Architecture 5120 Final Exam Study Guide
Architecture 5120 Final Exam Study Guide arch 5120
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisa on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to arch 5120 at Ohio State University taught by Jacqueline Gargus in Spring 2017. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
name/architect date/location info Glass House 1950 designed by Philip Johnson as his own Philip Johnson New canaan, residence, and "universally viewed as having been derived from" the arnsworth House CT design Dymaxion House 1930 Wanted to make something efficient Richard Buckminister project and easily built Fuller lightweight Geodesic Domes 1950 Unbuilt version of US pavilion Richard Buckminister project Fuller US Pavilion 1960 Richard Buckminister Montreal, Fuller Canada Orphanage 1960 Matbuilding Aldo van Eyck Amsterdam Figurevoid Megastructure Breaks up the building into small homesized spaces (makes sense for an orphanage) A Team Ten building very aware of the fact that social organization happens at different scales Boa Nova Tea House 1960 Alvaro Siza Leca da Palmeira critical regionalism Plugin City 1960 Students at the AA in london put Archigram project together comic books with architecture. Cultural critics and came up with some fabulous projects where they thought about megastructure but not as metabolists did (as static tree trunks off of which stuff grew) but stuff that was dynamic. Walking City 1960 Idea of city that can move around. Archigram project Really radical groovy ideas Straight from a Team 10 playbook full of Pruitt Igoe Housing 1960 Minoru Yamasaki St. Louis, little spaces where people can meet new MO people...or thugs can hide. All the ambitions on how to logically live in a city went entirely against what people actually did. End of modernism architecture has to do more a large urban housing project first occupied in 1954 in the U.S. city of St. Louis, Missouri. Living conditions in Pruitt–Igoe began to decline soon after its completion in 1956. By the late 1960s, the complex had become internationally infamous for its poverty, crime, and segregation. Its 33 buildings were demolished with explosives 4in the mid1970s, and the project has become an icon of urban renewal and publicpolicy planning failure. World Trade Center 1960 Minoru Yamasaki NYC Habitat 67 1960 Megastructure, module, stacked up. Moshe Safdie Montreal Looks at cavedwellings, hilltowns, communities, etc. “Habitat” a team 10 word, tries to reinvent mass housing, take advantage of prefabrication and create something more. Worked for Louis Kahn Scale is very communityappropriate. Works better than Robinhood Gardens, b/c it breaks down a huge group (robinhood gardens was so massive/hostile that people felt no safety/comfort) San Cataldo 1970 Cemetery Modena, Italy Aldo Rossi little cemetery/tomb community. Boxes for bodies with a little box for flowers by it, quite sweet. Teatrino del Mondo 1970 Doesn’t like modernism b/c it makes all Aldo Rossi Venice, Italy cities look the same. He wanted to connect cities to memories, diversify them. Little thing that floated around the Adriatic for 1.5yrs and then it sank. Not even trying to look modernist, not telling jokes either… just being cute. Olympic Park 1970 Lightweight tensile and membrane Frei Otto & Gunter Munich, structures Behnisch Germany Interested in bubbl thin, contains large volume, flexible and deformable Large posts supporting a netting much more democratic, equalizing system than (ex. 1936 Hitler’s olympics) similar to experiments conducted by buckminister fuller hyperbolic parabloids, catenaries of cables, lots of hung surfaces… kind of similar to Gaudi, who also hung things. Carlo Scarpa, was an Italian architect, Brion Vega Cemetery 1970 influenced by the materials, landscape, and Carlo Scarpa San Vito d’Altivole, the history of Venetian culture, and Italy Querini Stampalia 1970 Foundation Venice, Italy Carlo Scarpa Fun Palace Project 1970 Client Joan Littlewood, experimental Cedric Price London theater director. Openscaffolding megastructural theater