PSY 320 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSY 320 Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 320
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Wade on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 243 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Continuum Model of Abnormality No clear dividing line Judgement is subjective Psychopathology more appropriate word for abnormal psychology ● Study of people who suffer unusual mental, emotional, or physical pain Mental Illness Common belief behaviors, thought, or feelings are viewed as pathological or abnormal Modern view there are collections of problems in: ● Thinking or cognition (the way they process and respond to things) ● Emotional responding or regulation ● Social behavior Cultural Relativism View Cultures differ in beliefs and attitudes about abnormal behavior, so we need to be aware of possible differences in beliefs and be respectful No universal classification theme Cultural Norms Cultures have strong guiding norms for what is considered acceptable behavior ● Gender roles Cultural norms can help us recognize mental illness when people suddenly start acting out of the cultural norms Cultural relativism: No universal standards Culture and gender influence: ● Expression of symptoms ● Willingness to admit to behaviors or feelings ● Types of treatments The Four Ds of abnormality Dysfunction Interferes with ability to function in daily life Distress Causes emotional or physical pain Deviance behavior deviates from acceptable behavior in that person’s culture Danger Behaviors and feelings that are potentially harmful Historical Perspectives on Abnormality 1. Supernatural theories mental illness as result of divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin Early Demonology possession by evil beings or spirits exorcism Witch trials ● Being tortured can make people see/experience things that they wouldn’t otherwise and then sometimes admit to being witches 2. Biological theories thought that mental illnesses could be treated similarly to physical illnesses When dealing with chemical imbalances it is sort of similar to this, but it is not that simple. We are also dealing with cognitive processes, which are different for everyone and so is treatment. Hippocrates (5th century BC) mental disturbances have natural causes ● Three categories of mental disorders: mania, melancholia, and phrenitis (brain fever hearing voices, schizophrenia) ○ Normal brain functioning was based on the balance of four humors: blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm ○ Depending on what illness a person had, they would drain one of those bodily fluids (leaching) Wilhelm Griesinger Psychological disorders can be explained in terms of brain pathology Kraepelin Developed a scheme for classifying symptoms into discrete disorders that is followed even today Discovery of the cause of general paresis disease that leads to insanity, paralysis, and eventually death Insulin coma therapy ● Sakel inject large doses of insulin to induce coma Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ● Cerletti and Bini (1938) ● Induce epileptic seizures with electric shock Prefrontal Lobotomy ● Moniz (1935) ● Often used to control violent behaviors; led to listlessness, apathy, and loss of cognitive abilities 3. Psychological theories results of traumas or of chronic stress Goals of Psychoanalytic Therapy or Psychoanalysis ● Understand earlychildhood experiences, particularly key (parental) relationships ● Understand patterns in current relationships Psychoanalytic Techniques ● Free Association ● Analysis of Transference ● Interpretation Historical methods for handling mental illness Lunacy Trials (began 13th century England) ● Trials to determine sanity ● Municipal authorities assumes responsibility for care of mentally ill ● Lunacy attributes sanity to moon phases Asylums (15th century) ● Established for the confinement and care of mentally ill ● Priority of St. Mary of Bethlehem (founded 1243) ○ One of the first mental institutes ○ Wealthy people paid to go and look at people in the asylum like a zoo ○ Origin of the term bedlam (wild uproar or confusion) ● Treatment was nonexistent or experimental/harmful to patients ○ Benjamin Rush removed large amounts of blood to relieve brain pressure, patients died a lot of the time Philippe Pinel (17451826) ● Pioneered humanitarian treatment at La Bicetre ● Moral Treatment Movement ○ Small, privately funded, humanitarian mental hospitals ○ Patients engaged in purposeful, calming activities (artwork, gardening) ○ Patients and Attendants would communicate instead of herding patients around Dorothea Dix (18021887) ● Crusader for prisoners and mentally ill ● Urged improvement of institutions ● Worked to establish 32 new, public hospitals ○ Small staff did not allow for care needed ○ Many physicians more interested in biological than psychological aspects of mental illness Galton’s (18221911) work lead to notion that mental illness can be inherited ● Nature (genetics) and nurture (environment) ● Eugenics ○ Promotion of enforced sterilization to eliminate undesirable characteristics from the population ○ Many state laws required mentally ill to be sterilized NeoFreudians ● Jung (18751961) ○ Analytic psychology ○ Collective unconscious (archetypes innate knowledge, instincts passed down) ○ Catalogued personality characteristics (extraversion vs. introversion) ● Adler (18701937) ○ Individual psychology fulfillment derived from working for the social good Continuing influences of Freud