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American Political Science Exam One Study Guide

by: Lindsey Notetaker

American Political Science Exam One Study Guide PSC 101

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > PSC 101 > American Political Science Exam One Study Guide
Lindsey Notetaker

GPA 3.585

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for the study guide, I am putting a master copy of the vocabulary words from each of the chapters that could be on the test and then key concepts that the teacher mentioned and that are in the book...
Intro American Politics
Study Guide
Politics, american, federalism, american constituiton
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 101 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
American Political Science Exam One Study Guide Note: for the study guide, I am putting a master copy of the vocabulary words from each of the  chapters that could be on the test and then key concepts that the teacher mentioned and that are in the book that would be smart to know.  Master Vocabulary Words Chapter 1: American Political Culture  Government: institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are  ruled   Politics: conflicts over the leadership, structure, and policies of government   Politic    Efficacy: the ability to influence government and politics   Citizenship: informed and active membership in a political community   Autocracy: a form of government in which a single individual­a king, queen, or dictator­  rules   Oligarchy: a form of government in which a small group­landowners, military officers,  or wealthy merchants­ control most of the governing decisions   Democracy: a system of rules that permits citizens to play a significant part in the  governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials   Constitutiona    Government: a system of rule in which formal and effective limits are  placed on the powers of the government   Authoritarian    Government: a system of rule in which the government recognizes no  formal limits but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions    Totalitaria    Government: a system of rule in which the government recognizes no  formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that  might challenge it  Power: influence over a government’s leadership, organization, or politics  Representative Democracy (Republic): a system of government in which the populace  selects representatives, who play a significant rule in governmental decision making   Direct Democracy: a system of rule that permits citizenships to vote directly on laws and policies   Political Culture: broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how the  government should function. American political culture emphasizes the values of liberty,  equality, and democracy   Liberty: freedom from governmental control Page 1 of 7 American Political Science Exam One Study Guide  Limited Government: a principle of constitutional government; a government whose  powers and limited by a constitution   Laissez­faire Capitalism: an economic system in which the means of production and  distribution are privately owned and operated for profits with minimal or no government  interference   Equality of Opportunity: a widely shared American ideal that all people should have  the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential   Political Equality: the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle “one  person, one vote”   Popular Sovereignty: a principle of democracy in which political authority rest  ultimately in the hands of the people  Majority Rule, Minority Rights: the democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority but protects the interests of the minority  Chapter 2: The Founding and the Constitution     Articles of Confederation: America’s first written constitution; served at the basis or  America’s national government until 1789     Confederation: a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government         Virginia Plan: a framework for the constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, that  called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state     New Jersey Plan: a framework for the constitution, introduced by William Paterson, that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population      Great Compromise: the agreement reached at the constitutional convention of 1787 that  gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked  representation in the house of representative to population      Three­fifths Compromise: the agreement reached at the constitutional convention of  1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the appointment of congressional seats, every  slave would be counted as three­fifths of a person     Checks and Balances: mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to  participate in and influence the activities of the other branches; major examples include  Page 2 of 7 American Political Science Exam One Study Guide the presidential veto power over congressional legislation, the power of the senate to  approve presidential appointments, and judicial review of congressional enactments     Electoral College: the electors from each state who meet after the popular elections to  cast ballots for presidents and vice president     Bill of Rights: the first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1791; they  ensure certain rights and liberties to the people      Separation of Power: the division of governmental power is divided, by several  institutions that must cooperate in decision making      Federalism: a system of government in which power is divided, by constitution.  Between a central government and regional government     Expressed Powers: specific powers granted by the constitution to Congress (Article I,  Section 8) and to the president (Article II)     Elastic Clause: Article I, Section 8, of the constitution (also known as the necessary and  proper clause), which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry them out  Bicameral: having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses;  distinguished from unicameral  Judicial Review: the power of the courts to review, and if necessary, declare actions of  the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional; the supreme court  asserted this power in Marbury v Madison (1803)   Supremacy Clause: Article VI of the constitution, which states that laws passed by the  national government and all treaties are supreme law of the land and supreme law of the  land and superior to all laws adopted by any states or any subdivision  Federalist: those who favored a strong national government and supported the  constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787  Antifederalist: those who favored a strong state government and weak national  government, and who were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American  Constitutional Convention of 1787  Federalist Papers: a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison,  