design that promotes Joan’s idea of having the audience participate. Transforms into different theater environments ex. Blackbox, many things can go on at the same time. Nonhegemonic, nondictatorial, allows everyone entering to have their own fun Piazza d’Italia 1970 Charles Moore New Orleans desire to create a public space and center, urban renewal thing Fire Station #4 1970 Emphatically flat, all about being a Robert Venturi Columbus, billboard that’s telling you what it is Indiana **venturi had a beauxarts education and is deeply rooted in typology Football Hall of Fame 1970 Decorative shed Robert Venturi New Brunswick, NJ Vanna Venturi House 1970 Again, emphatically flat billboard telling Robert Venturi Chestnut Hill, you what it is (a house). Like an PA emphasized, kiddrawn house. Little green house with a little chimney. Layers of the building front splits like pylons *very complex building, w/ contradiction! Nesting in plan. Box, carving in box creates exterior patio. Spaces created by subtraction, not addition Boston City Hall 1970 Very similar to mvdr’s Crown Hall at IIT and La Kallman, McKinnell, Boston, MA Tourette by Le Corb. Knowles Tough building, indifferent to scale of boston (modest, masonry buildings)\ *also designed Fisher at OSU….. Open site, where it’s situated facing the plaza Less about space, more about mass. Steel + concrete. Less about lightness, more about heaviness. Thick joints. Megacity Project 1970 Kenzo Tange project Nakagin Capsule 1970 Metabolism architecture Tower Tokyo, Japan Idea of organic growth Kisho Kurakawa Megastructure idea is that you have 2 cores (elevators and stairs) that become armatures that capsules plug into. Minimal existence dwelling, everything is as small as possible Continuous 1970 Extreme idea of transportation system Monument project that connects all large cities. Pretty Superstudio dystopian, total urbanization. observes modernism and comments on it being an intellectual dead end. Everything’s become boxy and hemogenous History Library 1970 Part of “The Red Trilogy” shift of James Stirling Cambridge, materiality from raw beton brut to red UK concrete and red tile makes these buildings look more polished, and welldesigned Great looking building, but environmentally horrible giant class area heats up like a greenhouse b/c no ventilation was put in. Heroic idea for buildings ramps up sculptural value of brutalist palette Leicester Engineering 1970 Research tower, laboratory space, Building Leicester, UK auditorium, office space program James Stirling needs to be connected but still distinct. Sculptural value in result. Codifies each space by its form. Creates space in research laboratories with lights, kind of like interior effect of crystal palace. Very mechanical how do you go upstairs? Put people in glass tubes, codify how they move. Staatsgalerie 1980 Promenade to get to the gallery James Stirling Stuttgart, fortuna primagenia Germany Square with circle in it reminiscent plan of altesmuseum (also german!) Portland Building 1980 Michael Graves Portland, Oregon Hong Kong & 1980 Shanghai Bank Hong Kong (HSBC) Norman Foster similar to pompidou center thickened framed system with a space in the middle. Hong kong’s so dense that there’s scarce open space. Building is lifted up to maintain that open space. AT&T Building 1980 Quite ugly Philip Johnson NYC Museum of 1980 Decorative Arts Frankfurt, Richard Meier Germany Douglas House 1980 Richard Meier Douglas, Michigan Hymn to plumbing and ductwork as well as Centre Pompidou 1980 Piano & Rogers Paris, France megastructure. Many different things going on. Exposes the internal systems, structures (megastructure!) of the building. codified tubes landscape in front slopes down so people sit facing the building rogers interested in the “look” of mechanical systems; piano is interested by the actual systems, ends up designing lots of environmentallyinnovative buildings Beyeler Foundation 1990 Renzo Piano Riehen, Switzerland “Miesian game” Expressed columnar grid, truss hangs over that, lowerlevel courtyard (water retention basins), environmentally