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UA / Biology / BSC 108 / Every organism interacts with what?

Every organism interacts with what?

Every organism interacts with what?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Intro to Biology Non-Maj
Professor: Yates
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: BSC 108 Comprehensive Test 1 Study Guide
Description: These are all of the notes for test 1
Uploaded: 09/11/2016
13 Pages 10 Views 2 Unlocks
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BSC 108 Comprehensive Study Guide Test 1


Every organism interacts with what?



∙ Living

o They have order

o They regulate themselves

 Homeostasis

∙ Maintaining a steady state

o Growth and Development

o They use Energy

o Response to Environment

o Reproduce

o Evolve  

∙ Non-Living

o Non-use of energy

Theme 1: The Scope of Life and Emergent Properties

∙ Life Consists of Vertical Hierarchy

Theme 2: Organisms Exchange Matter and Energy within Ecosystems  

∙ Every organism interacts with it’s environment

o Both are affected

 Ex. Plants use CO2 to make food


What is the basic unit of an organism?



∙ All O2 in the atmosphere comes from  

photosynthesis

o Nutrients are recycled

o Energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers

 Energy exists as heat

Theme 3: Cells are an Organisms Basic Unit

∙ Cells are the lowest level of organization that can preform all the  activities of life.

∙ All Cells…

o Are enclosed in membranes

Theme 4: The continuity of Life is Based on the Information in DNA If you want to learn more check out What is introducing a harmful or poisonous chemical or substance to an environment?

∙ Chromosomes contain most of a cell’s genetic material in the form of  DNA

∙ DNA is a substance of genes

∙ Genes are the units of inheritance that transmit information from  parents to offspring


Dna is a substance of what?



Theme 5: Diversity is the Hallmark of Life and the diverse forms of life fit  their functions

∙ There are 3 main groups of life

o Domains

 Eukarya

 Bacteria  

 Archae

Theme 6: Evolution

∙ Heritable changes in populations over generations

∙ Biology’s core theme If you want to learn more check out Substances can be what?

o Scientific explanation for both…

 The unity of life

 The Diversity of life

∙ Science latin word meaning “to know”

o A way of knowing  

o A body of knowledge

∙ Types of Science

o Discovery Science

 Describes natural structures and processes

o Hypothesis Based Science

 Hypothesis is an idea that can be tested

∙ If-then Statements

 Observe and Generalize

 Form a hypothesis

 Make a prediction

 Experiment  

 Modify hypothesis or publish

Chapter 2

Elements and Atoms

∙ Element

o A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances  by chemical reactions

o 92 naturally occurring elements

∙ Atom

o The smallest unit of an element that has all it’s properties Element in Organims  Don't forget about the age old question of How to calculate as enthalpy in thermodynamics?

∙ Hydrogen –  

∙ Carbon –  

∙ Nitrogen –

∙ Oxygen –

∙ Phosphorus –

∙ Sulfer –

Others

∙ Sodium –  

∙ Potassium -  

∙ Iron - FE

∙ Magnesium – MG

∙ Calcium -  

∙ Chlorine

Body Composition

∙ Oxygen – 65%

∙ Carbon – 18.5%

∙ Hydrogen  

∙ Trace Elements

o Essential for life

o An Iodine deficiency causes goiter

∙ Fluoride

o Put in public water

o Here has been a sharp decline in tooth decay in the last few  decades

o The fluoride in drinking water illustrates the point that organisms are chemical systems.

∙ Some Elements are harmful to life We also discuss several other topics like What creates adrenaline?

o Cadium

 Found in some children’s toys

 A known carcinogen

o Lead

Atoms

∙ Protons

o Positive Charge

∙ Neutron

o No charge (Neutral)

∙ Electron

o Negatively charged

Characteristics of Atoms

∙ Atomic number, number of protons, determines which element it is ∙ An atoms mass number (often called atomic weight) = the number of  protons plus neutrons.  

∙ In a neutral Atom the number of electrons = the number of protons Isotopes  

∙ Isotopes of an element contain different number of neutrons ∙ Radioactive Isotopes  

o The nucleus decays giving of particles of energy

∙ Radioactive isotopes in Medicine

o PET scan Don't forget about the age old question of What is double jeopardy and when does it apply?

o Alzheimer’s

Energy

∙ Energy is the capacity to do work or make a change in matter ∙ Joining atoms or breaking up molecules takes energy

∙ 2 types of energy

o Potential energy –Stored energy Don't forget about the age old question of How are social and psychological are related to each other?

 Stored in bonds that hold atoms together

o Kinetic Energy – doing work

 When electrons move to a lower energy level, energy is  released

 Kinetic energy is released when bonds that hold atoms  together are broken

Bonds

∙ Ionic Bond

o Attraction between positive and negative ions

 Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons

o 2Na +Cl2  2Na+Cl-

o Reaction  Product 

o Moderate strength

∙ Covalent Bond

o Sharing electrons between atoms

 Ex. Hydrogen and Oxygen = water 

o Single bonds – sharing one pair of electrons

 H-O-H, -C-C-C

o Double Bonds – Sharing 2 pairs of electrons

 -C=C

o Strongest Bonds

∙ Hydrogen Bond

o Unequal Sharing of Electrons

o With water, electrons of hydrogen spend more time near the  oxygen atoms.