and John Jay supporting ratification of the Constitution   Tyranny: oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and  authority  Page 3 of 7 American Political Science Exam One Study Guide   Limited Government: a principle of constitutional government; a government whose  powers are defined and limited by the constitution   Amendment: a change added to a bill, law, or constitution  Chapter 3: Federalism      Federalism: a system of government in which power in divided, by a constitution,  between a central government and regional government      Unitary System: a centralized government system in which lower levels of government  have little power independent of the national government       Expressed Powers: specific powers granted by the constitution to congress (Article I,  Section 8) and the president (Article II)      Implied Powers: powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I,  Section 8, of the constitution; such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied  through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers      Necessary and Proper Clause: Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which provides  congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out its  expressed powers       Reserved Powers: powers, derived from the 10  amendment to the constitution, that are  not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states      Police Power: power reserved to the states government to regulate the health, safety, and  morals of its citizens       Concurrent Powers: authority possessed by both state and national governments, such  power to levy taxes       Full Faith and Credit Clause: provision from Article IV, Section 1, of the constitution,  requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take  place in another state        Privileges and Immunities Clause: provision, from Article IV, Section 2, of the  constitution, that a state can’t discriminate against someone from another state or give its  own residents special privileges       Home Rule: power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its  own affairs Page 4 of7 American Political Science Exam One Study Guide      Dual Federalism: the system of government that prevailed in the United States from  1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the  federal and state governments      Commerce Clause: Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which delegates to congress  the power “to regulate with foreign nations, and among several states and with the Indian  tribes”; this clause was interpreted by the supreme court in favor of National power over  the economy       States’ Rights: the principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the  national government; this principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War       Grants­in­aid: programs through which congress provides money to state and local  governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the  federal government      Categorical Grants: congressional grants given to state and localities on the condition  that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law      Project Grants: grant programs in which state and local governments submit proposals  to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a completive basis       Formula Grants: grants­in­aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of  federal funds a state or local government will receive       Cooperative Federalism: a type of federalism existing since the New Deal Era in which  grants­in­aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without  commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals; also known as intergovernmental  cooperation       Regulated Federalism: a form of federalism in which congress imposes legislation on  states and localities, requiring them to meet national standards       Preemption: the principle that allows the national government to override state or local  actions in certain policy areas; in foreign policy, the willingness to strike first in order to  prevent an enemy attack      Unfunded Mandate: regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose cost on  state and local government for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government       Devotion: policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or  passing it down to a lower level of government, such as national government to state or  local government  Page 5 of 7 American Political Science Exam One Study Guide      Block Grants: federal grants­in­aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the  funds are spent       New Federalism: attempts by president Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states  through block grants      General Revenue Sharing: the process by which one unit of government yields a  portion of its tax income to another unit of government, according to an established  formula; revenue sharing typically involves the national government providing money to  state governments      Redistributive Programs: economic policies designed to control the economy through  taxing and spending, with the goal of benefiting the poor  Key Concepts Chapter 1: American Political Culture  The difference between government and politics   The different types of governments   The difference between majority and plurality  The difference between elite theory and pluralist theory of government   Voter turnout and political involvement within a community   America’s three main core values of a democracy  Chapter 2: The Founding and the Constitution  How were the colonies divided   How did the constitution come to be  o Annapolis Convention o Shays Rebellion  o Revolutionary War   What was the Great Compromise   Difference between proper/elastic clause and the privileges and immunities clause  Most common way for an amendment to be passed   Federalist vs. Antifederalist  Powers of the three branches of government  o Legislative o Executive o Judicial  Checks and balances  o What do each of the branches have over the others  Page 6 of 7 American Political Science Exam One Study Guide Chapter 3: Federalism  Difference between a federalism system and a unitary system  Difference between expressed and implied powers of the government   How the strength of the national and state government has changed over years   Powers of the state, local, and national government   Important court cases  o Loving v. Virginia (1967)  o Windsor v. the United States (2013) o McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) o Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) o United States v. Lopez (1995) o Printz v. United States (1997)  Different types of federalism  o Dual federalism o Cooperative federalism  o Regulated federalism  o New federalism  Different types of grants  o Grants in aid o Categorical grants o Project grants  o Formula grants  o Block grants  o Unfunded mandates  Page 7 of7


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