History of Architecture 5120, Exam 2 Study Guide
History of Architecture 5120, Exam 2 Study Guide arch 5120
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisa on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to arch 5120 at Ohio State University taught by Jacqueline Gargus in Spring 2017. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Building Name/ Architect Date/ Location Info EUROPE Futurist New City 1910 Italian architect and a key member of Antonio Sant’ Elia Project theFuturist movement in architecture "the decorative value of Futurist Trained in Wagner architecture depends solely on the school, more use and original arrangement of raw conservative than or bare or ently colored Boccioni materials". His vision was for a highly industrialized andmechanized Interested in power city of the future, which he saw not as plants, hydraulic a mass of individual buildings but a dams vast, multilevel, interconnected and integrated urban conurbation “War is the world’s designed around the "life" of the city. only hygiene influenced by industrial cities of the sweeps away the United States and the architects Otto clutter of history” Wagner, A dolf Loos, and the Genoese architect Renzo Picasso, he began a series of design drawings for futuris ittà Nuova("New City") that was conceived as a symbol of a new age. Tatlin’s tower 1920 Planned to be built in St. Petersburg Vladimir Tatlin project after Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 as the headquarters of the “Third International” each story moves symbolicaly (legislative first story 1 rotation/ year, executive per month, info/propaganda 1 per day. engineering lack of precedent, party seemed to lose interest in onstructivism, unbuilt. Villa Snellman 1920 L shaped plan Gunnar Asplund Djusholm, Sweden Symmetry, radial axes, primarysecondary space simple yet subtly complicated structure, of two wings, a main with two levels and another, at an angle to the first, for the kitchen and service rooms. Lshaped, shorter side is service, secondary space. avoids right angle The main wing for family life and a lower and narrower for service. This form articulates the service element creating a courtyard entrance, thus differentiating front overlooking the garden, on the other side. The angle of 6º is a response to the site, Asplund put the house on a hill, in the northeast corner of the plot, allowing the main wing, parallel to the street, had views to the southwest through the garden. Window placement on the back is erratic, even more so than on the front Stockholm Public 1920 circle in a square, circular space. box Library Stockholm, Sweden with punch windows enter through Gunnar Asplund oversized door and everything’s in the circle. Quoting history by juxtaposing glass curtain wall door with heavy renaissance door/ bearing walls. Shape is pretty beaux arts, circlesquare, symmetry Maison de Verre 1930 Primarily a furniture designer, Pierre chareau Paris designed folding things. Worked with a dutch guy. d’Alsace bought a house, but couldn’t evict the old lady living there. So they had to take apart the bottom 2 stories and build away! Emphasized 3 traits: honexty of materials, variable transparency of forms, juxtaposition of “industrial” materials and more traditional materials. normal: Steel, gass, and lass block. Industrial: Rubberized floor tiles, bare steel beams, metal sheet, mechanical stuff. Program included groundfloor medical suite for Dr. Jean Dasace site: constructed underneath top floor of preexisting building. Speaker’s Platform for 1930 It combined advanced technology Lenin project and engineering with an avowedly Lissitzky Communist social purpose. Although it was divided into several competing factions, the movement produced many pioneering projects and finished buildings, before falling out of favour around 1932. In this and Tatlin's work the components of Constructivism could be seen to be an adaptation of various hightech Western forms, such as the engineering feats of Gustave Eiffel and New York or Chicago's skyscrapers, for a new collective society. Heavy Industry Ministry 1930 Russian constructivism revolution! Ivan Leonidov Moscow, project Use of platonic solids Lenin Institute 1930 This consisted of a skyscrapersized Leonidov Moscow, project library, a planetarium and dome, all linked together by a monorail; Suprematism an art movement, focused on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors. Villa Malaparte 1930 Bearing walls Libera Capri, Italy located on peninsula built on rock outcropping building clarifies the geometry of the rock. Tapering stairway moves you up to a big deck with the “fragment of a sale” on top (again, ship imagery) simple bearing wall building, kind of like a paddle. Like a surrealist image familiar but not. Casa del Fascio (“house 1930 