 Bonds between water droplets  

o Weakest Bond

Water and Life

∙ Life on Earth began in water and evolved there for 3 billion years. o Modern life still remains tied to water.

∙ Properties of Water

o High Heat of Vaporization

 As water evaporates, it cools organisms

∙ Sweating, panting, transpiration

o Ice Formation

 When water freezes, it expands & floats due to the  

formation of a crystalline structure.  

 Important to aquatic organisms.  

o Cohesion and Adhesion  

 Cohesion- attraction between like molecules (other water  molecules)

 Adhesion- Attraction between different molecules

o High Polarity

 Water is a polar molecule  

 Unequal Charge Distribution  

 Electrons spend more time around the oxygen than  

Hydrogen  

 Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with one another,  and with other molecules

 Hydrogen bonds are weak, they are constantly broken and  reformed

o Solvent

 Solution

∙ A liquid that is a homogenous mixture of two or more

substances

∙ Ex. Salt water

 Solvent

∙ The dissolving agent of a solution

∙ Ex. Water

 Solute

∙ The substance that is being dissolved

∙ Ex. Salt  

o Water is the primary solvent in cells

 Many of the chemicals and nutrients of an organism are  dissolved  

∙ These make up the cytoplasm of the cells

 Not everything will dissolve in water

 Only those substances that are ionic or polar will dissolve  in water  

∙ Hydrophilic- Water loving (polar)

∙ Hydrophobic- A substance that is nonpolar and will  

not dissolve in water. (oils and fats)

o Water can ionize

 H20  H+ + OH-

∙ (H30+ hydronium ion)

 In pure water [H+] = [OH-]

∙ If [H+] > [OH-], then acid

∙ If [H+] < [OH-], then base

o pH  

 Changes in pH of body fluids can affect

∙ How molecules are transported across membranes

∙ How rapidly chemical reactions take place

∙ Affect the shape of proteins

o Acid Rain

 Rain with pH of less than 7

 SO3 and NO2 dissolve into water to form sulfuric and nitric  acid

 Effects are severe in areas downwind  

 Lowers pH of lakes, streams, soils, thus can kill organisms  directly

 Dissolves toxic metals such as aluminum which  

contaminants water  

 systems killing organisms indirectly.

Chapter 3

The Molecules of Life

∙ Macromolecules  

o Molecules are made by living cells

o 4 classes

 Proteins

 Lipids

 Nucleic Acid

 Carbohydrates

o Cells make carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acid

o Polymers

 A large molecule made from many similar small molecules  called subunits or monomers

∙ Dehydration/Condensation

o Condensation reaction

 A bond forms between to monomers

o Dehydration reaction

 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through  the loss of a water molecule

o Hydrolysis Reaction

 Water breaks the bond and separates it into polymers

 A process whereby polymers are disassembled to  

monomers.

 The reverse of the dehydration reaction.

 Bonds are broken by by the addition of water molecules ∙ Carbohydrates

o Subunits are sugars

o Contains C, H, O in ratio of 1:2:1

o Polymers are polysaccharides  

o Store Energy  

 Animals- glycogen

 Plants- starch

o Functions of sugars (monosaccharides)

 Provide energy

 Structure

o Monosaccharides

 Glucose- sport drinks

 Fructose- found in fruit

o Honey contains both

o Disaccharides

 Two sugars  

∙ Joined by the process of dehydration synthesis

∙ It is constructed from two monosaccharides

 Lactose is another type of disaccharides

∙ Having trouble digesting lactose is lactose  

intolerance 

o Lactase helps to breakdown lactose

 The most common disaccharide is sucrose

∙ Common table sugar

o Glucose linked to a fructose

o Sucrose is extracted from sugar cane and  

sugar beets

o Polysaccharides

 Complex carbohydrates

∙ They are long chains of sugar units

∙ They are polymers of monosaccharides  

o Starch

o Glycogen

o Cellulose

 The most abundant organic compound on

earth

 Major component of wood

 “Dietary fiber”

 Grazing animals survive off of a diet of  

cellulose

o High Fructose Corn Syrup  

 HFCS 55 (mostly used in soft drinks), approximately 55%  fructose and 42% glucose

 HFCS 42 (used in beverages, processed foods, cereals and  baked goods), approximately 42% fructose and 53%  

glucose

 HFCS 90, approximately 90% fructose and 10% glucose, is  used in small quantities for specialty applications, but  

primarily is used to blend with HFCS 42 to make HFCS 55.

∙ Triglycerides

o Composed of two two types of molecules

∙ Function of triglycerides  

o Energy storage

 Higher amount of energy storage than carbohydrates  Insulation of warm-blooded animals

 Cushion internal organs

∙ Fatty acids

o Saturated

 No double bonds; solid; animal 

o Unsaturated

 Contains 1 or more double bonds; liquid; plant 

∙ Phospholipids  

o Similar to neutral fat

o Contain glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and PO4

o Part of molecule associates with water, part does not.

o Phospholipid bilayers form structure of most biological  membranes  

∙ Steroids

o Functions

 Stabilize membranes- cholesterol  

 Chemical Messenger- sex hormones, (testosterone,  

estradiol)

o Synthetic Anabolic steroids are controversial  

 They are variants of testosterone.

