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Exam #1 Study Guide- Sociology 101

by: Kaeli

Exam #1 Study Guide- Sociology 101 Sociology 101

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Sociology 101 > Exam 1 Study Guide Sociology 101

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Topics 1-5 Answers to professor's study guide
Sociology 101
Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology, stigma, identies, sociological perspective, scholars, Marx, durkheim, Weber, michels, paragdims, methods, groups, institutions
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeli on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 101 at University of South Carolina taught by Negraia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 147 views.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Exam #1 Study Guide Topic 1: What is Sociology? Sociology­ the study of how individuals interact within a society.  Sociology differences o Psychologists study the individual o Biologists study what does on inside the individual  Hormones, etc.   Individualistic vs Sociological explanations o Individualistic focuses on the individual  “They’re homeless because they’re lazy” o Sociological focuses on uncontrollable factors that cause behavior or outcome  Potential sociological explanations:  High unemployment rate  Stigmas against mental disorders  Racial discrimination  What is the Sociological Imagination? o Consistently thinking from a sociological perspective   As opposed to individualistic o Benefits:  Understand societal phenomenon on a greater scale o Barriers:  Individualistic thinking  Common sense explanations for outcomes   “I knew it all along” bias  Social structure o Institutions  Characterized by  Statuses   Groups   Roles   Organizations  Examples  Marriage  Government  o Statuses and roles  Titles and jobs  Ascribed  Given at birth o Example, prince/princess  Achieved  Earned throughout one’s lifetime o Example, mother o Organizations and groups  Made of a collection of people   In organizations usually share a common goal  People can have statuses and roles within their group Topic 2: Classical Scholars and Paradigms Karl Marx o Contributions  Criticism of capitalism and communism o Concepts  Proletariat vs Bourgeoisie conflict  Would lead to proletariat revolution  Would lead to the communist utopia No money  No government No social class No religion No property  No child labor “Free association of producers” o Everyone shares everything o Criticisms   Communism killed a lot of people   Looks better on paper than real life Emile Durkheim  o Contributions   Sociological method  Studies on suicide o Concepts  Sociological method Define object of society Leave aside all preconceptions Use aggregate data & ignore individual characteristics Each effect = 1 cause o Criticisms  Not all of the sociological method is wholly correct Don’t ignore the individuals Many causes to one effect Max Weber o Contributions  Beaurocracy   Protestant ethic and capitalism o Concepts  Beaurocracy Hierarchal organization Impersonal  Management Demands full working capacity of employee Iron cage o Once a beaurocracy always a beaurocracy  Added more human side to economic relations  Case studies and study of individuals o Criticisms  Beaurocracy is supposed to be cheap fast and efficient Wasn’t Robert Michels o Contributions  Thoughts on democracy o Concepts   A direct democracy is the only good one Result of corruption Issues with participation and incompetence of the masses  Solutions to oligarchy Charasmatic leader Educating the masses  Structural­Functionalist (Durkheim) o Everything serves a purpose and society is an organism  “everything bad won’t be there” o Macro level perspective o Limits  Does nothing about inequality  Does not explain deviance  Rape Murder Etc. Conflict perspective (Marx) o Conflict over resources  o Dominant and subordinate groups o Limitations  Zero­sum Someone has to lose for someone to gain  Social change not as common as it explained it to be  Overly critical Symbolic­Interactionist (Weber) o Reality is a social construction o Personal reality shapes actions and reactions o Micro level o Limits  Effect of macro level on private lives Topic 3: Methods of Research  Independent variable vs Dependent o Independent is the one being manipulated by researchers o Dependent is the one effected by the independent   Quantitative vs Qualitative o QuaNtitative­ Numerical  Height  Weight  Number of pizzas eaten in one day o Qualitative­ Non­numerical  Color  Brand name Method How? Strengths Weaknesses Surveys Predesigned  Standardized  Honesty, reasoning  questionnaires,  sampling,  behind an answer,  Multiple or just once representable,  memory sensitive,  generalizable limited info Observations &  Observing Insider’s view,  Time and money,  Qualitative  detailed, guide future  representiveness,  Interacting research, check for  generalizations,  interviews honesty investigator bias,  sensitive to  cooperation and  memory Historical analysis Looking at  Detailed, non­ Language, time and  documents invasive, guides  money, dead  future research participants Experiments Random assignments, Control,  Hawthorne effect,  controlled conditions, generalizations time and money,  control/treatment  questions aren’t  groups always experiment  friendly, sensitive to  memory  Experimental vs control o Experimental gets manipulated  Correlation vs causation o Correlation doesn’t equal causation  o Must be correlated to be a causation  Spurious variables o Middle factor causes it to look like correlation o Rape and ice cream  Both spurious variables  Look correlated   Both go up in the summer Topic 4: Culture, Norms, and Social order  Culture is a compilation of nonmaterial and material culture o Nonmaterial culture  Knowledge  Beliefs  Moral code of a society  Values   What they hold in esteem  Customs  Traditions o Material culture  Stuff  Houses  Clothes  Money  Cultural change o Behavioral drivers  People such as Ghandi o Contact of civilizations  Globalization has led to tidbits of American culture in Europe o Inventions & Discoveries  “Antibiotic culture” vs before antibiotics o Global business o Social movements  Cultural diversity o Ethnocentrism  My way is better o Cultural relativism   Maybe they’re on to something  Maybe this aspect of their culture works for them because…  Norms­ rules or expectations about one’s behavior o Institutional norms  Intentional norms built to further a common goal or behavior  Example: Laws, dress code at work o Unspecified norms  Things that aren’t illegal but that you just don’t do  Example: picking your nose in public  Bystander effect o Everyone thinks someone else will do something  o No one does anything  Pluralistic Ignorance o When almost every member of a group rejects a norm when almost everyone  agrees that it is wrong  No one speaks up  Dispelled by truth Topic 5: Socialization, Identity, & Impression management  Identity o What someone defines themselves as  Factors of Socialization o Family  o School  o Friends  o Church o Influence you towards what they want you to be  Example­ Catholics will socialize you to view abortion as wrong  Formation of self o Differentiation of self  o Language  Third person to me or I o Looking glass self  Your opinion of yourself is based on what you were told about yourself at  an early age  Role taking  o Influenced by your background & perception of opportunity  Collectivist vs Individualist cultures o Collectivist  Group over yourself  o Individualist   Needs of yourself before others  Middle vs working class socialization o Working class  Success requires hard work  Nothing is given   Some are given the ideals that they need to try to move up  Others that you are locked in place  Impression formation o Observable cues  Gender   Age  Race  Attractiveness  Clothing o Non­observable cues  Education   Profession  Place of origin  Religion  Social class o Formed by the knowledge of cues along with the person’s actions and words  Stigmas o Things that are seen as less desirable o Example: being overweight (western cultures) o Stigmas vary by society  Regaining appearance o Post­failure  Apologizing   Accounts  Excuses   Justifications o Pre­failure (anticipated)  Disclaimer   “I’m not racist, but…”  Cooling out


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