Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 101
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Match The Following Terms: 1. Clinical Psychology A. How people learn, achievement tests, classroom environment, education of mentally disabled 2. Psychiatry B. Deals with non deviant behavior and relationships (family, marriage, career) 3. Educational psychology C. Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders 4. Counseling psychology D. Training and motivation of workers, job satisfaction, and good work relations 5. Industrial/organizational psychology E. A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders 6. Which of the following are true in regards to the scientific method? I. A theory is a broad explanation that organizes and predicts observations II. Replicability of the experiment is not needed III. A hypothesis needs to be testable, and specific A. I only B. I and II C. I and III D. I, II, and III 7. Which research strategy does not fit with the others? A. Survey B. Experimentation C. Naturalistic Observation D. Case Study 8. What is a major limitation for case studies? A. Response rate B. Does not explain behavior C. Correlation doesn’t mean causation D. Easy to make false conclusions 9. All are examples of survey subjects except: A. Dating practices B. Political Polls C. Child interactions at playgrounds D. Drug use 10. Which research strategy requires researchers to not have intervention with subjects for the results to be considered valid? A. Naturalistic observation B. Case study C. Experimentation D. Survey 11. For what reasons are correlations used? I. When experimentation is unethical II. When experimentation is impossible or too difficult III. When looking at traits that cannot be controlled A. I and II B. II only C. II and III D. I, II, and III 12. What is the correlation of this graph? And what would the numeric correlation look like? A. Positive; +0.5 B. Negative; 0.5 C. No correlation; 0 13. What is an important factor for researchers to implement in experiments? A. Random assignment of participants B. Participants to know if they are in the control or experimental group C. A control group is not necessary D. Extraneous variables should be of no concern 14. Fill in the blanks with the correct response: In an experiment, an investigator manipulates one or more factors (________________) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (___________________). A. Dependent variable; control group B. Independent variable; control group C. Independent variable; dependent variable D. Control group; dependent variable 15. What is the purpose of experimental condition? A. Serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment B. Exposes participants to the experimental treatment C. To keep participants from knowing whether they are in the control or experimental group D. It’s the experimental factor that is being measured Match the following terms to their functions: 16. Dendrite A. Control center of neuron 17. Cell body B. Junction between axon of one neuron and dendrite of another 18. Axon C. Part of neuron that receives messages from other cells 19. Myelin sheath D. Protein that binds neurotransmitters, hormones or drugs 20. Synapse E. Speeds conduction of neural impulse 21. Receptor F. Sends messages to other neurons 22. What is the correct order from beginning to end of the firing of a neuron? I. Axon fires message through synapse II. Sodium and potassium flood inside neuron III. Dendrite receives signal IV. Receptors pick up neurotransmitter V. Cell body triggers depolarization A. I, V, IV, III, II B. III, V, II, I, IV C. III, II, V, I, IV D. V, I, III, II, IV Math the following terms to their definitions: 23. Depolarization A. The level of stimulation required to trigger an action potential; reached through depolarization 24. Hyperpolarization B. The period in which a new action potential cannot occur 25. Threshold C. Return of the inside of the axon to a more negative charge 26. Action potential D. Action potentials can’t be partial; they either happen or they don’t 27. Refractory period E. When the inside of an axon becomes more positive through an inward flow of ions (K and Na) 28. Allornone F. Brief electrical charge that travels down an axon 29. Which neurotransmitters have been linked with depression? I. Dopamine II. Serotonin III. Norepinephrine IV. Endorphins A. I and III B. II and III C. I, III, and IV D. II only 30. What is the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine? A. Movement, learning, attention, emotion, reward B. Mood, hunger, sleep, arousal C. Alertness and arousal D. Pain control and pleasure 31. Each neurotransmitter is linked with a disorder except: A. Dopamine B. Norepinephrine C. Endorphins D. Serotonin 32. Which neurotransmitter is responsible for alertness and arousal? A. Norepinephrine B. Serotonin C. Endorphins D. Dopamine Match the following terms with their functions: Hindbrain: 33. Cerebellum A. Automatic survival functions, crossover point for information leaving and entering the brain 34. Lower brain stem B. Bridge between cerebellum and brain stem 35. Medulla C. Coordinates voluntary movement, balance 36. Pons D. Controls heartbeat and breathing Midbrain: 37. Upper brain stem A. Integration of sensory processes 38. Reticular formation B. Arousal, sleep, pain perception, relay center Forebrain: 39. Thalamus A. Basic drives and emotion 40. Hypothalamus B. Fear, aggression, emotion 41. Limbic System C. Higherorder control, information processing, reasoning, personality, intelligence, language 42. hippocampus D. Part of dopamine reward system 43. amygdala E. Sensory relay center (except smell) and integrator 44. Nucleus accumbens F. Attention, planning, sense of self, social life 45. Cerebrum G. Memory processing 46. Prefrontal