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Chemistry 1110

by: Naili Huszainey

Chemistry 1110 Chemistry 1110

Naili Huszainey
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This is the study guide for Exam 1. I have compiled everything from textbook notes and class notes in this. Feel free to ask me if you do not understand anything
General Chemistry
Paul G Van Patten
Study Guide
Chemistry, chapter1, chapter2, Studyguide, General Chemistry
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Naili Huszainey on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chemistry 1110 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Paul G Van Patten in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/10/16
Definition     Laws    Formula Chapter 1  (1.1) States of Matter Chemistry: the study of matter composition, structure, properties and energy  released or given during change of matter. Matter: anything that has mass and occupies space Mass: property that define quantity of object Solid: a form of matter that has definite shape and volume Liquid: form of matter that has definite volume, but un­definite shape (follows the  shape of container) Gas: form of matter that does not have definite shape or volume Example of how atoms are inside solid, liquid, and gas Atom: the smallest particle of an element Molecule: two or more atom bonded together Chemical bond: force that hold the atoms together a) Matter undergoes change in diff. temperature (1.2) Forms of Energy Energy: the ability to do work Two types of energy:  1. Potential energy                                      2. Kinetic energy Potential energy: energy stored in object Kinetic energy: energy of an object due to motion (mass and speed) Heat: flow of energy from one object to another due to diff, temperature  When two objects have different temperature, heat will flow between the  two objects until optimum temperature is obtained Diagram to show heat flow Work: transfer of energy when a force acts on it Law of conservation of energy: Energy cannot be destroyed, only transferred or  transformed to one another (total amount of energy in universe is fixed) (1.3) Classes of Matter There are two ways to classify matter: Pure substance and mixture 1. Pure substance: matter that cannot be separated into simpler substances Two ways to classify pure substances: a) Element: pure substances that cannot be separated by chemical process b) Compound: two or more elements combines together, but can sometimes be  separated  2. Mixtures: combinations of different pure substances, thus it can be separated by  physical process Two ways to classify mixtures: a) Homogeneous: a mixture that has a uniformly distributed components ( no  layers can be seen) b) Heterogeneous: a mixture that does not have a uniformly distributed  components ( you can see layers)                                 Homogeneous example                                           Heterogeneous example Law of Constant Composition: ALL pure substances contain same element  combines together in the same proportions  (1.4) Properties of Matter Intensive property: depends on the properties of substance, not quantity (density) Extensive property: depends on quantity (mass and volume) Density: ratio of mass over volume D: M/V Note: know how to use this formula, mass is usually in unit grams and  volume is in cm^3 or ml 1 cm^3 = 1 ml (1.5) + (1.6) Read through but not too deep (1.8)Making Measurements and Expressing the Results G Giga­ 10^9 M Mega­ 10^6 k Kilo­ 10^3 d Deci­ 10^­1 c Centi­ 10^­2 m Milli­ 10^­3 μ Micro­ 10^­6 n Nano­ 10^­9 p Pico­ 10^­12 f Fento­ 10^­15 Note: you have to know how to convert cm to m, m to km etc Significant Figures A) Multiplication and Dividing The number of sig fig in your answer should follow the number with least sig fig. Example: 2.0 x 4.20 = 8.4 2.0 has two sig fig, whereas 4.20 has 3. The answer should be two sig fig. B) Addition and Subtraction The number of sig fig should follow the number with least decimal places Example:  2.01 + 3.2 = 5.21 = 5.2 2.01 has 2 decimal places, whereas 3.2 has one. The answer should have one  decimal places, which is 5.2  (1.10) Temperature  All you need to know is how to convert Kelvin, Celsius and Fahrenheit and vice  versa IGNORE THE RANKINE FORMULA  Chapter 2 Subatomic particle: neutron, proton and electron Cathode Ray Tube The ray are made up of fast moving electrons. That is why on the diagram above,  it bents toward the positive plate, because electrons are negatively charged. Cathode ray: streams of electrons emitted by cathode in a vacuumed tube Electrons: negatively charged particle Radioactivity: spontaneous emission of high energy radiation and particles β (Beta particle): electrons a (Alpha particle): +2 atoms stuck together Nuclear Atom This is how a nuclear atom looks like 1. The nucleus in the middle consist of protons and neutrons. Because the neutrons have no charge, the protons determine the identity of the element 2. The nucleus determines the mass of the atom (protons + neutrons) 3. The electrons surrounding it can be seen as a cloud forming around the nucleus  Particle Mass(kg) Charge Charge© Proton 1.673x(10^­27) 1+ +1.602x(10^­19) Electron 9.109x(10^­31) 1­ ­1.602x(10^­19) Neutron 1.675x(10^­27) 0 0 Isotopes:  atoms that have same # of protons, but different # of neutrons  (Same nuclear charges, diff nuclear mass) This diagram is the isotope notation (How you would represent it) Sometimes, the Z will not be shown because they expect you to know what it is from the periodic table, which will be given. Example: C is the symbol for Carbon. From the periodic table, you will know the proton  number given for C is 6, thus explains the 6 on the diagram above. The number 14  is the mass number, which is (protons + neutrons). Subtracting 6 from 14 will give  you the number of neutrons.   If there is no charge on the right side of the alphabet, it is considered  neutral. Thus, the # of protons and # of electrons are equal Ions: a particle that loses or gains electron Periodic Table Group 1A : Alkali metals (make basic solution when react with water) They will form +1 ions in compounds  Example;  This is Lithium which is in group 1A from Periodic Table. The electrons in  Li is 3, which is considered unstable.   To make it stable, it releases an electron.   When it releases electron, it becomes +1 ion because it lost one negative  charged electron  It loses an electron because the electronegativity is low for Lithium, thus  makes it easier for it to lose electron (not gain)  Group 2A : Alkaline Earth metal They will form +2 ions in compounds Practically the same as group 1A, but it only loses 2 electron in order to become  stable Group 7A : Halogens They will form ­1 ion in compound  Example;  This is Chlorine which is in group 7A from periodic table. The electrons in  Cl is 17, which is unstable  It gains 1 electron in order to become stable  When it gains an electron, it becomes a ­1 charged ion because it gains a  negatively charged electron  The electronegativity of Cl is high, thus makes it easier to attract electron  (gain) Metals: loses an electron to form (+) ions, also known as cations 1) Lower left side of periodic table 2) Shiny solid, conductive Non­metals: Gain electron to form (­) ions, also known as anions 1) Top right corner of periodic table + Hydrogen 2) Not conductive, often gases or liquids Metalloids:  In between metal and non­metals  Masses of Atoms, Ions, and Molecules Average Atomic Mass= (Mass of isotope A)*(decimal percentage of natural  abundance of isotope A) + (Mass of isotope B)*(decimal percentage of natural  abundance of isotope B) Example; Isotope Mass(amu) Natural abundance (%) Neon­20 19.9924 90.4838 Neon­21 20.9940 0.2696 Neon­22 21.9914 9.2465 Average Atomic Mass of Neon: (19.9924 x 0.904838) + (20.9940 x 0.002696) +     (21.9914 x 0.092465) =20.1799 amu Note: if all the isotopes natural abundance (decimal %) are added up, it will always equals to 1 Molecular mass= add up all the average atomic mass of atoms in each molecule For examples, it is best to read page 55 of textbooks. Do not worry, it is short and  brief. But if you do not understand, feel free to notify me, so I can help. Avogadro’s Number: 6.0221x(10^23) This is the end of the note. This is mostly what Dr Van Patten have covered in  class, so I hope you guys find it useful.                                                      


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