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Psych Week 1-3

by: Amy Notetaker

Psych Week 1-3 psy-p 101

Amy Notetaker

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This is the study guide for our next exam. The entire exam is based off of class lectures so this could prove very helpful.
Introductory Psychology I
Irene Vlachos-Weber
Study Guide
psych, 101, 1, study, guide
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psy-p 101 at Indiana University taught by Irene Vlachos-Weber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 577 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology I in Psychology And Social Behavior at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
The Science of Psychology I. Defining Psychology (behavior and mental process) A. Psyche(Greek) Psyche = breath of life erose(erotic)= sexual love Philao=brotherly love Agape=Love God has for his people          1. Soul or spirit 2. loosely translate as “mind” B. Logos=knowledge/study of C. Original def: study of the mind! D. Today’s def: scientific study of mental and behavior processes (not just humans but also animals) In science you have to be able to measure things 5 Senses(seeing hearing listening tasting smelling) If you cant observe with senses its not known as senses even though there are other ways to learn bout the  world in other ways(like religion) Most people have singular approaches in other sciences (like unified field in physics ect).But Psychology has many ways .  II. Contemporary Perspectives: use chart provided  Size doesn’t matter in brain size. Brain cells like batteries and when excited then shoots off energy (electric) When neuron fires then neurotransmitter omitted and that is in charge of behavior(depression anxiety ect) serotonin Contemporary Perspectives Perspective Subject Matter Behavior explained by: Biological Physiological basis of  Electrical, chemical events  Nature(born with it) behavior. inside the body (brain and  Majority of intelligence is natureNT­ serotonin NS) Brain cells like batteries and  when excited then shoots off  energy (electric) When neuron fires then  neurotransmitter omitted and that is in charge of  behavior(depression anxiety ect)  serotonin There is a biological basis to most  psychological disorder Pleasure­dopamine Behavioral present stimulus, get observable  Nurturing (environment) Effects of environment on over,  response learning observable behavior consequence determines of we have  same response again Thoughts/ mental processes mental processes: perceiving,  Cognitive remembering, reasoning Thinking/ memory People not predictable so our  science changes ha Unconscious processes(thoughts,  Psychoanalytic attitudes, behavior) of which we are  unconscious determinants of behavior unaware 2 stages: Sex(pleasure) and agression Humanistic Behavior is how neurons are working in brain  III. Ψ as a profession  A. Clinical (usually most traumatic disorders) & Counseling(life  transitions ect)(45% psychologists are clinical or counseling)~ ppl  who can work as therapists Have to have masters degree to be therapist Diagnose and treat psychological disorders B. Academic Psychologists can be both Clinical and Counseling more involved with  research and teaching 1. Basic: research contributing to knowledge of field (have an  interest and contribute to that field of study) 2.applied research: solving a practical problem (like teenage  pregnancy) Abstinence~ why do these classes not work and most likely get  pregnant (religious/ parental) most effective sex programs incorporate sex and birth control…ugh DARE~ most likely to use the drugs in these programs (they make  kids think that more kids are doing drugs~ makes it sound  normative) How do we address the issues? ~ (Jesus)  Some things that look good are NOT C. Psychology v. Psychiatry 1. Psychology: Phd. Academic degree: can’t prescribe drugs 2. Psychiatry : MD : medical school degree: can prescribe drugs Why Psychiatry thinks that Psychology not good for prescribing drugs: 1. never went to med school and although understand how drugs affect  psyche don’t understand other physical problems 2. also, costs.  3. A lot of times go to family doctor for the drugs IV. Defining Science A. science: 1. one way of answering questions about phenomena  (Psychologists are scientists) Must use scientific method to answer questions 2.not only way(other things to answer questions are philosophy  and religion) B. 3 characteristics 1. systematic empiricism: a. systematic~ structured/ methodical b. empiricism~ of senses(taste, smell ect) relying on observatio n 2. public: info is shared, can be replicated(reproduced)  … builds on itself ALWAYS consider the source Anything that pleasurable will light up dopamine receptors  3.solvable problems: ?s can potentially be answered given  currently available techniques Autism is neurological disorder (one characteristic of autism is struggle with  social functioning/ don’t respond to emotions as other ppl do)  Not intuitive for them to smile back ect. Freud would always blame mom for autism cause  1950­1960 refrigerator  mothers(cold)  C. Data base = behavior 1.observable, measurabl e (how do you know what I’m thinking?  ASK me haha unlike inscrutable cats and dogs ) However, self­reporting~ not always honest about behavi o  We are NOT good monitors of our own behavior.