Headquarters of fascist party. of the fascists”) Como, Italy Most important commision, Terragni multiheighted interior central space (simultaneously a palazzo courtyard **Futurist arch: but also a space) characterized by strong **wall is thick and layered. chromaticism, long dynamic lines, suggesting Perfect square plan. Height = width/2 speed, motion, urgency On every side except the southeast and lyricism: it was a part elevation which articulates the main of Futurism, an artistic stair, the windows and the external movement founded by the layers of the building are employed in poet Filippo Tommaso such a way to express the internal Marinetti atrium. <blank space for Slightly elevated on a masonry base, mussolini posters the fascist political purpose of the structure is expressed almost literally “House of glass” to show through the chain of glass doors transparency of new govt. which separates the entrance foyer from the piazza. These, when simultaneously opened by an electrical device, would have united the inner agora of the cortile to the piazza, thereby permitting the uninterrupted flow of mass demonstrations from street to interior. Sant’ Elia nursery 1930 onestory structure with School Como, Italy floortoceilings windows throughout. Terragni Inside, classrooms are large open spaces that flow seamlessly one into <diff. Accomodations for another, and within the overall square easter/western light, so plan of the building. Movable, non symmetry doesn’t make loadbearing walls allow for maximum sense. flexibility and ensure that a variety of activities can easily take place. Shifts around, constantly repositioning itself in Enclosed spaces tethered together by space. Pristine white box walkways, creates courtyards. building, language of Different systems of grid, wall, and modernism. volume. Layered slots of space Guiliano Frigerio Apt. 1930 Italian fascist arch. About glorifying Bldg. Como, Italy the state (which includes its most Terragni glorious classical Roman phase) but also moving forward. But terragni’s a part of the next generation of italian avantgarde architects (“rationalists”) Novocomum Apt. bldg. 1930 Rounded corner, ship rail, abstract Terragni Como, Italy language of the building. Seems similar to Le corb’s ambitions getting rid of ornament, playing w/ ribbon windows, simplifying form, but the giant cylinder of Russian architecture is happening too. Giant rounded corner that’s trapped within the box, so you can read 2 forms. Casa Rustici 1930 Better example of Terragni playing w/ Terragni Milan, Italy typology and ideas that have to do with Italien conventions but pulling them apart. Plan= palazzo, plan + wrapper. But has been pulled apart, has a very thin open edge. Courtyard is part of the street. Dismantling and superposition of frames that gives it a phenomenal transparency Danteum 1930 Was going to be built in the Roman Terragni Rome, Italy Forum, which they weren’t afraid to disrupt b/c the Fascists were trying to claim their spot in the faaabulous roman history Box developing narrative about Dante’s Divine Comedy. Tries to develop architectural ways to express a story. Use of golden rectangles. Develops narrative by moving people around in the different zones (the forest (columns), the inferno (hell, where he establishes centers but denies occupation of the center), purgatory (series of spiraling dense golden rectangles. centers are now marked by skylights, where you can look towards heaven). Moving forward, you come into paradise. A square with crystalline columns Spirals in plan and section Villa Schwob 1920 Quite hideous. Because he’s trying to Le Corb La Chaux de Fonds focus on the Study of platonic solids, beginnings of cubist interest (“essay of a square shown in facade and manipulated in the plan.) Plan is like villa rotunda but not really. Villa rotunda has a center that is detached from the site. Schwob cracks open a circle to reveal a square. Codification of sides to react to the site edge= street, round=landscape Trying to be abstract Voisin Plan 1930 Thinks paris has grown like a cancer Le Corb Paris Voison plan bulldozes paris, creates a very hygenic, formal gridded plan. basically cruciform towers in a park. cruciform shape maximizes light, view, ventilation inside towers. Lots of green space for exercise. “The plan must rule!!” Villa Stein 1930 double house, 2 doors, etc. Le Corb Garches Examines difference between automobile side (Edge condition) vs. garden side (big carved out piece, walkaway, space. slots of space maximize space similar to Palladio’s Villa Malcontenta. About the same size, 9sq grid is evident. Bearing wall. Big bay, little bay, big bay (tartan grid), pavilion on the same side ← seems to deform palladio’s plan by a series of events that begin with rotating the stair idea of cruciform space inside the villa