conscious...engaged with the garden, exterior landscape becomes part of the building sit and observe exhibits, glazing.. Use of light reminiscent of Kahn in Kimbell Museum Gehry House 1990 Used very industriallooking and Frank Gehry Santa lowquality materials...corrugated steel, Monica, CA materials that were investigated as the “secret life of the house” (interior guts get exposed). Windows are similar to Venturi’s Mother’s house. Peels away cladding in some areas to reveal wooden frame, introduces a giant fallen cube invading the kitchen roof (interior effect/lighting is great) Guggenheim 1990 Bilbao was deteriorating as a city, so Museum Bilbao, Spain they decided they needed a museum Frank Gehry built by “the bestest architect in the world”. Very sitespecific curves authorized by curve of riber, light is metallic/reflective, like water. Is “simultaneously distinctive and ordinary” Vitra Museum 1990 Moving into more abstract language. Frank Gehry WeilamRhe It’s a box, it’s white *in conversation in with NY 5 style* Fred and Ginger 1990 There’s a dance between the 2 building Prague, buildings, cute. Frank Gehry Czech Fits into rhythm of buildings on both sides (pastel colors, punch windows. Becomes more agitated at the corner and brings the building into the context, but it doesn’t feel foreign. 2 towers at the corner similar to Baroque idea of having a tower at the corner) Jewish Museum 1990 Daniel Libeskind Berlin Makes an uncomfortable, painful space. Symbology of jewish star, 6 vertices. Slices, and cuts. Deeply interested in architecture holding meaning. Axes of different train lines. Le Fresnoy Art 1990 Center Roubaix, Bernard Tschumi France art center. Existing series of factory buildings. Built a giant roof over the factories created a space between existing roofs and new structure becomes terrain for eventstructure Parc de la Villette 1990 Overlaid landscape with follies and Bernard Tschumi Paris then paths deconstructivist (red color, articulation of pieces and structure) To some, the park has little concern with the human scale of park functions and the vast open space seem to challenge the expectation that visitors may have of an urban park. Bernard Tschumi designed the Parc de la Villette with the intention of creating a space that exists in a vacuum, something without historical precedent Nonhierarchical architecture Tschumi makes a bunch of small things, equal importance. Designed some follies, let other architects do some more… Uses derive, multiple paths Red in honor of socialist president Takes the idea of monument and spreading it out over a field, disperses it. Ohio Convention 1990 Deconstructivist style Center Columbus, Peter Eisenman OH Wexner Center 1990 One of the first built works in the Peter Eisenman Columbus, deconstructivist style. Overlaid grid and Ohio splintering paths. Used to be an armory so tries to preserve some of that history. 1 jeffersonian grid of OSU 2 grid of high st., extends from columbus and addresses historical cladding Landscape is a palimpsest (medieval parchment that had many layers of faded writing ie. layers of history/memory) Aronoff Center 2000 Peter Eisenman Cincinnati, OH Project for the Peak 1990 Deconstructivist makes you want to Zaha Hadid Hong Kong read into it and understand it as something that has been deconstructed Phaeno Science 2000 Takes advantage of new technology Center Wolfsburg, forms would be impossible to draw with Zaha Hadid Germany conventional techniques. The curvilinear version of Frank Gehry. uses selfcompacting concrete, incredibly smooth. Guangzhou Opera 2000 More complex curving forms, extension House Guangzhou, of landscape Zaha Hadid China “2 pebbles in a stream” shaped plan Rosenthal Center for 2000 black/white, like figure/void, cut out Contemporary Arts Cincinnati, piece in the middle Zaha Hadid OH Vitra Fire Station 2000 Influence of Russian Deconstructivism Zaha Hadid Weilamrhei is apparent n, Germany Bruder Klaus Chapel 2000 Very dramatic church, light on the Peter Zumthor Wachendorf, inside is ethereal Germany The unique roofing surface of