Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 301
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by YASH Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 301 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Megan Gamble in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Bio 301 Chapters 1113 Chapter 11: • Population # of individuals of the same species within a given area • Biological Species Concept: • Capable of successful reproduction o Formation of viable offspring (ex female horse + male donkey = mule) • Population Distributions geographic area varies based on the type of organism. • Population size # of individuals • Population structure density/spacing, age (cohort) • Spatial structure pattern of density/spacing • Fundamental niche range of abiotic conditions under which an organism is capable of surviving. • Realized niche (smaller) range of abiotic and biotic factors under which an organism is capable of surviving. • Population Distributions: • Geographic range All the area where an organism lives throughout their life o Cosmopolitan Organisms found globally o Abundance total # of individuals in a defined area o Density o Dispersions spacing of individuals: ▪ Clustered • Resources are driving factor ▪ Evenly Spaced • Competition is driving factor ▪ Random • True randomness is applied only after statistical analysis • Neither competition or resources are a driving factor o Dispersal movement of individuals from one location to another ▪ Migration Seasonal movement following resources or just going to a specific area ▪ Dispersal can also mean never returning from where they came ▪ Dispersal Limitation Limited to movement • Usually blocked by barriers like mountains • Temperature/pH • Availability of food • Habitat corridors favors the movement of individuals • Patchy can be a high or low quality environmIdeal free distribution equal per capita benefit • 3 Models of Spatial Structure: Subpopulation larger population is broken up into smaller groups 1. Basic metapopulation large group of individuals of the same species that have the ability to interact w/ one another 2. Source sink metapopulation High quality habitat serves as source for individuals immigrating to low quality habitats that act as sinks 3. Landscape metapopulation Movement between source and sink is limited by landscape 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Chapter 12: Discrete time model: uses a bin of time (yearannual). What is the change in the # of individuals during that time? o seasonal bteeders o Nt=N o N=¿∈population ▪ λ=growthrate ▪ • λshould alwaysbe>0 0<λ<1,PopulationDecreasing • λ=1,Constant population¿¿ • • λ>1,PopulationIncreasing ▪ t=time Continuous time model continuous with time (dayday). Change in the # of individuals over time, no seasonal pattern to reproduction o growth rate Nt=N o rt o N =Initial population ▪ o ▪ t=time ▪ r=growth rate • r=0, Constant • r<0, Reducing • r>0, Increasing ▪ r≠λ r • λ=e • logeλ=r dN =rN o dt ▪ Change in number of individuals over time ▪ dN=change in population ▪ dt=change in time ▪ rN=population growth rate ▪ Expanded version dN=rN(1− N ) • dt k o k=carrying capacity Density dependent factor: limit growth due to crowding o Space/shelter o Resources/food o Disease/parasites o Predation o Negative Density o Negative Density Dependence ▪ Density up, r down ▪ Vice versa o Positive Density Dependence ▪ Density down, r down ▪ Vice versa Density independent factors: reduces # of individuals but does not have to do with how many individuals are present. o Temperature o Precipitation o Catastrophic events Life table: can look at a population by different groups o Nx # of individuals in each age groups o sx survival rate @ each age group o NxSx # of surviving individuals to the next age group o o BX # of births (Fecundity) o NxSxBx # of new offspring produced o Census o Lx survivorship Figure 1219, Survivorship Curve o Type I ▪ Low fecundity (few offspring) ▪ Long lived, mature late ▪ Need a lot of parental care ▪ Humans, Elephants o Type II ▪ Moderate fecundity ▪ Moderate lifespan ▪ Moderate parental care ▪ Deer, Rodents o Type III ▪ High fecundity ▪ Generally shortlived ▪ Little parental care ▪ Insects, Sea Turtles Chapter 13: Figure 131, 133 Time Lag o Lag to next mating season o Lag due to gestation o Lag for rearing/weaning o Lag for maturation dN N t−τ =rN (1− ) dt k rτ<0.37=no oscillation o o 0.37<rτ<1.57=damped oscillation rτ>1.57=limit cycles o o Figure 1310 Metapopulations o Small populations have a greater change to go extinct o Habitat fragmentation increases change of extinction Deterministic MModel o No random variation o Everything we’ve seen so far falls under this Stochastic Model o Implement random variation o Democratic or Environmental Stochasticity 1315 Model of Metapopulation Dynamics dp dt=cp 1−p )−ep o Used for basic metapopulation Does not take into account quality or routes Very simple cp(1p)=colonization rate ep=extinction rate If these are equal, there is no change in the population dp o dt=p=0 o Simplified version e ^p=1− c p=occupied patches e=extinction o e>c, less occupied patches, going to extinction c=colonization o c>e, more occupied patches, growing population 13181321
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