Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 1560
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Popular in Psychology
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Bidinger on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Lindsay DeVicchio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes - Encompasses thoughts, emotions, perceptions, reasoning processes, memories, and biological activities - Describes, predicts, and explains human behavior and mental processes o Psychologists help to change and improve lives of people and world in which they live Subfields of Psychology Behavioral genetics Behavioral neuroscience Clinical psychology Clinical neuropsychology Cognitive psychology Counseling psychology Cross-cultural psychology Developmental psychology Educational psychology Environmental psychology Evolutionary psychology Experimental psychology Forensic psychology Health psychology Industrial/organizational psychology Personality psychology Program evaluation Psychology of women School psychology Social psychology Sport psychology Education PhD (doctor of philosophy) requires dissertation based on original research PsyD (doctor of psychology) focuses on treatment of psychological disorders Roots of Psychology Structuralism: (Wundt) Focus on uncovering fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other mental states and activities Introspection: Used to study structure of mind Functionalism: (James) What mind does and role behavior plays in allowing people to adapt to environments Gestalt psychology: (Ebbinghaus & Wertheimer) organization of perception and thinking as a whole sense Today’s Perspectives Neuroscience: Biological functions; behavior from perspective of brain Psychodynamic: (Freud) unconscious inner forces motivate behavior Behavioral: (Watson & Skinner) focus of study should be observable, measurable behavior Cognitive: how people think, understand, and know about world Humanistic: (Rogers & Maslow) individuals naturally strive to develop, grow, and control their lives and behavior Key Issues in Psychology Nature vs. Nurture - What behavior is due to o Genetically determined nature (heredity) o Influences of physical and social environments of children - Interplay between nature and nurture Conscious vs. Unconscious Causes of Behavior - Behavior produced by? o Forces we are fully aware of o Unconscious activity Observable Behavior vs. Internal Mental Processes - What should psychologists focus on? o Observable behaviors o Unseen thinking processes Free Will vs. Determinism - What our behavior is a matter of o Free will (choices made freely) o Determinism (factors beyond willful control) Experimental Research Experiment: Relationship between variables investigated by producing a change in one and observing the effects on the second Experimental manipulation: Change deliberately produced by experimenter Treatment: Experimenter implemented manipulation Experimental group: Group that receives treatment Control group: Group that does not receive treatment Independent Variable: Manipulated variable Dependent Variable: Measured variable; depends on independent variable Random assignment to condition: Participants assigned to groups based on chance Significant Outcome: Meaningful results Replicated Research: Repeated research to increase confidence in findings Experimental Research Experiment: Relationship between variables investigated by producing a change in one and observing the effects on the second Experimental manipulation: Change deliberately produced by experimenter Treatment: Experimenter implemented manipulation Experimental group: Group that receives treatment Control group: Group that does not receive treatment Independent Variable: Manipulated variable Dependent Variable: Measured variable; depends on independent variable Random assignment to condition: Participants assigned to groups based on chance Significant Outcome: Meaningful results Replicated Research: Repeated research to increase confidence in findings Neuroscience and Behavior Neurons: Nerve cells; basic element of nervous system - Cell body containing a nucleus - Held in place physically by glial cells - Have ability to communicate with other cells Structure of the Neuron Dendrite: Fiber cluster at end of neuron, receives messages from other neurons Axon: Carries messages for other neurons Terminal buttons: Small bulges at end of axons, send messages to other neurons Myelin sheath: Coat of fat and protein that protects and wraps around the axon How Neurons Fire All-or-none law: Neurons either fire or don’t; are on or off Resting state: Negative electrical charge of ~-70 millivolts within a neuron Action potential: Electric nerve impulse, traveling through an axon when set off by a “trigger,” changing neuron charge from negative to positive Speed of Transmission - Speed an action potential travels along an axon determined by axon size and the thickness of the myelin sheath o Thicker = faster Mirror Neurons Mirror Neuron: Neurons that fire when a person enacts in a certain behavior or observes another person carrying out the same behavior Where Neurons Meet Synapse: Space between neurons where axon of sending neuron communicates with dendrites of receiving neuron through use of chemical messages Neurotransmitters: Chemicals carrying messages across the synapse to the dendrite of a receiver neuron - Types of messages: o Excitatory message: Makes more likely neuron will fire o Inhibitory message: Prevents or decreases likelihood neuron will fire Reuptake: When neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by a terminal button Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Central nervous system: Brain and spinal cord; part of nervous system - Spinal cord: Neuron bundle leaving the brain and