the interior is balanced by a floor of frozen molten lead. Gaze is pulled up by way of obvious directionality, to the point where the roof is open to the sky and night stars. This controls the weather of the chapel, as ran and sunlight both penetrate the opening and create an ambience or experience very specific to the time of day and year. Vals Thermal Baths 2000 The idea was to create a form of cave or Peter Zumthor Vals, quarry like structure. Working with the Switzerland natural surroundings the bath rooms lay below a grass roof structure half buried into the hillside. The Therme Vals is built from layer upon layer of locally quarried Valser Quarzite slabs. This stone became the driving inspiration for the design, and is used with great dignity and respect. figure void, public/private, sensory experience. This space was designed for visitors to luxuriate and rediscover the ancient benefits of bathing. The combinations of light and shade, open and enclosed spaces and linear elements make for a highly sensuous and restorative experience. The Brandenburg 2000 Glazed glass windows filters the light Technical University Cottbus, coming through, much like bris soleil in Library Germany effect but not with the thickness. Good Herzog & de Meuron for protecting the books. :D Eberswalde Library 2000 Different layers of material. Like the Herzog & de Meuron Eberswalde, miesien box but stacks glass and Germany marble and disguises joints so it’s very mystical how are the layers held up?? Neth. Inst. for Sound 2000 The work of Neutelings Riedijk Architects and Vision Hilbersum has been characterized as having a Neutlings Riedijk sculptural, often anthropomorphic quality and a playfulness of form while following a clear rationality in programming and context. Their use of familiar forms and materials grounds the strangeness and baroque involutions that give the works a distinct identity and power. Because of the public nature of most of their work, Neutelings Riedijk see the sculptural quality as a way to communicate the building's role within its urban or social conte t Shipping and 2000 Educational establishment housing classrooms, offices, workshops and parking. Transport College Rotterdam Neutlings Riedijk Mountain Dwellings 2000 Looks like a mountain. BIG Orestad, Copenhagen VM Houses 2000 BIG & JDS Orestad, Copenhagen plan looks like V and M 8 House 2000 Plan looks like 8 BIG Orestad, Copenhagen Carabanchel Housing 2000 Foreign Office Architects, married FOA Madrid, couple, now divorced… architect life.. Spain Modest, modern, housing Elevation is constantly changing people constantly opening/closing shutters. No single person defining what elevation should look like. Nice. F Southeast Coastal 2000 Threads of little tiles that twist and peel, Park Barcelona and move with the landscape FOA Like a dune, constantly shifting, constantly changing. Yokohama Port 2000 Terminal Yokohama, FOA Japan Flowing landscape, sculpted into the ground. Best known project by FOA. similar strategy of using threads to twist/twirl into something that is both ground and building Dutch Pavilion 2000 Netherlands was really into design and MVRDV hannover sustainability in this era, really have their own style. Hagen Island 2000 Different from other projects kind of Housing The hague these are very uniform, pretty bland. MVRDV Takes advantage of the fact that these are silly houses, displays them like a gameboard. Less garden per individual house than per collective use. Different scales each house has a minihouse, results in sense of density that’s not actually there. Emphasizes repetition of suburb *small repeated pieces creating a whole is MVRDV’s main thing Materials red terracotta tile, plastic green house w/ vines, blue house (water), white house/black house. coded. Mirador Housing 2000 Huge, flipped vertical palazzo, kind of MVRDV madrid like CCTV building Silodam Housing 2000 Similar to unite d’habitation. Colorful, MVRDV Amsterdam roof area, piloti underneath. Looks like a bunch of cargo containers stacked together each piece is different, becomes a bridge where the water breaks through. Another exercise in superdensity while acknowledging the individual WoZoCo Housing 2000 They need density so they start MVRDV Amsterdam cantilevering. 