Chapter 1-6 Study Guide Life 102
Chapter 1-6 Study Guide Life 102 Life 102
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kyla Tovar on Saturday September 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Life 102 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Jennifer L Neuwald in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Life Sciences at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/10/16
Life 102 Exam 1 Study Guide 1) What are the properties of life? Choose all that apply a. Energy Processing b. Growth and development c. Death d. Reproduction e. Regulation f. Heat adaption g. Evolutionary adaption 2) Which is not a major theme in biology? a. New Levels of Biological Organization emerge through evolution b. Life’s processes involve the expression and transmission of genetic information c. Life requires the transfer and Transformation of Energy and Matter d. From Ecosystem to molecules, interactions are important in biological system e. Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life 3) What are the different levels of organization? List from largest to smallest. 4) What is reductionism? a. Due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increase b. Systems biology the exploration of a biological system by analyzing the interactions among its part c. Used to study life at all levels d. Zooming in at ever-finer resolution illustrates an approach 5) In your own words, what is the cause of emergent properties? 6) What is the connection between structure and function? a. Getting a better idea of the cell b. Knowing the function provides insight into the structure and organization c. The shared characteristics in a cell d. Gives the ability to study life at all levels 7) What is the information used among all life? a. DNA b. RNA c. mRNA d. Nucleus 8) What does energy enter as, then exit as? a. Heat; light b. Kinetic; potential c. Light; heat d. Potential; kinetic 9) List the interactions between organisms in an ecosystem 10) What came from the idea of evolution? a. Extinction b. Natural Selection c. Death d. Reproduction 11) How do we classify life? a. Comparisons of structure, function, and other obvious features. b. Comparisons of structure and physical characteristics c. Comparisons of structure and what they eat d. Comparisons of structure and genetics 12) How do we balance unity with diversity of life? a. Natural Selection b. Origin c. Evolution d. Biological Organization 13) What three observations led to the theory of evolution? 14) What is a hypothesis? a. A search for information and explanation of natural phenomena b. Tentative answer to a well framed question c. Logic that is specific d. Broad, supported by a greater body of evidence 15) What is the difference between an element and a compound? a. An element is one atom, a compound is two or more atoms b. A compound is one atom, an element is two or more atoms c. An element is two different atoms, while a compound is only one d. A compound is two different atoms, while an element is only one 16) What are the four essential elements of life? 17) True or false: Trace elements are required by living organisms a. True b. False 18) Which is not a subatomic particle of the atom? a. Neutron b. Proton c. Nucleus d. Electron 19) What is a mass number? a. Number of protons in the nuclei, appears to the left of the symbol of the element b. Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom c. Number of protons and electrons in an atom d. Sum of the electrons and neutrons in the atom 20) True or False: An atom can have different amount of neutrons, which is called an isotope a. False b. True 21) What is the difference between atomic number and mass number? 22) How many valence shells can be in the second shell? a. 2 b. 8 c. 6 d. 10 23) What is the charge of a cation? a. Positive b. Negative c. Neutron 24) What is the definition of electronegativity? 