Exam #1 Study Guide- Sociology 101
Exam #1 Study Guide- Sociology 101 Sociology 101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeli on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 101 at University of South Carolina taught by Negraia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 147 views.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Exam #1 Study Guide Topic 1: What is Sociology? Sociology the study of how individuals interact within a society. Sociology differences o Psychologists study the individual o Biologists study what does on inside the individual Hormones, etc. Individualistic vs Sociological explanations o Individualistic focuses on the individual “They’re homeless because they’re lazy” o Sociological focuses on uncontrollable factors that cause behavior or outcome Potential sociological explanations: High unemployment rate Stigmas against mental disorders Racial discrimination What is the Sociological Imagination? o Consistently thinking from a sociological perspective As opposed to individualistic o Benefits: Understand societal phenomenon on a greater scale o Barriers: Individualistic thinking Common sense explanations for outcomes “I knew it all along” bias Social structure o Institutions Characterized by Statuses Groups Roles Organizations Examples Marriage Government o Statuses and roles Titles and jobs Ascribed Given at birth o Example, prince/princess Achieved Earned throughout one’s lifetime o Example, mother o Organizations and groups Made of a collection of people In organizations usually share a common goal People can have statuses and roles within their group Topic 2: Classical Scholars and Paradigms Karl Marx o Contributions Criticism of capitalism and communism o Concepts Proletariat vs Bourgeoisie conflict Would lead to proletariat revolution Would lead to the communist utopia No money No government No social class No religion No property No child labor “Free association of producers” o Everyone shares everything o Criticisms Communism killed a lot of people Looks better on paper than real life Emile Durkheim o Contributions Sociological method Studies on suicide o Concepts Sociological method Define object of society Leave aside all preconceptions Use aggregate data & ignore individual characteristics Each effect = 1 cause o Criticisms Not all of the sociological method is wholly correct Don’t ignore the individuals Many causes to one effect Max Weber o Contributions Beaurocracy Protestant ethic and capitalism o Concepts Beaurocracy Hierarchal organization Impersonal Management Demands full working capacity of employee Iron cage o Once a beaurocracy always a beaurocracy Added more human side to economic relations Case studies and study of individuals o Criticisms Beaurocracy is supposed to be cheap fast and efficient Wasn’t Robert Michels o Contributions Thoughts on democracy o Concepts A direct democracy is the only good one Result of corruption Issues with participation and incompetence of the masses Solutions to oligarchy Charasmatic leader Educating the masses StructuralFunctionalist (Durkheim) o Everything serves a purpose and society is an organism “everything bad won’t be there” o Macro level perspective o Limits Does nothing about inequality Does not explain deviance Rape Murder Etc. Conflict perspective (Marx) o Conflict over resources o Dominant and subordinate groups o Limitations Zerosum Someone has to lose for someone to gain Social change not as common as it explained it to be Overly critical SymbolicInteractionist (Weber) o Reality is a social construction o Personal reality shapes actions and reactions o Micro level o Limits Effect of macro level on private lives Topic 3: Methods of Research Independent variable vs Dependent o Independent is the one being manipulated by researchers o Dependent is the one effected by the independent Quantitative vs Qualitative o QuaNtitative Numerical Height Weight Number of pizzas eaten in one day o Qualitative Nonnumerical Color Brand name Method How? Strengths Weaknesses Surveys Predesigned Standardized Honesty, reasoning questionnaires, sampling, behind an answer, Multiple or just once representable, memory sensitive, generalizable limited info Observations & Observing Insider’s view, Time and money, Qualitative detailed, guide future representiveness, Interacting research, check for generalizations, interviews honesty investigator bias, sensitive to cooperation and memory Historical analysis Looking at Detailed, non Language, time and documents invasive, guides money, dead future research participants Experiments Random assignments, Control, Hawthorne effect, controlled conditions, generalizations time and money, control/treatment questions aren’t groups always experiment friendly, sensitive to memory Experimental vs control o Experimental gets manipulated Correlation vs causation o Correlation doesn’t equal causation o Must be correlated to be a causation Spurious variables o Middle factor causes it to look like correlation o Rape and ice cream Both spurious variables Look correlated Both go up in the summer Topic 4: Culture, Norms, and Social order Culture is a compilation of nonmaterial and material culture o Nonmaterial culture Knowledge Beliefs Moral code of a society Values What they hold in esteem Customs Traditions o Material culture Stuff Houses Clothes Money Cultural change o Behavioral drivers People such as Ghandi o Contact of civilizations Globalization has led to tidbits of American culture in Europe o Inventions & Discoveries “Antibiotic culture” vs before antibiotics o Global business o Social movements Cultural diversity o Ethnocentrism My way is better o Cultural relativism Maybe they’re on to something Maybe this aspect of their culture works for them because… Norms rules or expectations about one’s behavior o Institutional norms Intentional norms built to further a common goal or behavior Example: Laws, dress code at work o Unspecified norms Things that aren’t illegal but that you just don’t do Example: picking your nose in public Bystander effect o Everyone thinks someone else will do something o No one does anything Pluralistic Ignorance o When almost every member of a group rejects a norm when almost everyone agrees that it is wrong No one speaks up Dispelled by truth Topic 5: Socialization, Identity, & Impression management Identity o What someone defines themselves as Factors of Socialization o Family o School o Friends o Church o Influence you towards what they want you to be Example Catholics will socialize you to view abortion as wrong Formation of self o Differentiation of self o Language Third person to me or I o Looking glass self Your opinion of yourself is based on what you were told about yourself at an early age Role taking o Influenced by your background & perception of opportunity Collectivist vs Individualist cultures o Collectivist Group over yourself o Individualist Needs of yourself before others Middle vs working class socialization o Working class Success requires hard work Nothing is given Some are given the ideals that they need to try to move up Others that you are locked in place Impression formation o Observable cues Gender Age Race Attractiveness Clothing o Nonobservable cues Education Profession Place of origin Religion Social class o Formed by the knowledge of cues along with the person’s actions and words Stigmas o Things that are seen as less desirable o Example: being overweight (western cultures) o Stigmas vary by society Regaining appearance o Postfailure Apologizing Accounts Excuses Justifications o Prefailure (anticipated) Disclaimer “I’m not racist, but…” Cooling out
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