Biology 1305 study guide
Biology 1305 study guide bio 1305
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabby Scheck on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to bio 1305 at Baylor University taught by Walter Holmes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see mod concepts of bioscience in Biology at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Biology 1305 Ch. 1-5 Study Guide!!!! Science is: 1. 2. 3. 4. Properties of Life 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What are the two types of cell structure? 3 Domains 1. 2. 3. 4 kingdoms 1. 2. 3. 4. Describe what natural selection consists of? 1. 2. 3. theory- hypothesis- Describe observation science and give examples Describe Experimental science and give examples Life only comes from______. octet rule (and exception) valence electron- valence shell- essential elements- trace elements- isotopes- radioactive isotopes- Covalent bonds- Ionic bonds- Hydrogen bonds- Van der Waals interaction Hydrophobic interactions- Electronegativity- Properties of water: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Universal forces: 1. 2. 3. 4. rank the chemical bonds from strongest to weakest an atom that loses an electron becomes a _____ an atom that gains an electron becomes a _____ Hydrocarbons- The more hydrogen a hydrocarbon has, the more _____ it has. 4 variations in carbon skeletons 1. 2. 3. 4. isomer- cis isomer- trans isomer- optical isomer- functional groups Macromolecules 1. 2. 3. 4. making and breaking polymers is facilitated by ________ dehydration synthesis hydrolysis glyosidic linkage polysaccharides CARBOHYDRATES 2 storage polysaccharides (what uses each) 1. 2. 2 structural polysaccharides (what uses each) 1. 2. what is the difference between alpha and beta glucose? LIPIDS which macromolecule has no true polymer? Fat is constructed of ______ and _______ Which functional group is at the end of a fatty acid? In making a fat, 3 _______ molecules are joined to ________ by an _______ _______. What are the differences between saturated and unsaturated fats? Trans fats- What are two types of unsaturated fats? What is the difference between fat and phospholipids? What do phospholipids make up? The _________ tails of phospholipids are _________, and the __________ head is _________. _______ are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton and consisting of ____ fused rings _________ is a type of steroid that is a common precursor for other steroids and is competent in animal cell membranes. PROTIENS ______ ______ regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts All proteins are constructed from the same 20 ____ _____. Peptide bond- Polypeptide- Protein- Amino Acid- At the center of amino acids there is an ___________ ______ called the _____ _______ 8 types of proteins 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 4 levels of protein structure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Alpha helix beta pleated sheets denaturalization Nucleic acid Gene expression Pyrimidine Purines RNA Deoxyribose 4 nucleotide bases 1. 2. 3. 4. Answer key Biology 1305 Ch. 1-5 Study Guide!!!! Science is: 1. falsifiable 2. testable 3. making predictions 4. tangible What are the two types of cell structure? Prokaryotic and eukaryotic 3 Domains 1. archaea 2. eukaryia 3. prokaryia 4 kingdoms 1. Animalia 2. fungi 3. plantae 4. protist Describe what natural selection consists of? 1. variation 2. over reproduction 3. differential survival common descent- theory- a reliable explanation of an aspect of science, supported by facts hypothesis- educated guess that attempt to predict the outcome of an experiment Describe observation science and give examples Science that cannot be tested and can only be observed (geology, astronomy) Describe Experimental science and give examples Science you can test (biology, chemistry, physics) Life only comes from_ life__. Criteria of life: 1. made of cells 2. contains protoplasm 3. contains metabolic enzymes 4. growth 5. reproduction 6. response to stimuli 7. respiration octet rule (and exception)- an atoms electron shell is filled when it holds 8 electrons except for the first shell which holds two valence electron- electrons in the valence shell valence shell- the outermost electron shell essential elements- elements needed for life trace elements- elements needed for life but only in trace amounts isotopes- an atom with a different amount of neutrons in the nucleus Covalent bonds- bond between a metal and a nonmetal Ionic bonds- bond between two nonmetals Hydrogen bonds- bonds between partially charged atoms one of which must be hydrogen Van der Waals interaction- attraction from the random spots of positive and negative activity Hydrophobic interactions- when atoms get pushed together because they are nonpolar in a polar substance, water and oil Electronegativity- the attraction for other atoms to gain or