running down the back Reflex: Involuntary response to incoming stimulus - Sensory (afferent) neurons: Transmit info from body perimeter to central nervous system - Motor (efferent) neurons: Communicate info to muscles and glands from nervous system Peripheral nervous system: Has neurons with long axons and dendrites; branches out from spinal cord and brain, reaching the extremities of the body - Somatic: Control of voluntary movements and communication of info to and from sense organs - Autonomic: Control of involuntary movement of heart, glands, lungs, and other organs Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic division: Prepares body for action in stressful situations, engages organism’s resources to respond to threat (triggers fight or flight) Parasympathetic division: Calms the body after emergency ends The Endocrine System Endocrine system: Chemical communication network sending messages throughout body via the bloodstream - Hormones: Chemicals circulating through the blood and regulating the functioning or growth of the body - Pituitary gland: Secretes hormones controlling growth and other parts of endocrine system aka “master gland” The Central Core Central core: Controls basic functions, common to vertebrates Hindbrain: Medulla: Controls critical body functions Pons: Bridge in hindbrain, motor info transmitter, regulates sleep Cerebellum: Controls bodily balance Reticular formation: Medulla through pons, passes through midbrain and forebrain Thalamus: Located in middle of the central core, acts to relay info about senses Located in middle of the central core, acts to relay info about senses Hypothalamus: Below thalamus, maintains homeostasis, producing and regulating vital behavior The Limbic System Limbic system: Controls eating, aggression, and reproduction; amygdala and hippocampus; has important role in memory and learning The Cerebral Cortex Responsible for most sophisticated info processing in brain Lobes: Four major sections - Frontal (emotions) - Parietal (sensory) - Temporal (hearing) - Occipital (sight) Motor area: Responsible for voluntary movement Sensory area: Site of tissue that corresponds to each of senses; degree of sensitivity related to amount of tissue Association areas: Site of higher mental processes Neuroplasticity and the Brain Neuroplasticity: Changes in the brain occurring throughout life span relating to addition of new neurons, new interconnections between neurons, reorganization of info-processing areas Neurogenesis: New neuron creation in certain brain areas during adulthood The Hemispheres Hemispheres: Symmetrical left and right halves which control the side of body opposite to their location Lateralization: Dominance of one hemisphere in specific functions (Left – logic, reasoning; Right – creativity) Sensation and Perception Sensation: Activating the sense organs through a physical energy source Perception: Sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli Stimulus: Response in a sense organ produced by energy Psychophysics: Study of the relationship between physical stimuli and psychological experience of the stimuli Thresholds Absolute threshold: Smallest intensity of stimulus that must be present to be detected Noise: Background stimulation; interferes with stimuli Difference threshold: Smallest level of added or reduced stimulation Weber’s law: Difference that is just noticeable is a constant proportion of the intensity of initial stimulus Sensory Adaptation Adaptation: Sensory capacity adjustment after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli Structure of the Eye Cornea Pupil Light passes through pupil and enters lens Accommodation: Lens focusing light by changing its thickness Retina o Rods o Cones Processing visual images takes place in visual cortex of the brain Feature detection: Neurons activated by visual stimuli having specific features Color Vision and Color Blindness Trichromatic theory of color vision: three kinds of cones in the retina which respond primarily to specific wavelength ranges Opponent-process theory of color vision: Receptor cells are linked in pairs and work opposite to each other Sensing Sound Sound: Air molecule movement brought about by source of vibration Eardrum: Part of ear, vibrates when sound waves hit it Inner ear: Changes the sound vibrations into form transmittable to the brain Place theory of hearing: Different areas of basilar membrane respond to different frequencies Frequency theory of hearing: Entire basilar membrane vibrates in response to a sound Semicircular canals: Three inner ear structures containing fluid that sloshes when the head moves, signaling rotational or angular movement Smell Sparked when molecules of a substance enters the nasal passages o Olfactory cells are the receptor neurons of the nose o Pheromones are chemicals secreted into the environment that produce reactions in members of the same species Taste Gustation: Sense of taste Skin Senses Touch, pressure, temperature, and pain Gate-control theory of pain: Certain nerve receptors in the spinal cord lead to specific brain areas related to pain Sensory Interaction Synesthesia: Exposure to one sensation, evoking an additional one Multimodal perceptions: Brain collects info from individual sensory systems Processing Top-down processing: Perception guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations Bottom-up processing: Progression of recognizing and processing info from individual components of stimuli, moving to perception as a whole Depth Perception – ability to view three dimensions and perceive distance Monocular cues: Permit obtaining a sense of depth and distance with one eye Perceptual Illusions Visual illusions: Physical stimuli that consistently produce perception errors
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