Study guide for Chapter 1-5 Into to Sociology
Study guide for Chapter 1-5 Into to Sociology SOC 2110
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by rayparkerjr on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 2110 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Richard Caston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology 101 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Study guide for Chapters 1- 5 Into to Sociology *Pay special attention to starred vocabulary and important people Important people to know: *Comte: invented sociology (German) *Spencer: conducted the first textbook (German) *Durkheim: first experiment, scientific research. Martineau- women advocated rights, translated Comte six volume book (U.K) Addams- opened up Full house to serve immigration population. Awarded Nobel Peace Price W.E.B Du Bouis- first black to receive PhD frm Harvard, country leading sociologist of his time. Parsons- sociologist most responsible for developing theories of structural functionalism. Social system. *Marx: created conflict dominance to address rise of capitalism. (French) *Weber: modified off of Marxs work and addressed problem of larger organizations (French) *G.H Mead: created 3rd theoretical perspective in sociology. about symbolic interaction (American) Robert K Melton- middle range theories. Social, manifest and latent functions *Jean Pigett- Cognitive Development Lawrence Kohlberg- Moral Development Charles Horton Cooley- Looking glass theory George Herbert Mean- I and Me portion *Sigmund Freud- Id, Ego and Superego *Erik H Erikson- Personality Development Stages Vocabulary: *Sociology is the scientific study of human society and social interactions. Personalized approach is experience by being a society member. But this view is considered and is not enough accurate info to understand the broader social picture. Social Imagination to refer to the relationship btwn individual experiences and forces in the larger society that shapes our actions. Journalist o Journalist examine and write about social issues. Sociologist o Study society w/intent to share work with other sociologist *Social Darwinism, which is Charles Darwin notion of survival of the fittest, which species of animal best adapted to the envir survive and prosper and those who poorly adapted dies out. *Social functions- those social processes that contribute to ongoing operation and maintenance of society *Manifest functions are unintended and recognized consequences of such processes. *Latent functions are unintended or not readily recognized consequences of those processes. Paradigms- models or frame work for questions that generate and guide research. *Functionalism- views society as a system of highly interrelated structures or parts that function or operate together harmoniously. *Conflict theory- proposes that each individual and grp struggles to attain maximum benefit. This causes society to change constantly in response to social inequality (Marx) *The interactionist Perspective- focuses on how the individual makes sense or interp the social world in which they participate. *Middle range theories- are concerned with explaining specific issues or aspects of society instead of trying to explain how all society of operates. *Culture- all that humans beings learn to do, to use, to produce, to know, and to believe as they grow to maturity and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong. *Culture shock- the difficulty people have to adjusting to a new culture that differs markedly from their own. Cultural relativism, which is the recognition that social grps and cultures must be studied and understood on their own terms before valid comparison can be made. Martial Culture- consist of humans technology—all the things human beings make and use frm small handheld tools to skyscrapers Non martial Culture- consist of totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for app behavior. *Norms- are rules and behaviors that are agreed upon and shared with a culture and that prescribes limits of acceptable behavior. Mores- strongly held norms that usually have a moral connotation and are based on central values of the culture. Folkways- norms that permit a wide degree of individually interpretation as long as certain limits are not over stepped. Ideal norms- expectation of what people should do under perfect conditions. Real norms- norms that are expressed with qualifications and allowances for differences in individual behavior. *Values- are a cultures general orientations toward life—its notions of what good and bad, what is desirable and undesirable. Selectivity- a process by which some aspects of the world are viewed as important and others are virtually neglected. Such as a view on language o is known as Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, argues that the language a person used determines his or her perception. Symbols are anything that represents something or carries a particular meaning recognized by members of culture. Socialization- process of social interaction that teaches the child intellectual, physical, and social skills needs to function as a member of society. Personality- patterns of behaviors and ways of thinking and feeling that are distinctive for each individual. Genes- inherited units of biological material. Attachment disorders- is when you are unable to trust and to form relationships with others. *Statuses- culturally and socially defined positions. Social identity- total of all statues that define an individual. Self- is the changing and yet enduring personality identity. Looking glass theory to describe three stage process by which through each of us develops a sense of self. o The I portion of the self is wishes to have free expressions, to be active and spontaneous o The me portion of the self is made up of things learned through the socialization process from family, friends, peers, and school etc. Significant others- refers to the individuals who are most important in our self-development such as parents friends, teachers etc. Generalized others- view point, attitudes, and expectations of society as a whole or of a community of people whom are