malcontenta is preserved Difference: malcontenta is additive, ornamented; Garches is subtractive Villa Besnus 1930 deal diagram and dismantling the Le Corb Vaucresson diagram Playing with sidedness responds to urban condition with an edge; response to the garden is with a pavilion Similar to stein Act of pivoting ^influence of Villa schwob center is void; besnus, painting center is object. Pro Villa Savoye 1930 Shows his 5 points. Le Corb Poissy Free plan, free facade, ribbon window, roof garden, piloti Horseshoeshaped (b/c car turns in that angle) entry doubles as a garage+entrance. architectural promenade Spatial experience is constantly changing as you move throughout the building. Top is an object. use of ramps similar to Knowlton’s ramps fireplace is small, very modest. literal transparency in glass phenomenal transparency in living room, looking out sees space of rooms continuing out ”house is a machine for living!!” Use of snip rails, portholes white boxes last only for a bit in Corbu’s career. Like he mastered it and then moved on. Swiss Pavilion 1930 Moved on from houses, playing with Le Corb Paris materiality. Columns aren’t perfect little round columns, but eggshaped>dogbone, transforming from point to line, column to line BAR AND OBJECT SIDEDNESS one condition on one side (extreme materiality, chunky bearing wall, punch windows (symbols of oldfashionedness)) another on the other side (dematerialized). Begins using breton brut, which he takes more interest in in later worls Salvation Army 1930 Homeless shelter Le Corb Paris Series of pavilions lined up against a big slab *like bar/object* Slab plays a different role than the edge sides of his Villas. Begins to be a ground/datum against which you can read the different objects 3 reminders to arch.: Volumes: perfect geometric shapes, proportions Shapes: Maison Ozenfant 1930 Golden rectangle! Le Corb Paris The site is bounded by the adjacent buildings. From the top floor, the views are best, and the lighting is caused by three sides. Golden rectangle proportions Rotated rectangle Large windows for studio La Tourette 1950 “The little tower” Le Corb Eveux Use of beton brut, rough concrete popularized by WW2. lots of little windows in La Tourette that look like machine gun slots. Complicated plan elemental geometric forms, history of architecture from pyramid → greek megaron → cross Bris soleil in monk rooms pinwheel goign on in the circulation, doesn’t just wrap in the interior, each corridor continues to the outside. But panels block your view so you get light reflected from the panel but not a continuous view lots of effects with light Unite d’Habitation 1950 Piloti and roof garden, but no ribbon Le Corb Marseille window meant to be selfsustaining Goal was to live your life and be able to do everything you needed without ever seeing your neighbor. lol. Ste. Marie du Haut 1950 Shows thickness with really deep Le Corb Ronchamp punch windows built on a hill. Marks site of other church, that was demolished. “Antigothic” all about thickskin that lets light wash thru the wall and remind you of how fabulous it is. Pilgrimage church where people can pay their respects to the history of the place Curved wall, means that its a proper apse with respect to the exterior of the church. Statue of the virgin in little window Palace of Assembly 1950 Le Corb Chandigarh, India references to indian culture “horns of Brahman bull” Bris soleil simultaneously creates shade and acts as a porch Use of platonic solids objects in space of the building reference the mountains Viipuri Library 1930 Alvar Aalto Viipuri, russia served/service sectioned off into of a different language than earlier bars (intersecting bar is circulation workers club. between Very avant garde. served/service) edge and object parti. draws conceptual crazy sketches. very programspecific. entrances for children and adults and space divided to suit children/adults. Auditorium is very elongated, makes it hard to see + hear (seems to be inconsistent with aalto’s functionalism. gesamkunstvercht. skylights all over roof. Aalto is very interested in the human what happens when your hand touches an object? Sanitorium 1930 Paimio Sanatorium, an early major Alvar Aalto Paimio, finland work by Alvar Aalto, is the subject of an exhibition on show in the Gallery at the Alvar Aalto Museum from 12 February to 10 April 2016. The exhibition is based on a conservation management plan prepared for the first time in Finland. The plan involves the most detailed investigation so far of the hospital, which was built for tuberculosis patients. Plan tries to expose patients to so fabulous b/c it really demonstrates its function clearly sunlight, spreads all over the place throughout a forested site Villa Mairea 1930 Alvar Aalto Norrmarku, finland Lshaped plan, interlocking