25) True /False: Hydrogen bonds are strong 26) Which is not a chemical bond? a. Hydrogen b. Carbon c. Covalent d. Ionic 27) Which kind of bonds hold water molecules together? a. Covalent b. Carbon c. Ionic d. Hydrogen 28) What are the emergent properties of water? Circle all that apply a. Because of the hydrogen bonds, water is cohesive and adhesive b. Because of the hydrogen bonds, water has a high specific heat c. Because of hydrogen bonds, water helps maintain stability of temperature d. Because of the hydrogen bonds, water has floating solids e. Because of hydrogen bonds, water acts as a solver 29) How does water molecules stick together? a. Cohesive properties b. Adhesive properties c. Ionic bonds d. Covalent bonds 30) How do water molecules stick to other substances? a. Cohesive properties b. Adhesive properties c. Ionic Bonds d. Covalent bonds 31) True/False: When temperature in water molecules increase, the hydrogen bond breaks, absorbing heat, so it heats up slowly a. True b. False 32) Why does ice float on water? a. Higher mass b. Lower mass c. Higher density d. Lower density 33) What is the difference between solvent, solute, and solution? 34) How does a hydration shell form? a. By forming multiple hydrogen bonds, creating a shell structure b. Pulls molecules apart and works inwards c. Breaks hydrogen bonds, creating a shell structure d. Pulls molecules apart, working outwards 35) What is hydrophobic? 36) True/False: A pH of 3 is twice as acidic as a pH of 6 37) How do buffers work? a. Maximizes change in ph Level b. Does not affect pH level c. Works to not let broken hydrogen bonds enter the area d. Minimizes change in pH level 38) How many bonds can carbon form? a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 8 39) What is a hydrocarbon? a. Contains only a hydrogen and carbon atom b. Has at least a hydrogen and carbon atom c. A carbon that is a solvent in water d. A hydrogen that has a reaction with a carbon 40) Describe the four ways molecular diversity occurs because of a carbon backbone. 41) What is an isomer? a. Differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms b. Differ in location of double bonds c. Compounds that have the same number of atoms but have different structures d. Compounds that have a different number of atoms but have the same structure 42) Give the definitions of the different types of isomers a. Structural isomers: b. Cis-trans isomers: c. Enantiomers: 43) Which functional group’s compound name is alcohol? a. Phosphate Group b. Hydroxyl Group c. Carboxyl Group d. Amino Group 44) Which functional group is hard to ionize? a. Hydroxyl Group b. Carbonyl Group c. Carboxyl Group d. Amino Group 45) Which functional group acts as an acid? a. Hydroxyl Group b. Carbonyl Group c. Carboxyl Group d. Amino Group 46) Which functional group acts as a base? a. Hydroxyl Group b. Carbonyl Group c. Carboxyl Group d. Amino Group 47) Which functional group’s name is thiol? a. Carboxyl Group b. Amino Group c. Sulfhydryl Group d. Phosphate Group 48) Which functional group is polar, hydrophilic, and ionized? a. Carboxyl Group b. Amino Group c. Sulfhydryl Group d. Phosphate Group 49) Which is the only non-polar functional group? a. Sulfhydryl Group b. Methyl Group c. Amino Group d. Carbonyl Group 50) An aldehyde occurs in the middle of the structure. a. True b. False 51) What makes up a macromolecule? 52) What is a carbohydrate? a. Sugar b. Carbon atoms c. Aldose d. Ketose 53) The structure of a carbohydrate is a monomer, which is a monosaccharides a. True b. False 54) How are lipids formed? 55) Which is not a function of a lipid? a. Energy storage b. Form cell membranes c. Process chemicals d. Signaling hormones 56) Which is not a way sugar molecules vary? a. Location of Carbonyl Group b. Location of Carboxyl Group c. Length of Carbon Backbone d. Spatial Arrangement 57) Which is not a lipid? a. Fats b. Phosphates c. Steroids d. Sex Cells 58) Saturated fats have at least one double bond a. True b. False 59) Explain the unique property of phospholipid and the effect on its function. 60) What are steroids structure? a. 2 carbon rings and side groups b. carbon rings and side groups add up to 4 c. 4 carbon rings and side groups d. 2 carbon rings and 2 side groups 61) What is protein structured from? a. Hydrocarbons b. Amino Acids c. Fats d. Phospholipids 62) List the type of proteins. 63) There are four levels of a protein structure called primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. a. True b. False 64) Circle all factors that may influence protein structure besides from the amino acid sequence. a. Denaturation b. Non-polar/Polar c. Excessive heat d. Protein folding 65) Give an example of a result of a substitution of an amino acid. 66) What is the monomer of a nucleic acid? a. RNA b. Five- carbon sugar c. Pyrimidine d. Nucleotide 67) A nucleotide is made up a six-carbon sugar (pentose), nitrogenous base, and one or more phosphate group a. True b. False 68) What is one major difference between RNA and DNA? 69) What is not found in an DNA nitrogenous base? a. Cytosine b. Thymine c. Uracil d. Adenine e. Guanine 70) What kind of bond holds peptides together? a. Ionic b. Covalent c. Hydrogen d. Carbon 71) An amino end is a N-terminus. a. True b. False 72) What is the primary difference between a nucleotide and a nucleoside? 