Psychology study guide!
Psychology study guide! Pyschology 100
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Destiny Osgood on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Pyschology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark A. Graves in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Chapter 1-3 Psychology exam I. Chapter 1 Science of Psychology A. What is Psychology? 1. Science of behavior and mental processes. B. Greek roots: 1. Psyche - Mind 2. Logos - Study or Knowledge I. Important people and their purpose A. Wilhelm Wundt ( 1879 ) 1. First research laboratory in Leipzig, Germany 2. Marked the transition of Psychology from a philosophy to a science. 3. Structuralism- Attempts to understand the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its component parts. First school of thought 4. introspection - Inward focusing on mental experiences, such as sensations or feelings. William James (1842 -1910) A. Father of American Psychology 1. Functionalism - Psychology should focus on how our behavior and mental process help us adapt to the demands we face in the world. 2nd school of thought 2. Believed we develop habits. IV. John Watson (1900s) A. Behaviorism. 3rd school of thought 1. Psychology should limit itself to the study of overt behavior that observers could record and measure. 2. " What we do is less important than why we do it " 3. He rejected introspection B. Why? 1. Believed psychology should be about behavior and not mental processes. V. Gestalt Psychology A. Max Wertheimer 4th school of thought 1. Studies the ways in which the brain organizes and structures our perceptions. B. Gestalt 1. German word meaning: unitary "form" or "pattern " VI. Sigmund Freud A. Psychoanalysis 5th school of thought C 11. View that behavior is influenced by struggle between unconscious sexual or aggressive impulses and opposing forces that try to keep this threatening material out of consciousness. VII. Contemporary perspectives in psychology A. Eclectic approach 1. Drawing from theories and principles representing different perspectives B. Positive psychology 1. emphasizes the study of human virtues/ assets, rather than weaknesses and deficits. VIII. Psychologists and what they do? 1) Experimental psychologists Conduct research on learning, cognition, sensation and perception, biological bases of behavior, and animal behavior 2) clinical Psychologists Evaluate and treat people with psychological problems and disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia Largest area: 53 % 3) Counseling Psychologist Help people with adjustment problems. 4) Educational Psychologists Construct standardized psychological and educational tests (such as the SAT); improve course planning and instructional methods 5) Developmental Psychologists Study physical, cognitive, social, and personality development across the life span IX. Research methods in Psychology A. Basic Research 1. Focuses on acquiring knowledge even if such knowledge has no direct practical application. B. Applied research 1. attempts to find solutions to specific problems. X. Scientific method A. The scientific method is a general framework that scientists apply to test predictions, assumptions, beliefs, and claims in the light of evidence. There are four general steps in the scientific method. XI. Case study method A. An in depth report on a single individual that may be based on interviews, psychological testing. 1. limitations A. Past memories and not telling the truth. XII. Survey method A. uses structured interviews or questionnaires to gather information about groups of people. 1. Population- whole set of people 2. sample - is the group itself, the type for ex (college students) 3. Random Selection- Every person must have an equal opportunity. B. limitations 1. Social desirability - tendency to answer questions in a socially desirable manner. XII. Naturalistic Method A. observing and record the behavior of animals or kids in their natural situations aka [natural habitat] XIV. Correlation method A. Correlation - used to examine relationships between variables (How strongly they're related) B. Correlational coefficient- Statistical measure of the relationship between two variables 1. Strength/direction of the relationship XV. Negative/ Positive correlation A. 0 -> no correlation B. Strength of relationship C. Negative - moves in opposite direction D. Positive- Moves in same direction 1.Increasing / decreasing 2. forget negative signs 3. Only showing you the direction, pick the highest no matter if its negative or positive!! XVI. Experimental Method A. Investigators use the method to determine if there is a casual relationship 1. Allows investigations of cause and effect relationships. XVII. Placebo Effects (no effect on behavior ) A. Single blind studies 1. Do not know if they are in a control or exp. Group B. Double blind studies 1. neither participants nor researchers know who is in the control or exp. groups. (more accurate) Chapter 2: Review of Biological Foundations of Behavior I. Parts of the Neuron A. Soma 1. Cell body 2. Contains cell nucleus and much of chemical machinery common to most cells. B. Axon 1. Largest part of neuron, inch - couple feet, that transmit information to other neurons or to muscles/ glands. 2. Myelin Sheath - insulator around axon and speeds the transmission of signals. (protective coating) 3. Terminal Buttons - Knobs ending of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons. C. Dendrites 1. Root like protections that receive messages from neighboring neurons. (Adjacent Neuron) II. Transmissions of Neural Impulses A. Action Potentials; neural impulses or messages generated according " all or none" principle. B. Neuro transmitter; Chemical messengers that carry messages to neighboring neurons. III. How Neurons communicate A. Reputake 1. A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from synaptic cleft by presynaptic membrane. 2. Agonist- Excites 3. Antagonist- Inhibits IV. Neuro transmitters and related disorders A. Dopamine 1. Parkinson’s disease (under supply) 2. Schizophrenia (over supply) B. Noprephine 1. Depressive Disorders. C. Endorphins 1. Natural pain killers. V. The Nervous system A. Central Nervous System - The Brain and Spinal Cord (body's master control unit) 1. Peripheral Nervous System - The body's link to the outside world 2. Somatic Nervous System - Part of (PNS) that relays sensory information from sensory organs to the CNS and motor (movement) commands from the CNS to muscles. 3. Autonomic Nervous System - Controls automatic bodily functions and processes. 4. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions of ANS - Have largely opposing effects on bodily processes. • Sympathetic - Mobilizes bodily resources (arouses) • Parasympathetic - replenishes bodily resources (calms) VI. The Brain A. Hind brain 1. consists of the medulla, pons and cerebellum; involved in vital bodily functions. • Medulla - Controls vital bodily processes, heart rate, breathing, and reflexes like swallowing coughing and sneezing. • Pons - helps regulate states of wakefulness and sleep. • Cerebellum- Controls balance and coordination of basic body movement. B. Mind brain - nerve pathways connecting the hind brain and forebrain; includes the reticular formation. C. Forebrain : Largest and most complex region of the brain. Includes thalamus, the hypothalamus, other parts of the limbic system, and the cerebral cortex. D. Methods of studying brain 1. EEG - An amplified recording of electrical waves. Attaches to scalp to measure brain activity. VII. The divided brain A. Left frontal lobe 1. Brocas Area - Area that directs muscle movement involved in speech. ( controls muscle that allows you to talk) B. Curious Case of Phineas Cage; why did he survive?? 1. Plasticity - ability of brain to adapt and reorganize itself; following trauma or surgical alteration. VIII. The endocrine system A. The bodies "slow" chemical comm. System, consist of glands that secrete chemicals- known as 1. Hormones- directly into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning. ( serves as second communication system in the body, the first being the nervous system) B. Endocrine system 1. Controlled by the nervous system through the hypothalamus, which also connects with the pituitary gland. 2. Pituitary - is called the master gland, it releases hormones that regulate other glands. 3. Gonads- sex glands that produce hormones and germ cells - sperm and egg cells. 4. Adrenal glands – a pair of endocrine glands located just above the kidneys that produce cortical steroids that promote muscle development and the stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine 5. Pineal gland – small endocrine gland in the brain that releases melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle 6. Thyroid gland – an endocrine gland in the neck that secretes the hormone thyroxin. IX. Genes and behavior A. Genotype 1. an organisms genetic code. B. phenotype 1. the physical expression of their genotype. C. polygenic 1. traits influenced by one or more genes. D. Heredity 1. transmission of physical and psychological characteristics. From parents to children through genes. E. Genes 1. Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information. Chapter three Sensations and Perceptions ( only modules 1, 2 and 3) I. Sensation A. The process by which stimulation of the sense organs is transformed into neural impulses the brain can use to produce sensations. 1. Sensory Receptors - specialized cells in our sensory organs, detect different forms of stimulation from outside world. B. Study of sensation and perception 1. psychophysics- Study of the relationship between features of physical stimuli and the sensations we experience in response to those. II. Sensation and perception A. Sensation 1. Where we receive, transform and process stimuli. B. perception 1. which the brain integrates, organizes, and interprets sensory impressions to create representations of the world. III. Sensory system of functioning A. Absolute threshold (is something there) 1. The smallest amount of stimulus a person can reliably detect. B. difference threshold (is something different there) 1. the minimum difference or change in a stimulus that can be detected. C. Weber's Law 1. States that the amount of change in a stimulus needed to occur for that difference to be detected is given by a constant ratio of the original stimulus. IV. Our senses A. Vison 1. Light energy -> receptor cells in retina -> neural impulses -> sight B. The eye 1. Cornea - covering on eye surface, through which light enters. 2. Iris- circular muscle in eye ( color ) circles the pupil 3. Pupil- Black opening inside the iris that allows light to enter the eye. 4. Lens - Structure in the eye that focuses light rays on the retina. 5. Accommodation- Lens changes its shape to focus images more clearly on the retina. C. Optic Nerve 1. nerve that carries neural impulses to the brain 2. blind spot- area in the retina where the optic nerve eaves the eye receptor cells. 3. fovea- the center of focus for clearest vision. D. The retina 1. The neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; absorbs light, processes images and sends visual information to brain. V. Sensory Receptors for vision A. Rods (more rods than cones) 1. Play a key role in night vision because they are more sensitive that cones to dim light. B. Cones 1. play a key role in daylight vision and color vision VI. Perception vs Reality A. Perception 1. The process by which the brain integrates, organizes, and interprets sensory impressions to create representations of the world. B. Selective attention 1. Process by which we attend to meaningful stimuli and filter out irrelevant or extraneous stimuli. C. Inattentional 1. Blindness refers to the inability to see an object or a person in our midst. VII. Perceptual Set A. Refers to the tendency for one's perceptions to be influenced by expectations or preconceptions. 1. Bottom up processing- the brain recognizes meaningful patters by piecing together bits and pieces of sensory information. 2. Top- Bottom processing, the brain identifies patterns as meaningful wholes rather than as piece meal constructions. VIII. Gestalt Principles A. Psychology maintain that the whole can be greater than the sum of its parts. 1. Figure and ground A. the organization of the visual field into objects (figure) that stand out from their surroundings ( ground ) IX. Perceiving Depth or Distance 1. Depth perception A. enables us to judge distance 2. Binocular cues A. depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes ( retinal disparity convergence) 3. Monocular cues ( relative size interposition, relative clarity texture gradient shadowing ) A. depth cues available to either eye alone b. perception of parallel lines converging as they recede into the distance 4. Phi Phenomenon A. the illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick concession. X. Stroboscopic Movement 1. a type of apparent movement based on the rapid succession of still images A. subliminal perception - perception of stimuli that are presented below the threshold of conscious awareness. B. Extrasensory perception- perception that occurs without benefit of the known senses. C. Parapsychology- the study of phenomenon that cannot be explained by physical, psychological or biological mechanisms. IX. Forms of paranormal phenomena 1. telepathy A. communication of thoughts from one mind to another that occurs without using the known senses. 2. clairvoyance A. perception of events that are not available to the sense 3. precognition- A. The ability to foretell the future 4. Psychokinesis A. Formerly called telekinesis- the ability to move objects by mental effort alone.
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