garden. Also gives circulation pergola and entryway. And path flowing thru the house to end in an Lshaped sauna. Puzzle of L’s that gesture but don’t enclose a space. Real boundary is the forest. Moves from extremely organic and rustic, primitive, to modern and sleek. Both classical and Japanese language in columns Town Hall 1950 Alvar Aalto Sayatsalo, finland Turf covering stairs extends the landscape to inside the courtyard In plan, most of the wrapper is low but the council member is raised and the stairs subtraced Headtail scheme Fenestration picks up the rhythm of the forest (alto pays a lot of attention to site) vertical, thin windows Structure of council chamber is fabulous, makes crazy decorative fan trusses to try to express a forest. Interest in simple, clear modernist space but also local vernacular Town Hall & Library 1960 Bar, with fanning out space. Alvar Aalto Seinajoki, finland Same idea as viipuri library (bar packed with function, then object that’s the big, honorific space that has a smaller more intimate space in it). Again, has turf grasswaterfall stairs. Section is interesting, ceiling goes crazy too. Very dynamic volumes. Radial movement around sunken children’s pit (similar to viipuri) Again, recognizes the site. Bar facade recognizes urbane town center, then back faces fields of corn and addresses the density of plants Columns help with structure. Spaces pop up to let in light and compress over sunken pit Barcelona Pavilion 1930 reflections everywhere. idea of the mvdR Barcelona, Spain crystal fragment, reflected, shiny Difference between mies and gropius gropius tried to build the fastest, cheapest, most efficient house. Mies indulged in rich materials.russian dance van doesburg Brick country House 1930 Axes being pulled apart mvdr project Similar to fallingwater Tugendhat house 1930 Domino house idea Mvdr Brno, Czech Rep. Onyx walls free standing for separatino. Corners are rounded Glass wall, piloti. Lots of same ideas from barcelona pavilion entry isn’t axial, but is something that “slips around in strange ways”. Dynamic circulation, spiraling thru the house Master plan of 1930 uilt for the Deutscher Werkbund Weissenhof Seidlung Stuttgart, Germany exhibition of 1927,t Mies van der mvdr Rohe was in charge of the project on behalf of the city, and it was he who selected the architects, budgeted and coordinated their entries, prepared the site, and oversaw construction. The twentyone buildings vary slightly in form, consisting of terraced and detached houses and apartment buildings, and display a strong consistency of design. What they have in common are their simplified facades, flat r oofs used as terraces, window bands, open plan interiors, and the high level of prefabrication which permitted their erection in just five months. National Gallery 1960 How does he turn a corner? Skips it, Mvdr Berlin, Germany turns out to be like an cantilevered roof, overhang Slender column inset, 2 on each side Problems with it as an art museum: No place to hang paintings Direct light Subterranean space holds more of the art but they’re not great, boring section. Like the columbus airport. Idea of object below and void above. Packs the plinth with one kind of program and surmounts it with the ideal object Orphanage 1960 Matbuilding Van Eyck amsterdam Figurevoid Breaks up the building into small homesized spaces (makes sense for an orphanage) Berlin free university 1960 Matbuilding missing pieces, like a Candilis, josic, woods Berlin, germany welcome mat.idea is to locate pt. a and point B then you can get there in different (inconvenient) ways. like an airport :D interesting b/c the vocabulary of the building is miesian exposed ibeams, raw materials, etc. but the effect is so different. inside is literally terrible. very different from bauhaus, where the factory was the model for life. functionalism (bauhaus, CIAM): dissociation, separation of stuff, leads to “skyscraper” “web” (team X, smithsons, mat building… association, “groundscraper” (aka mat building) Philharmonic hall 1960 Sublime! Hans Schauron Berlin, Germany Circulation like an anthill small tunnels everywhere that lead to the main hall Sydney Opera House 1960 Jorn Utzon Sydney, australia Hunstanton School 1960 2 voids in the rectangle. Center void Peter + Alison Smithson Norfolk, England is outlined with columns but not actually carved out Robinhood Gardens 1960 Peter + Alison Smithson London, England USA Lovell House 1930 International style modernist Richard Neutra LA, CA residence Eames House & Studio 1950 The idea of a Case Study house was Charles + Ray Eames LA, CA to hypothesize a modern household, elaborate its functional requirements, Like a filledin Miesian have an esteemed architect develop a box. design that met those requirements
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