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The Science of Psychology
I. Defining Psychology (behavior and mental process)
A. Psyche(Greek) Psyche = breath of life
erose(erotic)= sexual love
Agape=Love God has for his people
1. Soul or spirit
2. loosely translate as “mind”
B. Logos=knowledge/study of
C. Original def: study of the mind!
D. Today’s def: scientific study of mental and behavior processes (not just humans but also animals)
In science you have to be able to measure things
5 Senses(seeing hearing listening tasting smelling)
If you cant observe with senses its not known as senses even though there are other ways to learn bout the world in other ways(like religion)
Most people have singular approaches in other sciences (like unified field in physics ect).But Psychology has many ways .
II. Contemporary Perspectives: use chart provided
Don't forget about the age old question of Isotopes –What are they?
Size doesn’t matter in brain size.
Brain cells like batteries and when excited then shoots off energy (electric)
When neuron fires then neurotransmitter omitted and that is in charge of behavior(depression anxiety ect) serotonin
Physiological basis of
Brain cells like batteries and when excited then shoots off energy (electric)
When neuron fires then
neurotransmitter omitted and that is in charge of
behavior(depression anxiety ect) serotonin
There is a biological basis to most psychological disorder
Effects of environment on over, observable behavior
Thoughts/ mental processes
Perspective Behavior explained by:
Nature(born with it)
Majority of intelligence is nature
People not predictable so our science changes ha
Electrical, chemical events inside the body (brain and NS)
present stimulus, get observable response
consequence determines of we have same response again
mental processes: perceiving, remembering, reasoning
Psychoanalytic Unconscious processes(thoughts, attitudes, behavior) of which we are
unconscious determinants of behavior 2 stages: Sex(pleasure) and agression
Humanistic We also discuss several other topics like psych 1101
Behavior is how neurons are working in brain
III. Ψ as a profession
A. Clinical (usually most traumatic disorders) & Counseling(life transitions ect)(45% psychologists are clinical or counseling)~ ppl who can work as therapists
Have to have masters degree to be therapist
Diagnose and treat psychological disorders
B. Academic Psychologists can be both Clinical and Counseling more involved with research and teaching
1. Basic: research contributing to knowledge of field (have an interest and contribute to that field of study)
2.applied research: solving a practical problem (like teenage pregnancy)
Abstinence~ why do these classes not work and most likely get pregnant (religious/ parental)
most effective sex programs incorporate sex and birth control…ugh
DARE~ most likely to use the drugs in these programs (they make kids think that more kids are doing drugs~ makes it sound
How do we address the issues? ~ (Jesus)
Some things that look good are NOT
C. Psychology v. Psychiatry
1. Psychology: Phd. Academic degree: can’t prescribe drugs 2. Psychiatry : MD : medical school degree: can prescribe drugs
Why Psychiatry thinks that Psychology not good for prescribing drugs: 1. never went to med school and although understand how drugs affect psyche don’t understand other physical problems Don't forget about the age old question of biology 1114
2. also, costs.
3. A lot of times go to family doctor for the drugs
IV. Defining Science
1. one way of answering questions about phenomena
(Psychologists are scientists) Must use scientific method to answer questions
2.not only way(other things to answer questions are philosophy and religion)
B. 3 characteristics
1. systematic empiricism:
a. systematic~ structured/ methodical
b. empiricism~ of senses(taste, smell ect) relying on
2. public: info is shared, can be replicated(reproduced)
…..science builds on itself
ALWAYS consider the source
Anything that pleasurable will light up dopamine receptors
3.solvable problems: ?s can potentially be answered given currently available techniques
Autism is neurological disorder (one characteristic of autism is struggle with social functioning/ don’t respond to emotions as other ppl do) Not intuitive for them to smile back ect.
Freud would always blame mom for autism cause 19501960 refrigerator mothers(cold)
C. Data base = behavior
1.observable, measurable (how do you know what I’m thinking? ASK me haha unlike inscrutable cats and dogs )
However, selfreporting~ not always honest about behavior
We are NOT good monitors of our own behavior.(like insomnia patient who sleep 6 hrs but say they didn’t sleep at all) We don’t pay attention lol WE think we do ceratin things more or less and are wrong. Thus…….pay attention to parents with children and screen time We also discuss several other topics like an interrelated coherent set of ideas
Also ppl might be ashamed.(like food in first date…diet coke and salad please but bread basket hahahaha)
When asked about sexual partners have. Women underestimate. Men overestimate.
