASTR 1307
Julian Sanchez

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These notes go over important terms, facts, concepts and people we should know for this weeks test.
Elem Astronomy-Solar System
Noriega-Mendoza, Hector
Study Guide
astronomy, EARTH, copernicus, galileo, ptolemy, magnitude, luminosity, retrograde, eratosthene, Circumpolar
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julian Sanchez on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 1307 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Noriega-Mendoza, Hector in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Elem Astronomy-Solar System in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chapter 1 Study Guide Elem Astronomy-Solar System 1307 Professor Hector Noriega Terms to know: 1. Inflationary Theory: the theory that the universe expanded faster during the big bag. 2. Dark Energy: an unknown force causing expansion of the universe. 3. North Star: a star seen in the northern hemisphere that allows for determination of the northern direction. 4. Circumpolar Stars: stars that never rise nor set. 5. Luminosity: Brightness of a star as seen from Earth. 6. Apparent Magnitude: Classifies brightness of stars as seen from earth (abbreviation: “m”) 7. Absolute Magnitude: the actual brightness of an object 8. One parsec: 3.26 light years away (abbreviation: “pc”) 9. Pythagoras Analogy: (6 Century BC) if the moon, planets, sun, and other worlds are spherical, then the Earth must be too. 10. Aristotle’s Argument: Earth is spherical because its shadow cast on the moon during a lunar eclipse is circular, NOT flat. 11. Heliocentric Model: sun-centered model of the solar system. th Crethed by Nicolaus Copernicus in the 6 Century (model accepted in 17 Century) 12. Geocentric Model: earth-centered model of the solar system. Created by Ptolemy in the 2 ndCentury AD 13. One Astronomical Unit (AU): Earths average distance to the sun; 149.6 km 14. Retrograde: the illusion that planets make loops as they cross the sky; the apparent backwards movement of planets. 15. Ptolemy’s Model: explanation of retrograde which involves revolutions around the earth, as well as smaller epicycles that create the planet loops. 16. Nicolaus Copernicus: astronomer from 6 century in Poland who came up with the heliocentric model nd 17. Ptolemy: created the geocentric model in the 2 century AD. 18. Tycho Brahe: Astronomer who made the most accurate description from before the telescope era. Observed elliptical orbits of the planets st 19. Kepler’s 1 Law: planets have elliptical orbits, with the sun at one of its focus points. 20. Kepler’s 2 Law: Planets speed up in their orbits as they approach the sun, and slow down as they recede. 21. Kepler’s 3 rdLaw: a smaller orbit means it orbits the sun in a shorter amount of time. 22. Eccentricity: Measure of how much the shape of an ellipse departs from that of a circle (basically how ovular an object is) 23. 4 Conic Sections: the result of cutting a cone at 4 different angles (i.e. Circle, Ellipse, Parabola, Hyperbola) 24. Perihelion: The closest position to the Sun as Earth orbits around it (147.1 km) 25. Aphelion: The furthest position to the sun as Earth orbits around it (152.1 km) Facts to know Universe:  Is a network of filaments at its largest scale (composed of galaxies.)  Constantly expanding and has no center Earth:  Location: Virgo Supercluster, Local Group, Milky Way  Is spherical, not flat (proven by Pythagoras Analogy, Aristotle’s Analogy, as well as modern evidence of the curvature such as the North Star).  Has an elliptical (ovular) orbit and takes 365 days, 6 hours to orbit around the sun  Has a tilt at 23.5 degrees, causing each of the 4 seasons (When the northern hemisphere points towards the sun, it is summer. When the northern hemisphere points away from the sun, it is winter.) Stars:  Rise in the east, set in the west (however, stars near the Northern Star will never rise nor set)  Emit light and energy.  Usually have smaller objects orbiting around them.  Have both an Apparent Magnitude (m) and an Absolute Magnitude (M)  Can be seen to the naked eye if they have a magnitude less than 6 Magnitude:  If m = M, then the star’s distance is equal to 10 parsecs away  If m > M, then the star’s distance is greater than 10 parsecs away  If m < M, then the star’s distance is less than 10 parsecs away  An object with a small or negative magnitude number is brighter than an object with a large magnitude number. o Ex: Sun has a magnitude of -26.5, and Pluto has a magnitude of 14.9 Evidence of Earth’s Curvature:  If the earth was flat, the north star would not change position no matter where on earth  Pythagoras Analogy about spherical worlds  Aristotle’s Argument about Earth’s circular shadow on the moon Evidence for/Facts on the Heliocentric Model:  The telescope used by Galileo Galilea in the 17 century observed small objects orbiting large objects  Discovery of the phases of planet Venus, as well as observations that it appeared to grow and shrink  Favored CIRCULAR orbits  Explained the retrograde seen by the planets Retrograde  Is the apparent backwards/loop path made by PLANETS ONLY as they travel the sky  Geocentric Model: o Explained with the epicycles as the planets orbited the earth  Heliocentric Model: o Explained given the fact that the outer planets orbit slower than us, so as we pass them up, they appear to move backwards


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