and his followers ● Childhood experiences help shape adult personality ● There are unconscious influences on behavior The Evolution of Contemporary Thought: Rise of Behaviorism John Watson (18781958) Behaviorism ● Focus on observable behavior ● Emphasis on learning rather than thinking or innate tendencies Three types of learning: ● Classical Conditioning ● Operant Conditioning ● Modeling Importance of Cognitions Limitations of Behavior Therapy ● How thinking or appraising of a situation influences feelings and behaviors Cognitive Therapy ● Emphasizes how thinking about self and experiences can be a major determinant of psychopathology ● Focuses on understanding maladaptive thoughts ● Changes cognitions to change feelings and behaviors Deinstitutionalization Integrating mental patients into the community with the support of communitybased treatment facilities Patient’s rights movement: recover better or live more satisfying lives if integrated into the community Community mental health movement: Provide coordinated mental health services to people in community mental health centers remain in their homes, while still being a part of a community, where they get help Halfway houses: Offer people with longterm mental health problems the opportunity to live in a structured, supportive environment Day treatment centers: Allow people to obtain treatment during the day, along with occupational and rehabilitative therapies, live at home at night Managed Care Collection of methods for coordinating care ● Ranges from simple monitoring to total control over what care can be provided and paid for Solves problems created by deinstitutionalization sometimes people have a hard time reintegrating into society Professions within Abnormal Psychology Psychiatrists medical school, give out prescriptions Clinical psychologists Phd Marriage and family therapists Clinical social workers deal with the more intense situations (child abuse, domestic abuse, drug abuse) Licensed mental health counselors Psychiatric nurses Chapter 2 DiathesisStress Model of the Development of Disorders Diathesis Biological factor (genes, disordered biochemistry, brain anomalies) Social factor (maladaptive upbringing, chronic stress, etc.) Psychological factor (unconscious conflicts, poor skills, maladaptive cognitions, etc.) + Stress Biological trigger (onset of a disease, exposure to toxins) Social trigger (traumatic event, major loss) Psychological trigger = Disorder Biological causes of abnormality Brain dysfunction Chemical imbalances Genetic anomalies Limbic System Regulates many instinctive behaviors ● Reactions to stressful events and eating ● Located around the central core of the brain ● Interconnected with the hypothalamus Amygdala critical in emotions such as fear and love Hippocampus plays a role in memory Neurotransmitters Biochemical messengers that carry impulses from neuron to neuron, or to nerve cells throughout the brain Synapse Gap between the synaptic terminals and the adjacent neurons Receptors Molecules on the membrane of the adjacent neurons that receives the impulse Processes that affect the Neurotransmitters Reuptake occurs when the neurons that initially released the neurotransmitter into the synapse reabsorb the neurotransmitter, decreasing the amount in the synapse Degradation when the receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that breaks down the neurotransmitter into other biochemicals Biochemical imbalances Psychological symptoms possibly associated with ● Number and functioning of receptors for the number of dendrites ● Malfunctioning in neurotransmitter systems Biopsychosocial approach Combination of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that result in the development of psychological symptoms ● Risk factors because risk of psychological problems ● Biological risk factors genetic predisposition Types of Neurotransmitters Serotonin Dopamine ● Reinforcement, rewards ● Affected by substances that activate this Norepinephrine Gamma Aminobutyric acid (GABA) Behavioral Genetics Study of the genetics of personality and abnormality is concerned with the following questions ● To what extent are behaviors or behavioral tendencies inherited? ● What are the processes by which genes affect behavior? Biological Therapies Drug therapies help relieve psychological symptoms by improving the functioning of neurotransmitter systems Electroconvulsive therapy and newer brain stimulation techniques ● Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) ● Deep brain stimulation ● Vagus nerve stimulation Psychosurgery used rarely, and only with people who have severe disorders that do not respond to any other forms of treatment, no other options ● Frontal lobotomy (not done anymore) ● Split brain for severe schizophrenia Assessing Biological Approaches Person doesn’t have a role in their recovery process other than taking medication and showing up for treatments Treatments are usually drug dependant and address biological issues ● Drug side effects that can be as bad/worse than original problem Environment and psychological processes not addressed Psychological Approaches Behavioral behaviors we can modify ● Classical conditioning responses to a neutral stimuli ● Operant conditioning shaping behaviors by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing undesired behaviors ● Modeling and observational learning modeling: new behaviors are learnt from imitation the behaviors modeled by others, observational learning: observes the rewards and punishments that another person receives Cognitive