Why mean over and women underestimate….woman with more whore slut Man is player
Ppl more likely to be honest if anonymous
Reactivity does occur. Two issues with self reporting.
Reactivity= when we change our behavior on a function of being observed
Little kids don’t have reactivity. And when u forget cameras were there truth comes out.
2. includes biological processes!
Neurotransmitters…….low levels of serotonin has depression (haha thinking question to ppl when in love haha driving) If you want to learn more check out What will NOT result in an increase in a current account balance?
D. Goals of psychology:
1. description= what
a. systematically note observable characteristics
b. WHAT occurred
c. precise! : use numbers (#s of extremity) if reproduce or
help it have numbers in database
d. use operational definitions(in order to operate on same
concept. This is how we are defining this measurable and observable event.
Panick disorder….must have 2 panick attacks for disorder. Its anxiety. Emotion with that is fear. Fear is when there is a threat that is present. In fear our fight/flight defense is activated. (zebra and lion example run like hell! But adrenaline happens when heart pumps and heart rate goes UP and breath fast that could lead to hyperventilate and sweat or piss/ digestion shut down mouth gets dry(stomach problems and nausea tight chest and flooded with fear:dying numbness or tingling in arms or legs like having a heart attack ppl with pancik become disoriented. And dizzy. Get flight response wanting to kick in. shaky~ caused by adrenaline )
Phobias can cause panic. But sometimes seems like comes from nowhere. Attack lasts 530 minutes but peak within 10 minutes. If you want to learn more check out what is the role of folk wisdom in social psychology
If you think ur dying ur fear goes up!
Ppl who experience panick are very sensitive to physical symptoms
Agora(marketplace) phobia~ fear of marketplace not afraid to be outside cause ppl but developed cause afraid to have panick attack in a public place(might be embarrassing)~ also afraid they cant escape when got panick attack Irrational fear
If rational then not phobia but if fear of something that’s not immediate threat then it’s a phobia Panick attack embarrassing or not able to escape
2. explanation = why
a. understanding the conditions under which it occurs
b. confirm explanation by ruling out other possible
c. WHY it occurred (WHY did Gene have panick?)
Lets go to biological perspective…..what is happening I Gene’s brain and body?
Biological: overactive in brain
Amygdala(shape and size of almond in middle of brain where emotions are processed and that’s where processing fear)
Ppl with amygdala overactive always thinks there is always A THREAT and always think the worst is going to happen
Cognitive: when physical symptoms then think they are going to die and something terrible is going to happen
Behavioral: store stimulus panics (like when ppl make phobias by making connections)
Psychoanalytic: repressed sexual urges (so when gets sexual feelings she panics so must be from childhood.)
a. specify condition under which a behavior/event is LIKELY to happen
b. Probabilistic: more likely than not to occur
a.) apply a principle r change a condition to prevent unwanted occurrence or bring about desired outcomes (Prevent problem)
b.) ex: therapy to prevent panic attacks or to treat depression
PANIC CONTROL TREATMENT
Jumping Jacks or running in place EXPOSE physical symptoms can sweat and heart rate go up and sweat without heart attack. Let them see that they are not going to die
V. Steps of the Scientific Method
A. Answer ?s re: behavior
B. 5 steps:
a. study an event as it naturally occurs
b. child plays violent videogames will display aggressive:
c. tape: record boys behavior when playing record girls
behavior while playing WE need to make sure we know what behaviors we are observing with working vocab of whats happening.
2. Theory: (typically broad)
a. a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of
b. (example theory) “Engaging in pretend violence leads to
real life aggressive behavior
After develop theory then make the prediction in form of Hypothesis 3. Hypothesis:
a. a prediction (that can be tested) re: relationship between at least two things
b. children who play violent videogames will display
c. operationally define aggressive( physical? Verbal?
4. Choose a method of research:
Best thing we can do if we want to know cause and effect(x causes Y) is to do an experiment. Only in experiment is where we can control all elements that causes Y
X is what causes Y that is violent behavior.
Can we find support that shows violent video games cause aggression?
5. Results~ We can only support our hypothesis
6. Apply results back to theory: may lead to modification of theory
Idea of catharsis~ an emotional release (ancient greek theater made to be cathartic) HAHA like the fault within our stars
Thus pretend aggression gets real aggression out of system