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Exam I Study Guide: Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I

by: Audrey Hernandez

Exam I Study Guide: Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I PHCL 2600

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Biology > PHCL 2600 > Exam I Study Guide Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I
Audrey Hernandez
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

This study guide was made to propose basic questions to allow students to recall material from memory to answer to prepare for the first exam.
Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology
Dr. Frederick Williams
Study Guide
Science, Biology, anatomy, pathophysiology, Physiology
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHCL 2600 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Frederick Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology in Biology at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 09/10/16
Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam I Study Guide     Week 1    ❖ What is a cell capable of?  ❖ What are the different cell types?  ■ How are there different cell types?  ■ What different components make up muscle tissue?  ■ What do nerve cells do and what are the two different nervous systems?  ● What is each system comprised of?  ■ What functionality do the different connective tissues have?  ■ Give examples of epithelial tissues and what they do  ❖ What are the different macromolecules that make up cells?  ❖ List the three basic parts of the cell  ➢ What is the nuclear envelope?   ➢ Explain the difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin  ➢ What types of organelles are in the cytoplasm?  ■ List the differences between rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and  smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)  ■ What is the function of a ribosome?  ■ Explain what the cis membrane and transmembrane of the golgi apparatus  are  ■ What is purpose of a v­snare protein compared to a t­snare protein?  ■ How does a lysosome maintain its pH balance and how does the cell react  in case of a leak?  ■ Why does the lysosome break down old cells?  ● How do peroxisomes help with the byproduct?  ➢ What are the folds of the mitochondria called?  ■ How is metabolic activity related to the number of cristae in the  mitochondria?  ➢ How do organelles move around in the cell?  ■ What allows the up/down movement for organelles  ■ What is the cytoskeleton made of  ■ How does the microtubulesin lattice support the cell?    Week 2     ❖ More on the membrane  ➢ Why do phospholipids arrange the way that they do?  ■ Are there other types of lipid that are important to the membrane?  Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam I Study Guide     ➢ Why does the membrane become more rigid as cholesterol is introduced to it?  ■ What supports this?  ➢ Explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic membrane proteins.  ➢ List the different kinds of membrane proteins there are and brief over their  functions.  ➢ Is there a difference between a glycoprotein and a lipoprotein?  ■ Is so, explain.  ➢ Write down the two versions of Fick’s Law and identify the variables.  ■ List any other contributing factors of diffusion .  ■ What kinds of gradients are there and what factors govern them?  ■ How do rates of diffusion relate to Overton’s Rules?  ● How does Overton’s Rules relate to permeability?  ■ Is there a difference between chemical and electrical gated channels?  ● If so, explain.  ■ What is osmosis?  ● What will happen to a cell in the following solutions:  ◆ Isotonic  ◆ Hypotonic  ◆ Hypertonic  ● Write the equation for osmolality  ◆ If 1 mol MgCl​  2​ dissolved into 1 L of water, what would  the osmolality be equal to?  ❖ Why are mediated transports important for a cell?  ➢ Explain active transport in contrast to secondary active transport?  ❖ Define metabolism  ➢ Are there different types of metabolism?  ❖ When an enzyme is involved in a reaction…  ➢ What happens during the reaction?  ➢ What happens to the enzyme during it?  ➢ Are there any other factors that influence the speed of the reaction?  ❖ Why are the promoter and terminator so important for the process of transcription?  ➢ What are the basic components of a nucleotide and how do they tie in to  transcription?  ➢ Explain the process of transcription  ➢ How is RNA synthesised and what happens during RNA editing?  ➢ Is the tRNA important at all?      Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Exam I Study Guide     Week 3    ❖ What does vmax mean in relation to Enzyme Kinetics?  ❖ What is end product inhibition for an enzyme?   ➢ Does it relate to enzyme saturation?  ❖ Where do the energy inputs for glycolysis come from and what are the outputs?  ➢ What is the energy flow through the cycle?  ❖ What is the difference between negative feedback and positive feedback?  ➢ What is a reflex arc?  ➢ Describe the pathway the body takes to restore itself to a balance by homeostasis 


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