2 strategies of cantilevering on street side, massive blocks are extruded, on the other side, small capsules are extruded. Critique of horizontal space flipped to be vertical. Very dutch acknowledgment of the individual, colorful, marking of individual within the collective. Mercedes Benz 2000 Museum Stuttgart, UN Studio Germany Mobius House 2000 Like 2 pieces twisted together UN Studio Het Gooi, Continuous Netherlands Casa da Musica 2000 Hadid, Gehry, Himmelblau are interested in OMA/ Rem Koolhaas Porto, making cool forms, not really in portugal symbolism/etc. Eisenman and Libeskind interested in symbolism, reading architecture. Tschumi + Koolhaaas, interesed in architecture commentary, in society Faces city, window seems to open up to the courtyard. Like a meteor that landed on the site Critique on concert hall culture not the most fancy, elegant, highclass thing. Democratizes secret space of concert hall with giant window transparent shaft that runs thru the entire building. Concerts are open, participating in life of city. CCTV Headquarters 2000 Question of how architects deal with OMA/ Rem Koolhaas Beijing power. Client cctv designs security cameras. Like a vertical palazzo, curtain wall covers the entire thing. Allows you to see through it. Reformation of idea of skyscraper. Dutch Embassy 2000 Figurevoid in fenestration, space OMA/ Rem Koolhaas Berlin created by subtraction Simple, yet complex Interesting site zoning required architect to touch each corner of the site. Koolhaas conceives of it as 2 parts. Boomerang bar housing office space, and ideal object housing embassy. Space in between House in Bordeaux 2000 Client was injured, had to be OMA/ Rem Koolhaas Bordeaux wheelchair accommodated. Elevator shaft organizes house. Upper building (hovering above) and lower building (stuck in the ground). Looking at modernism. Seattle Public Library 2000 Spiral for books OMA/ Rem Koolhaas Seattle, WA Transforms the building into something integral to the community Inspired by japanese pornography and fishnet tights… oh no…... Circulation and infrastructure drives form Villa dall’Ava 2000 Quoting architecture from the 1950s OMA/ Rem Koolhaas St. Cloud, looks a lot like villa savoye (ribbon France window, piloti) but everything’s out of wack. Corrugated metal instead of pure white stuff; piloti are crooked. Wonderful interior as 2 buildings pull apart from each other, creates gardens and diverse spaces Time period groupings of architects based on location USA and CANADA ELSEWHERE 1930 1950 None ● Philip Johnson ○ Glass House (New Canaan, CT, 1950) ● Richard Buckminister Fuller 1. Dymaxion House (1930) 2. Geodesic Domes (1950) 1960 1960 ● Richard Buckminister Fuller ● Aldo van Eyck 3. US Pavilion (Montreal) ○ Orphanage (Amsterdam) ● Minoru Yamasaki ● Alvaro Siza 1. Pruitt Igoe Housing (St. Louis, Missouri) ○ Boa Nova Tea House (Leca de Palmeira) 2. Twin Towers (NYC) ● Archigram (projects) ● Moshe Safdie 1. PlugIn City ○ Habitat 67 (Montreal) 2. Walking City 1970 1970 ● Charles Moore ● Aldo Rossi ○ Piazza d’Italia (New Orleans) 1. San Cataldo Cemetery (Modena, Italy) ● Kallman, McKinnell, Knowles 2. Teatrino del Mondo (Venice, Italy) ○ Boston City Hall (Boston, MA) ● Carlo Scarpa ● Robert Venturi 1. Brion Vega Cemetery (San Vito d’Altivole, Italy) 1. Fire Station #4 (Columbus, Indiana) 2. Querini Stampalia Foundation (Venice) 2. Football Hall of Fame (New Brunswick, NJ) ● Cedric Price 3. Vanna Venturi House (Chestnut Hill, PA) ○ Fun Palace (project, London) ● Frei Otto & Gunter Behnisch ○ Olympic Park (Munich) ● Kisho Kurakawa ○ Nakagin Capsule Tower (Tokyo) ● Kenzo Tange ○ Megacity Project ● Superstudio ○ Continuous Movement (project) ● James Stirling 1. History Library (Cambridge, UK) 2. Leicester Engineering Building (Leicester, UK) 1980 1980 ● Michael Graves Portland Building (Portland, ● James Stirling Oregon)
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