cognitive processes we can modify ● Not just rewards and punishments ● Causal attributions influence behavior ● Global assumptions broad beliefs of oneself, relationships and the world ● Identify and challenge negative thought processes and dysfunctional belief systems ○ Helps to learn effective problemsolving techniques to deal with the concrete problems ○ Designed to be short term ● Cognitivebehavioral therapy cognitive techniques combined with behavioral techniques ● Goal of cognitive therapy ○ assist clients in identifying irrational and maladaptive thoughts ○ teaching clients to challenge irrational or maladaptive thoughts, and to consider alternative ways of thinking ○ Encourage clients to face worst fears about a situation and recognize ways to cope Psychodynamic and Humanistic viewing people as a whole part ● All behaviors, thoughts, and emotions influenced by unconscious processes ● Includes psychoanalysis and several newer approaches ● Psychoanalysis: ○ Theory of personality and psychopathology ○ Method of investigating the mind Family Systems not just one person that needs to get treated for things to get better ● Effective in the treatment of children because they are more entwined in families EmotionFocused Approaches controlling how you respond and feel in situations Assessing Behavioral Approaches Set the standard for scientifically testing hypotheses about how normal and abnormal behaviors develop ● Effectiveness extensively and systematically supported in controlled studies Could account for some disorders ● Boots conditioned to be associated with sex study could be how fetishes are created Evidences are from laboratory studies Does not recognize free will in people’s behaviors Assessing Cognitive Approaches Proven useful in the treatment of disorders like: ● Sexual disorders ● Substance abuse disorders Difficult to prove that maladaptive cognitions precede and cause disorders ● Rather than being the symptoms or consequences of the disorders Id, Ego, and Superego Human behavior is driven by libido (sexual drive) or aggressive drive, according to Freud Id drives and impulses seeks immediate release Ego gratifies wishes and needs in ways that remain within the rules of society Superego Storehouse of rules and regulations for the conduct of behavior that are learned from one’s parents and from society Interactions among the Id, Ego and Superego occur in the unconscious ● Unconscious completely out of our awareness ● Preconscious intermediate between the unconscious and the conscious Psychodynamic Therapies Helping clients recognize: ● Maladaptive coping strategies ● Sources of unconscious conflict (cognitive dissonance) Free Association freely talking about what’s going on, respond to words/questions as quickly as possible without thinking about it too much Working through repeatedly going over painful memories and difficult issues Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) ● Emerged from modern psychodynamic theories and is shortterm ● Shifted focus from the unconscious conflicts to the client’s pattern of relationships with important people in their lives ● Therapist is much more structured and directive ○ Offers interpretations much earlier ○ Focuses on how to change current relationships Assessing Psychodynamic Approaches Most comprehensive theories of human behavior Difficult or impossible to test its fundamental assumptions, scientifically Humanistic Approaches Humanistic theories based on the assumption that humans have an innate capacity for goodness and for living a full life Carl Rogers approach individuals naturally move toward personal growth, selfacceptance, and selfactualization ● Selfactualization fulfillment of one’s potential for love, creativity, and meaning, reaching maximum potential in all areas of our lives Humanistic therapy goal is to help people discover their potential through selfexploration Clientcentered therapy therapist communicates a genuineness in his or her role as a helper ● Acting as an authentic person not an authority figure ● Showing unconditional positive regard for the client Sociocultural Approaches Look beyond the individual or family to the larger society to understand people’s problems ● Risk factors for mental health problems ○ Socioeconomic disadvantage ○ Upheaval and disintegration of societies ○ Social norms and policies that stigmatize and marginalize certain groups CrossCultural Issues in Treatment Most psychotherapies are focused on the individual whereas most cultures are collective Psychotherapies value the expression of emotions whereas most cultures restrain them Clients are expected to initiate communication on expectations which can clash with cultural norms (people might feel uncomfortable sharing about their lives with a stranger) Class and issues of race pose difficulty in accessing help client and/or therapists might have different expectation or not know how to act Issues of age difference, gender and ethnicity hinder treatment Common Elements in Effective Treatments Have a positive relationship with the client Provide clients with an explanation or interpretation of why they are suffering Encourage clients to confront painful emotions and have techniques for helping them become less sensitive to these emotions Prevention Programs Primary prevention stopping the development of disorders before they start ● Help people the best we can from very early stages and create environment that does not feed development of disorders Secondary prevention detecting a disorder at its earliest stages to prevent the