lose electrons Properties of water: 1. ice floats 2. evaporation and cooling 3. solvent 4. specific heat 5. melting and boiling 6. cohesion and surface tension Universal forces: 1. Gravity 2. Weak forces 3. Strong forces 4. electromagnetism rank the chemical bonds from strongest to weakest 1. Covalent 2. Ionic 3. Hydrogen 4. Hydrophobic 5. Van der Waals an atom that loses an electron becomes a __cation__ an atom that gains an electron becomes a __anion___ Hydrocarbons- molecules with just hydrogen and carbon The more hydrogen a hydrocarbon has, the more __energy___ it has. 4 variations in carbon skeletons 1. length 2. branching 3. double bond position 4. presence of rings isomer- a molecule with the same atoms and ratios as another but with different arrangement cis isomer- carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the inflexibility of doubl bonds. trans isomer- X’s are on the same side optical isomer- asymmetrical linkage functional groups Macromolecules 1. carbohydrates 2. lipids 3. nucleic acids 4. proteins making and breaking polymers is facilitated by ___enzymes _____ dehydration synthesis- taking a water molecule out of two different molecules to put them together hydrolysis- adding of a water molecule to a carbohydrate molecule to break it apart polysaccharides- polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glyosidic linkages. CARBOHYDRATES 2 storage polysaccharides (what uses each) 1. glycogen- animals 2. starch- plants 2 structural polysaccharides (what uses each) 1. chitin (animals) 2. cellulose (plants) what is the difference between alpha and beta glucose? alpha has the hydroxyl group on the bottom and beta gas it on top. LIPIDS which macromolecule has no true polymer? lipids Which functional group is at the end of a fatty acid? carboxyl In making a fat, 3 ___fatty acid___ molecules are joined to ____glycerol____ by an ___ester linkage____ _______. What are the differences between saturated and unsaturated fats? Saturated fats are saturated with hydrogen and unsaturated have a double bond between the Two carbons and then remove room for two hydrogen Trans fats- fats with a trans double bond What are two types of unsaturated fats? Poly and mono What is the difference between fat and phospholipids? Phospholipids only have two fatty acids matched with one glycerol instead of three What do phospholipids make up? Animal cell membranes The ____hydrocarbon_____ tails of phospholipids are ___hydrophobic_____, and the ______phosphate group____ head is ____hydrophilic_____. ____steroids___ are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton and consisting of ____ fused rings _____cholesterol____ is a type of steroid that is a common precursor for other steroids and is a component in animal cell membranes. PROTIENS ____enzymatic__ ___proteins__ regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts All proteins are constructed from the same 20 __amino __ ___acids __. Polypeptide- polymer of amino acids Amino Acid- an organicmolecule with both an amino groupand a carboxyl group At the center of amino acids there is an asymmetric carbon ______ called the ___alpha carbon__ _______ 8 protein functions 1. Enzymatic proteins 2. Storage proteins 3. Hormonal proteins- Coordination of an organism ‘s activities 4. Defensive proteins 5. Transport proteins 6. Receptor proteins- Function: Response of cell to chemical stimuli 7. Contractile and motor proteins 8. Structural proteins- 4 levels of protein structure: 1. primary- linear chains of amino acids 2. secondary- alpha helix and beta pleated sheaths 3. tertiary- 3d structures 4. quaternary- aggregation of polypeptide units Alpha helix- a delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid, as shown above. beta pleated sheets- n this structure two or more segments of the polypeptide chain lying side by side (called β strands) are connected by hydrogen bonds between parts of the two parallel segments of the polypeptide backbone. β pleated sheets make up the core of many globular proteins denaturation - t he weak chemical bonds and interactions within a protein may be destroyed, causing the protein to unravel and lose its native shape Nucleic acid Gene expression- process through which the RNA control protein synthesis Prymidine- has one sixmembered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. The members of the pyrimidine family are cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) Purines- larger, with a sixmembered ring fused to a fivemembered ring. The purines are adenine (A) and guanine (G). Nucleotide- the polymer of nucleic acids, composed of three parts: a fivecarbon sugar (a pentose), a nitrogencontaining (nitrogenous) base, and one or more phosphate groups Deoxyribose- the sugar to which the nitrogenous baseis attached in DNA 4 nucleotide bases 1. adenine 2. guanine 3. cytosine 4. thymine
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