BIO 1102 study guide 1
BIO 1102 study guide 1 BIO 1102
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Beals on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1102 at University of Connecticut taught by A. Fry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Deep time: The big bang occurred about 1314 billion years ago(byo). T he lightest elements formed first. Protons and neutrons from the nucleus, Protons = +, neutrons = neutral. Later electrons form and orbit the nucleus they have a negative charge. Hydrogen is smallest and most common with one electron and 1 proton. A billion years after the big bang hydrogen clouds form stars and galaxies. The sun is 5 byo. The sun gets its energy through nuclear fusion. Larger stars(red giants, supernovas) form larger elements. The moon is 4.64 byo it was made when a planet made impact with earth. The moon has no atmosphere a cold interior and ice at its poles. T he moon creates tides and stabilizes earth's rotation on its axis. The earth is 4.6 byo, it has a hot interior, all forms of water, an atmosphere, and magnetic field. Earth’s magnetic field protects us from solar wind. Earth’s interior heat comes from radioactive decay, and the atmosphere is from gasses escaping the earth compressing into layers. Early atmosphere vs. Atmosphere today Very little oxygen lots of oxygen Lots of carbon dioxide low carbon dioxide Lots of water vapor less water vapor Evolution and prosperity of life caused the change in oxygen and co . The 2one protects the earth from ultraviolet light. It is formed from O3molecules. 75% of earth is covered by water, 97% is salt water, and less than 3% is drinkable. Origin of life on Earth (bacteria, archaea): about 3.5 billion years ago Origin of oxygenreleasing photosynthesis: about 3.5 billion years ago Origin of eukaryotic cells: about 1.5 billion years ago First land plants and animals: about 500 million years ago Evolution of mammals: about 200 250 million years ago Evolution of anatomically modern humans (homo sapiens): about 200 thousand years ago Chemistry of life: Atom is the basis of anything with mass, an element is an atom with a unique number of protons. Atoms are electrically equal when the amount of protons=electrons. The mass number is the amount of neutrons and protons. Isotopes are elements with extra or missing neutrons. Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells(first 2 second 8), all atoms want a full shells). Tracer studies track where molecules go. Oxygen released from plants comes from water. Ion is when an atom gains or losses electron giving it a charge. Ions stick together because of the attractive charge. Covalent bond is when electrons are shared, these can be polar or nonpolar. Non polar= identical atoms, and charge difference. Polar bond is 2 or more different atoms, positive and negative side. Hydrogen bond is polar and stick to atoms that are negatively charged. Water absorbs heat easily and an excellent solvent. Hydrophilic=water loving, salt, sugar. hydrophobic= water hating oils, fats. G eneral solubility rule is like dissolves like hydrophobic and hydrophobic. Soap is a surfactant, having hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. Water also has surface tension because of hydrogen bonds. Capillary action is the ability for water to rise in narrow tubes. When water evaporates it takes heat with it, 25x faster than air. Ice is less dense than water. Salt melts ice because it gets in the way of ice forming regular bonds. hardwater= positive ions soft water= too few ions. Molecules of life: + + Water molecules split into H and OH. pH measures this. Neutral pH=7. Greater H =lower pH (acidic), lower the H = higher pH (basic). Most fluids in your body are slightly basic(7.37.5). + Acid gives away H hypoventilation causes respiratory acidosis, acidic blood. Acid test is used to test gold. Hydrofluoric acid can cause deadly delayed reaction. + Bases accept hydrogen ions(H ) Hyperventilation is when you breath to rapidly and your blood turns basic. Tetany is low CO . 2cids and bases burn you by breaking down molecules in cell membrane cells fall apart. + Salts are ions that release things other than H in water. Carbon is an important biological element because it can form up to 4 bonds. A functional group are atoms or molecules that are covalently bonded to carbon. Alcohol is a hydroxyl group Oh that is attached to saturated carbons. An organic molecule is a molecule that contains at least one hydrogen and carbon atoms. Carbohydrates are sugars, polar, hydrophilic, and common. S imple sugars monosaccharides preferred fuel. Short chain sugars are also called disaccharides or oligosaccharides. Long chain sugars are complex carbohydrates. Cellulose makes plant walls indigestible. Starch stores the glucose they create. Glycogen stores glucose for animals. Chitin are exoskeletons of insects. These are all glucose chains but the chains are linked differently. Lipids or fats are nonpolar and hydrophobic. Animal fats are solid at room temperature, plant fats are liquid. Fatty acids are sometimes required in diet because the human body can not make them. Saturated fatty acids are carbons that are all joined by single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen. Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds between some of the carbons. Triglycerides are most common and have lots of energy. Fats have twice as much energy as sugars. Phospholipids are main components of cell membranes cholesterols can be molded into many important biological molecules. Nucleotides have one sugar, on phosphate, and one nitrogen base. Proteins are made from amino acids and there are over 20 amino acids. L ysozyme is an amino acid that kills bacteria. The Cell: The oldest fossils are 3.5 byo and these fossils are like cyanobacteria. The properties for life are capacity for metabolism (chemical reactions to get and use energy), response to the environment, growth, and self reproduction. All cells have a plasma or cell membrane made of phospholipids bilayer hydrophilic outside hydrophobic inside. All cells also have DNA, RNA, Ribosomes and cytoplasm. Prokaryotes are single celled and include archaea and bacteria. They have no nucleus, the DNA is circular, they have plasmids which share DNA, and they have a cell wall and cell membrane. Eukaryotes include plants, animals, fungi, and protists. 1.5 bya a bacterial cell entered an archean cell, this promoted a nucleus to be formed around DNA to protect it from the chemical reactions. Then a second bacterial cell moved into and achaean cell and created chloroplast.We know this because mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA that is circular and had the same genetic code as bacteria. Eukaryotic cells are more complex can be single celled or multicellular with linear DNA in a nucleus. They also have an endomembrane system,organelles, and cytoplasts. Colonial cells are single celled, multicellular are multiple cell Endoplasmic reticulums assembles proteins and lipids. Golgi bodies transport things out of the cell. Vesicles are sacs off of.Lysosomes digest things inside the cell. Vacuoles store food and water inside cell Peroxisomes detoxify alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Cytoskeletons give cells their shape and help move things within the cell. Microtubules move chromosomes during cell division. Kinesis moves chloroplasts in plants. Flagella long tail for movement. Cilia tiny hairs for movement How cells work: Energy is the capacity to do work and energy can not be created or destroyed. Life’s main source of energy is the sun. ATP(adenosine triphosphate) carries energy in cells. ATP transfers energy by giving away its third phosphate becoming ADP. Redox reactions is the transfer of electrons from molecules like oxidation. A molecule is oxidized if it gives up electrons and reduced if it gains electrons. A metabolic pathway is an enzyme controlled sequence of chemical reactions. Anabolic requires energy and catabolic releases energy. Enzymes are made out of proteins. Substrates are molecules that bind to enzymes, active site is the location that it binds, and activation energy is the energy needed to make something happen. Enzymes are important because they make chemical reactions faster, can be reused, and they lower activation energy. Cofactors help enzymes work. Environmental factors can prevent enzymes from working, Allosteric activation or inhibition can change the shape of the active site to block or allow a reaction. Feedback inhibition is when a product becomes too common. A solvent is something that dissolves something else, a solute is dissolved by the solvent, and the solution is them combined. Diffusion is when a solute disperses, and osmosis is when a solvent(water) disperses. The concentration, size, and temperature affect how fast diffusion and osmosis occurs. Reverse osmosis purifies water by forcing it through a membrane to filter out contaminants. The surface area to volume ratio of cells gets smaller as a cell gets bigger, if a cell get too big its surface area can not handle the volume of the cell and resources cannot be moved. Hydrophobic molecules can pass through the cell membrane, and hydrophilic cannot. Passive transport does not require energy, active transport does. Exocytosis is moving something outside the cell endocytosis is moving something inside, and phagocytosis is cell eating.
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