development of the fullblown disorder ● When people are young children, try to detect problems then and help them learn coping skills and techniques Tertiary prevention preventing relapse and reducing the impact of the disorder on the person’s quality of life ● After the fact, doing the best they can Chapter 3 Assessment Tools Validity accuracy, testing what we think we are Reliability consistency, get similar results if you repeat test Standardization standard method of administering a test, to try to ensure validity and reliability ● Prevents influence of extraneous factors Types of Validity Face validity it looks like it measures what it should Construct validity whether it actually measures what it is supposed to Content validity contains every important aspect, don’t just focus in on one specific point Concurrent validity same results as other tests Predictive validity able to predict behavior (likelihood of someone’s depression escalating to self harm, or ACT predicting performance in college) Types of Reliability Testretest reliability multiple administrations of test to check for similar results Alternate forms 2 versions of test to see if you are actually getting the same information with both Split half randomly divide test into two versions and see how they correlate with each other Internal reliability different parts produce similar responses Interrater/Interjudge reliability How similarly different raters/interviewers are coding data/answers Clinical Interview Initial interview mental status exam ● Appearance and behavior self care reflects how we feel ● Thought processes how long it takes them to answer a question/how they react to questions ● Mood and affect laughing when talking about something funny, being sad when talking about sad topics ● Intellectual functioning ● Orientation Structured Interview constitute a series of questions about symptoms experienced currently or in the past ● Has a standardized format ● Concrete criteria is used to score person’s answers ● Standardization is good, get a lot of information, but since there is a concrete format you may not ask a question that you should have Symptoms Questionnaire Cover variety of symptoms, representing several different disorders Beck depression inventory (BDI) ● 21 items, each describes four levels of a symptoms of depression ● Criticism does not distinguish clinical depression from general distress Personality Inventories Questionnaires to assess typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving ● Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) ○ MMPI2 567 true/false questions ○ People lose interest because it is so long, but it is still the most used MMPI2 Validity Scales The ? Scale # items unanswered “cannot say” ● 30+ invalid Lie (L) deliberately answering in dishonest manner ● Present in favorable light unrealistic F detect unusual or atypical ways of answering the test items ● Randomly fill out the test ● Faking bad or good ● Back F (F^b) same issues as the F scale, except only during the last half of the test ● High F and Fb scale invalidates the whole test K identify psychopathology in people who otherwise would have profiles within the normal range. It measures selfcontrol, and family and interpersonal relationships Behavioral Observation Clinician observes and identifies what precedes and follows behaviors ● Advantage not relying on individuals’ reporting and interpretation ● Disadvantage alter behavior when being watched SelfMonitoring Keeping track of own behavior ● Biases ○ They may not notice certain behaviors that they are displaying ○ Reluctance to report behavior that they may not be proud of Intelligence Tests Measures intellectual strengths and weaknesses ● Abstract reasoning ● Verbal fluency ● Spatial memory Designed to identify students that may be struggling in order to help them Consensus of intelligence? ● IQ tests maybe don’t measure all areas of intelligence Biased toward middle and upperclass educated European Americans Neuropsychological Tests Detect cognitive deficits related to brain structures BenderGestalt assesses sensorimotor skills ● Reproduce set of nine drawings ● Differentiates brain damage from those without brain damage ○ Does not reliably identify specific type of damage BrainImaging Techniques Computerized tomography (CT) ● Elevated cat scan ● Highlight lesions, but doesn’t tell us anything about when the brain is in action Positronemission tomography (PET) ● Inject something and watch it move through the brain ● Highlight lesions Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) Projective Tests Provide an ambiguous stimuli ● Response will reflect current concerns and feelings ● Relationships ● Conflicts and desires Useful in: ● Uncovering unconscious issues ● Resistant or heavily biasing information Frequently used tests: ● Rorschach Inkblot Test ○ Ambiguous symmetrical inkblots ● Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Challenges in Assessment Resistance and inability to provide information Evaluating children ● Hard to get them to focus ● Can’t ask them straight out questions about rough things Evaluating individuals across cultures ● Language barriers ● Cultural barriers Diagnosis Syndrome set of symptoms that occur together and what that specific set represents ● Syndromes tend to cooccur within individuals multiple diagnoses in the same person Classification system rules to determine whether symptoms are a part of a syndrome ● Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
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