(like insomnia patient who  sleep 6 hrs but say they didn’t sleep at all) We don’t pay attention lol WE think  we do ceratin things more or less and are wrong. Thus…….pay attention to  parents with children and screen time Also ppl might be ashamed.(like food in first date…diet coke and salad please  but bread basket hahahaha) When asked about sexual partners have. Women underestimate. Men  overestimate.  Why mean over and women underestimate….woman with more whore slut Man is player Ppl more likely to be honest if anonymous Reactivity does occur. Two issues with self reporting. Reactivity=  when we change our behavior on a function of being observe d Little kids don’t have reactivity. And when u forget cameras were there truth  comes out. 2. includes biological processes! Neurotransmitters…….low levels of serotonin has depression (haha thinking question to ppl when in love haha driving) D. Goals of psychology: 1. description= what a. systematically note observable characteristic s b. WHAT occurred  c. precise! : use numbers (#s of extremity) if reproduce or  help it have numbers in database d.  use operational definitions(in order to operate on same  concept. This is how we are defining this measurable and observable even t. Panick disorder….must have 2 panick attacks for disorder. Its anxiety. Emotion with that is fear. Fear is when there is a threat that is presen .  In fear our fight/flight defense is activated. (zebra and lion example run like  hell! But adrenaline happens when heart pumps and heart rate goes UP and  breath fast that could lead to hyperventilate and sweat or piss/ digestion shut  down mouth gets dry(stomach problems and nausea tight chest and flooded  with fear:dying numbness or tingling in arms or legs like having a heart attack  ppl with pancik become disoriented. And dizzy. Get flight response wanting to  kick in. shaky~ caused by adrenaline ) Phobias can cause panic. But sometimes seems like comes from nowhere. Attack lasts 5­30 minutes but peak within 10 minutes. If you think ur dying ur fear goes up! Ppl who experience panick are very sensitive to physical symptoms Agora(marketplace) phobia~ fear of  marketplace­ not afraid to be outside cause ppl but developed cause afraid to have  panick attack in a public place(might be embarrassing)~ also afraid they cant escape when got panick attack Irrational fear If rational then not phobia but if fear of something that’s not immediate threat then it’s a phobia Panick attack embarrassing or not able to escap e 2. explanation = why a. understanding the conditions under which it occurs b. confirm explanation by ruling out other possible explanation s c. WHY it occurred (WHY did Gene have panick?) Lets go to biological perspective…..what is happening I Gene’s brain and  body? Biological: overactive in brain Amygdala(shape and size of almond in middle of brain where emotions are   processed and that’s where processing fear) Ppl with amygdala overactive always thinks there is always A THREAT and  always think the worst is going to happe n Cognitive: when physical symptoms then think they are going to die and  something terrible is going to happen Behavioral: store stimulus panics (like when ppl make phobias by making  connections) Psychoanalytic: repressed sexual urges (so when gets sexual feelings she  panics so must be from childhood.)   3. prediction=when a. specify condition under which a behavior/event is LIKELY  to happen b. Probabilistic: more likely than not to occ ur 4. control  a.) apply a principle r change a condition to prevent unwanted occurrence or bring about desired  outcomes (Prevent problem) b.) ex: therapy to prevent panic attacks or to treat depression PANIC CONTROL TREATMENT Jumping Jacks or running in place EXPOSE physical symptoms can sweat and heart rate go  up and sweat without heart attack. Let them see that they are not going to die V. Steps of the Scientific Method  A. Answer ?s re: behavior B. 5 steps: 1. Observation: a. study an event as it naturally occurs b. child plays violent videogames will display aggressiv e:  kicks, hits  c. tape: record boys behavior when playing record girls  behavior while playin g  WE need to make sure we know what behaviors  we are observing with working vocab of whats happening. 2. Theory: (typically broad) a. a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of  observations b. (example theory) “Engaging in pretend violence leads to  real life aggressive behavio r After develop theory then make the prediction in form of Hypothesis 3. Hypothesis: a. a prediction (that can be tested) re: relationship between at least two thing s b. children who play violent videogames will display  aggressive behavior c. operationally define aggressive( physica ? Verbal?  4. Choose a method of research: Best thing we can do if we want to know cause and effect(x causes Y) is to do an experiment. Only in experiment is where we can control all  elements that causes Y X is what causes Y that is violent behavior. Can we find support that shows violent video games cause  aggression? 5. Results~ We can only support our hypothesi s 6. Apply results back to theory: may lead to modification of  theory   Idea of catharsis~ an emotional release (ancient greek theater made to be  cathartic) HAHA like the fault within our stars Thus pretend aggression gets real aggression out of system


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