 Used to build muscles quickly  

∙ Serious health risks

∙ Proteins  

o Structural  

o Storage

o Contractile

o Transport

o Enzymes

∙ Amino Acids

o All proteins are constructed from a common set of 20 kinds of  amino acids

o Each amino acid consists of a central carbon atom bonded to 4  covalent partners in which three of those attachment groups are  common to all amino acids.  

Chapter 3 (cont.)

∙ Enzymes

o Catalytic protein

 Speeds up biological reactions

o Substrate specific

o Affected by temperature and pH

o Many enzymes require non-protein helpers called cofactors  Inorganic- zinc, iron, and copper

 Organic (also called coenzymes)- vitamins

∙ Nucleic Acid

o Includes DNA and RNA

o Genetic materials that organisms inherit from their parents.  A- Adenine

 T- Thymine

 G- Guanine

 C- Cytosine

∙ A only pairs with T

∙ G only pairs with C

∙ Hydrogen Bonds

o RNA- Ribonucleic acid

 Single stranded

 RNA uses the sugar ribose and the base Uracil (U), instead  of thymine (T).

Chapter 4

∙ Microscopes

o Two factors that determine the quality of microscopy

 Magnification is an increase in the specimen’s apparent  size

 Resolving power is the ability of an optical instrument to  show two objects are separate

o The accumulation of scientific evidence led to the cell theory  All living things are composed of cells

 All cells come from other cells

o The light Microscopes are used by many scientists  

 Light passes through the specimen

 Lenses enlarge, or magnify the image

o Two kinds of electron microscopes

 Scanning electron microscopes examine cell surfaces.

 Transmission electron microscopes are useful for internal  details of cells.

∙ Features common to all cells

o All cells have a plasma membrane

 Phospholipid bilayer- selective barrier

o All cells have a cytosol, or cytoplasm

 The area within the membrane not including organelles o All cells have at least one chromosome

 Contains DNA

o All cells have ribosomes

 sites of protein synthesis

∙ Structure and Function of the Nucleus  

o The nucleus is bordered by a double membrane called the  nuclear envelope  

o Pores in the envelope allow materials to move between nucleus  and the cytoplasm

o The nucleus contains a nucleolus where ribosomes are made ∙ Ribosomes  

o responsible for protein synthesis

o Components are made in the nucleolus

 Do their work in the cytosol

 DNA  RNA  Protein  

o Suspended in the fluid of the cytoplasm or

o Attached to the outside of an organelle called the endoplasmic  reticulum  

Two Major cell categories

∙ Prokaryotes

o A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound  organelle.

∙ Eukaryotes  

o an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic  material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a  distinct nucleus.

The endomembrane systems

∙ Endoplasmic Reticulum

o Modifies enormous variety of proteins made of ribosomes o Smooth and rough ER  

∙ Golgi Apparatus  

o Works with ER  

o Refines, stores, and distributes the chemical products of cells. ∙ Lysosomes  

o Sac of digestive enzymes found in animal cells  

o Enzymes can break down larger molecules

 Proteins  

 Polysaccharides

 Fats

 Nucleic Acid

o Lysosomes have several types of digestive functions  

 Many cells engulf nutrients in tiny cytoplasmic cells called  food vacuoles  

o Lysosomes can also

 Destroy harmful bacteria

 Break down bad organelles  

o Lysosomes and Disease  

 Several serious inherited disorders are the result of  

malfunctioning lysosomes

 Lysosomal Storage Diseases

∙ The lysosomes lack of functioning enzymes

∙ Vacuoles  

o Membrane sacs that bud from the  

 ER

 Golgi  

 Plasma membrane

o Contractile vacuoles of protists pump out excess water in the  cells

o Centeral vacuoles of plants

 Store nutrients

 Poison  

∙ Nuclear Envelope

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

∙ The organelles that preform photosynthesis  

∙ Three major compartments

o The space between the two membranes

o The strama, a think fluid within the chloroplast

o The space within the grana, the structures that trap light energy  and convert it

Mitochondria  

∙ Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, which produce ATP  from the energy of food molecules  

∙ An envelope of two membranes enclose the mitochondria  o Outer smooth membrane

o An inner membrane with numerous infoldings called cristae ∙ Contain their own DNA

The cytoskeleton

∙ Cell shape and movement  

∙ Network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm  

∙ Provides mechanical support to the cell  

∙ Maintains it’s shape

o Microtubules

 Straight and hollow

 Guide movement of organelles and chromosomes  

Cell Surfaces

∙ Most cells secrete materials that coat their outside surfaces  

Many cells have structures that facilitate interactions with their neighbors ∙ Cell Juntions 

o Adhesion (Usually relating to cancer) 

o Tight (intestines) 

o Gap (Heart)

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