73) Which does not affect the quality of the microscope? a. Age b. Magnification c. Resolution d. Contrast 74) The two types of microscopes are called light microscope and proton microscope. a. True b. False 75) Which microscope and can give a better picture? 76) Which two domains make up prokaryotic cells? a. Archaea b. Animal c. Bacteria d. Plant 77) Which two domains make up eukaryotic cells? a. Archaea b. Animal c. Bacteria d. Plant 78) Compatible reactions can be physically separated is an advantage to cell membranes and compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells. a. True b. False 79) What makes up the nucleus? Matches these to their definitions: Chromosomes, Chromatin, and DNA 80) Blue print of the cell 81) Coiled DNA molecules and proteins 82) Conglomeration of chromosomes 83) What is the main function of ribosomes? a. To store b. To store DNA c. To make proteins d. To transport 84) The ribosomes are found on the nucleus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. a. True b. False 85) What makes up the endomembrane? 86) What is the main function of lysosomes? a. Structural Support b. Digestion c. Disposal d. Storage 87) Which is not a function of Vacuoles? a. Structural Support b. Digestion c. Disposal d. Storage 88) Describe endosymbiosis and the evidence for it. 89) The function of mitochondria is photosynthesis. a. True b. False 90) What is the cytoskeleton? a. Network of fibers extending throughout the cell b. Networks of fibers extending to the cell c. Structure of fibers d. Structure of cell Answer Key 1) A, b, d, e, g 2) A 3) The biosphere, the ecosystem, communities, population, organism, organ and organ system, tissues, molecules, and cells 4) D 5) Due to the arrangement and interactions of parts 6) B 7) A 8) C 9) Mutually beneficial, both harmed, only one benefits 10) B 11) A 12) C 13) 1. Individuals in a population vary in their traits. 2. A population can produce far more offspring than can survive to produce offspring of their own 3. Species generally suit their environment 14) B 15) D 16) Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon 17) A 18) C 19) B 20) B 21) Atomic number is just protons, while mass number is protons and neutrons 22) B 23) A 24) Ability to attract electrons 25) False 26) B 27) D 28) A, B, D, E 29) A 30) B 31) A 32) D 33) Solvent: dissolving agent Solute: substance being dissolved Solution: homogenous mixture of substances 34) B 35) Does not mix with water well 36) False 37) D 38) B 39) A 40) 1) carbon chain length 2) carbon chain branching 3) double bond position 4) carbon rings 41) C 42) Definitions a. Differ in the covalent arrangement b. Carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the inflexibility of double bonds c. Isomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon 43) B 44) B 45) C 46) D 47) C 48) D 49) B 50) B 51) Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids 52) A 53) True 54) Formed from small molecules via dehydration 55) C 56) B 57) D 58) B 59) The head is hydrophilic and tail is hydrophobic, causing it to create a double membrane with the tail inward and the head facing the water. 60) C 61) B 62) Enzymatic protein, storage proteins, defensive proteins, transport proteins, hormonal proteins, receptor proteins, contractile and motor proteins, structural proteins 63) A 64) B 65) Sickle- Cell Disease, Down-Syndrome, ect. 66) D 67) B 68) For example: thymine is only in DNA and Uracil is only in RNA 69) C 70) C 71) A 72) A nucleotide is in DNA and a nucleoside is in RNA. 73) A 74) B 75) Electron Microscope 76) A, C 77) B, D 78) B 79) Nuclear Envelope, Nuclear Pore, Nuclear Lamina, Chromosomes, Chromatin, Nucleolus, and Ribosomes 80) DNA 81) Chromosomes 82) Chromatin 83) C 84) A 85) Smooth ER, Rough ER, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, and Vacuoles 86) B 87) B 88) Endosymbiosis: organism lives within other organism. Evidence 1) double membranes 2) mtDNA and cpDNA 3) grow and reproduce 89) B 90) A
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