aware of and who are important to us. Id (pleasure principle: wishful and illogical) DESIRE doesn’t know how it works. First born consist of drives and instincts that Freud believes every human inherits but which for most pat are unconscious Ego (reality principle: helps id deal with reality) Goal is to satisfy Id tries not to only mediate in the eternal conflict btwn id and superego but also find socially acceptable ways for the ids drives to be expressed. Baby cries, Ego knows he gets bottle when he cry cause he hungry. Superego (conscience: parental voice within the person that battle id) doing the right thing. Represents society norms and moral values as learned primarily from our parents *Peer groups- are individuals who are social groups. Primary socialization- means individuals have mastered the basic information and skills required for members of society. Adult socialization- is the process by which adults learn new statues and roles. Resocialization- involves exposure to ideas or values that in one way or another conflict with what was learned in childhood. Ex) College students Social action is a term used to refer to anything people are conscious of doing because of other people. *Social interaction involves two or more people taking one another into account. Context- (1)(2)(3)—preceding it, happening simultaneously with it, and coming after it. *Norms- specific rules of behavior, agreed upon and shared that prescribe limits of acceptable behavior. Ethnomethodology- study of set of rules or guidelines that individuals use to initiate behavior, respond to behavior, and modify behavior is social interactions. Dramaturgy- creates an impression, people play roles, and their performance is judged by others who are alert to any slips that might reveal actor true character. Nonverbal behaviors- study of body movements—kinesics. o Head nods, yawns, postural shifts, eye contact etc. *Arabs believing eyes are key to a person being and that looking deeply to another’s eyes allows ones to see another’s souls* Exchange interaction- when people do something with the express purpose of receiving an reward or return. o Basic form of social interaction Cooperation- when people act together to promote a common interests or achieve shared goals Conflict- arises when people or grps have incompatible values or when rewards or resources avaible to a society or its member and its limited. Competition- a form of conflict in which individuals or grps confine their conflict within agreed upon rules. Statuses- are socially defined positons. Master status- one a status of someone in particular tends to dominate other statuses. Ascribed status- status giving to us by birth not controlled by our own actions or decisions, ppl get them regardless of intentions Achieved status- acquired result of a person’s actions. *Roles- are the culturally defined rules for proper behavior that are associated with every status Role sets- role attached to a single status. Role strain- when a single role has conflicting demands attached to it, individual who play that role experience this Role conflict- an individual who is occupying more than one status at a time is unable to enact the role of one status without violating another status. Collective behavior- refers to spontaneous social actions that occur when people respond to unstructured and ambiguous situations. Fads- social changes with a very short life span marked by rapid spread and an abrupt drop in popularity. Fashions- relate to standards of dress or manners in a given society at a certain time. Rumors- information that is shared informally and spreads quickly thru a mass or crowd. Public opinion- refers to beliefs held by a dispersed collectivity of individuals’ abt a common problem, interest, focus or activity. Propaganda- advertisements of political natural seeking to mobilize public support behind one specific party candidate or point of view. Mass hysteria- is when large numbers of ppl are overwhelmed w/emotion and frenzied activity or become convinced that they have experience something for which investigators cannot find no evidence—Least understood. Panic- uncoordinated grp flight frm perceived danger. *Social groups- number of people who have common identity, some feelings of unity and certain common goals and shared norms. *Social aggregate- happens to be people who temporarily happens to be in close proximity of each other but does not share anything else. *Primary groups involve interactions who have an emotional investment in one another intimately and who interacts as a total individuals rather than thru specialized roles. Leader- is someone who occupies a central role a position of dominance and influence in the group. Instrumental leadership- leaders who actively proposes task and plans to guide the grp towards achievement Consensus talking about it until all agree what to do. Reference groups- group or social category that an individual uses to help define beliefs attitudes and ideas, and values that help guides behavior. *Subgroups- splinter grps within larger grps. Gemeinschaft rural (community) – relationships are intimate, cooperative, and personal. Gesellschaft urban (large impersonal structures) relationships are impersonal and independent. Social solidarity—emerges from ppls commitment and conformity to the society’s collective conscience. Mechanically integrated society- society’s collective conscience is strong and there is a great commitment to that collective conscience. Organically integrated society, social solidarity depends on the cooperation of individuals in many positions who perform specialized tasks. *Bureaucracy- a formal rationally organized social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity in which ideally every series of actions is functionally related to purposes of organizations. Social institutions—the ordered social relationships that grow out of values, norms, statues, and roles that organize the activities that fulfill society fundamentals needs. Social organization- consist of relatable stable pattern of social relationships among individuals and groups in society.
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