cortex H. Maintenance; temperature regulation, eating, drinking, sexual behavior, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, reward center and linked to emotion Lobes: 47. Frontal A. Hearing 48. Parietal B. Vision 49. Occipital C. Somatosensory (touch) 50. Temporal D. Motor initiation 51. You are in an injury where you injure the right hemisphere of your brain, all of the following functions are affected except: A. Spatial reasoning B. Reading maps C. Language D. Facial recognition 52. What is the structure in the brain that connects the hemispheres, but can be severed to prevent seizures? A. Hypothalamus B. Hippocampus C. Cerebellum D. Corpus Callosum 53. What is an effect on the body by the sympathetic nervous system? A. Relaxes bladder B. Stimulates digestion C. Contracts pupils D. Slows heartbeat 54. All of the following are functions of the sympathetic nervous system except: A. Pupils dilate B. Heartbeat increases C. Contracts bladder D. Inhibits digestion 55. True/False: Plasticity is the concepts where the brain changes with experience, connections are flexible A. True B. False 56. Perception can be influenced by: A. Ambiguous stimuli B. Context C. Previous Experience D. Expectancies E. All of the above Match the following parts of the eye to their functions: 57. Cornea A. Transparent disk that focuses light rays for near or distant vision 58. Pupil B. Allows us to see in dim light 59. Iris C. Curved, transparent dome that bends incoming light 60. Lens D. The part of the retina where light rays are most sharply focused 61. Retina E. Part of the visual field we can’t see because of an absence of rods and cones 62. Fovea F. Opening in the center of the iris that lets in light 63. Blind spot G. Innermost layer of the eye, where incoming light is converted into nerve impulses 64. Pigment epithelium H. Colored area containing muscles that control the pupil 65. Which of the following are binocular cues for depth perception? i. Retinal disparity ii. Convergence iii. Interposition A. I and III B. II and III C. I and II D. I, II, and III Match the following terms with their definitions Monocular Cues for Depth Perception 66. Interposition A. Objects higher in the field of vision are farther away 67. Relative size B. Parallel lines converge with distance 68. Relative height C. Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes 69. Relative motion D. Object in front blocks 70. Linear perspective E. As we move stable objects move with us 71. Light and shadow F. If objects same size, the one that casts a smaller retinal image is farther away Grouping Principles of Form Perception 72. Proximity A. We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinous 73. Similarity B. We fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object 74. Continuity C. Nearby objects go together 75. Connectedness D. Similar objects go together 76. Closure E. When uniformed or linked we perceive items as a single unit 77. Place the following in the correct order, beginning to end, of how visual information travels. i. Ganglion cells ii. Thalamus iii. Rods and cones iv. Optic nerve v. Bipolar cells vi. Visual cortex (occipital lobe) A. iii, v, iv, vi, ii, i B. iii, v, i, iv, ii, vi C. v, i, iv, iii, vi, ii D. iv, i, iii, v, vi, ii 78. All of the following are properties of cones except: A. Color B. Center C. Sensitive to detail D. 120 million per eye 79. All of the following are properties of rods except: A. Periphery B. Sensitive to dim lights C. 6 million per eye D. Not sensitive to detail 80. What is the difference between taste and flavor? A. You have five basic tastes, and flavor is a combination of retronasal olfaction and taste B. There is no difference C. Food tastes good so it must have flavor D. Taste allows you to determine flavor 81. True/False: You have innate preferences/aversions for taste A. True B. False Match the taste to its importance 82. Salty A. Detects high concentrated amounts of acids (can cause tissue damage) 83. Sweet B. Detects proteins 84. Bitter C. Needed for neural communication 85. Sour D. Detects poison 86. Umami E. Needed to help nourish the brain and keep it functioning 87. What is different about the detection of umami and fat than the other tastes? A. The molecules are too big to have receptors on the tongue so the receptors are found in the stomach B. There is no difference C. The umami and fat receptors are bigger than the other taste receptors D. Umami and fat don’t have receptors at all 88. Place the following in the correct order, from beginning to end, of how taste travels to the brain. i. Papillae cover the tongue ii. Each taste buds contain a number of taste receptor cells iii. Taste buds embedded in papillae iv. Chewing breaks down food into smaller molecules that are dissolved in saliva v. Interaction between taste receptor cell and preferred molecule sends action potential along cranial nerve to the brain A. iii, i, v, iv, ii B. iv, v, iii, i, ii C. iv, i, iii, ii, v D. iv, i, ii, v, iii 89. All are true about the orbitofrontal cortex except A. Integration area B. Neurons respond to temperature, touch, smell and taste C. Where perception of flavor occurs D. Contains taste receptors Answers: 1. C 2. E 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. C 7. B 8. D 9. C 10. A 11. D 12. B 13. A 14. C 15. B 16. C 17. A 18. F 19. E 20. B 21. D 22. B 23. E 24. C 25. A 26. F 27. B 28. D 29. B 30. A 31.C 32. A 33. C 34. A 35. D 36. B 37. A 38. B 39. E 40. H 41. A 42. G 43. B 44. D 45. C 46. F 47. D 48. C 49. B 50. A 51. C 52. D 53. A 54. C 55. A 56. E 57. C 58. F 59. H 60. A 61. G 62. D 63. E 64. B 65. C 66. D 67. F 68. A 69. E 70. B 71. C 72. C 73. D 74. A 75. E 76. B 77. B 78. D 79. C 80. A 81. A 82. C 83. E 84. D 85. A 86. B 87. A 88. C 89. D
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