History of Architecture II, Exam 1 study guide
History of Architecture II, Exam 1 study guide arch 5120
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisa on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to arch 5120 at Ohio State University taught by Jacqueline Gargus in Spring 2017. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
` building architect date location info. EUROPE eiffel tower gustave Eiffel 1880 paris engineering feat, had a radio tower on top, world fair, impressive and indicative of a new architecture/engineering age AEG peter 1900 berlin industrial architecture Turbine behrens tried to make it pretty large glass Works wall symbolizing the victory of art over the banality of life in an emerging industrial society Similar to the transformation of a lump of coal under extreme circumstances a diamond praised, daily life, and in this case the industry, factory and machinery could be transformed by the "Kunstwollen" (intention) of the artist in an entity high culture. stock berlage 1900 amsterda The Beurs van Berlage building is exchange m simple, almost sober in its form. Its (beurs) main decoration is a big clock placed high on the tower. On the corners of the Beurs stand three sculpture figures,does not try to imitate gothic or renaissance as all important city buildings in Amsterdam erected at the end of the 19th century, but establishes its own, new style. VanNelle brinckmann & 1920 rotterdam, international style Factory vandervlugt netherlan The complex consists of the actual ds factory building, an office building, a warehouse, expedition and storage depots along the Delfshavense Schie, a boiler house and several workshops.The Van Nelle Factory is one of the highlights of the Modern Movement in the Netherlands. The impressive glass building is not only an example of functionalism and rational production, but also improvedworking conditions for workers in the twentieth century.The site is one of the icons of 20thcentury industrial architecture, comprising a complex of factories, with façades consisting essentially of steel and glass, making largescale use of the curtain wall principle. eigen michael 1920 amsterda expressionist style?progressive haard deKlerk m mixeduse programme incorporating Housing 102 dwellings for the working classes, a community hall and a post office. In terms of its architectural form, the design treats the perimeter as a single sculptural unit with one principal material – brick – in ways that are still aspirational for architects using other materials today. Its changes in rhythm, texture, scale and colour hint at changes of interior function and disposition. sagrada gaudi 1900 barcelona like a chicken leg. little bones and familia tendons everywhere. thinner and lighter but also stronger casa mila gaudi 1900 barcelona Casa Mila (Barcelona, 190510) crazy plan, very organically shaped, jockeying for space.like a doubleyolked eggs park guell gaudi 1900 barcelona catenary arches neither rounded classical arches nor pointy gothic arches. slumped cable forms a catenary flipped over= most ideal/efficient form for an arch really trying to build buildings that can be identified w/ the spanish style. built with local materials, screening (kind of like islamic architecture b/c spain was for 800yrs under the caliphate) casa batllo gaudi 1900 barcelona Catalan masonry (reliant on very thin tiles and an extremely tough mortar, cheapest and lightest way to build a big dome if done right) art nouveau characterized by spineyness, skins, structure. bones that are porous, selfbracing, ridgy, rickety… tbh, looks like decaying carcasses. interior is also strange, droopy...designed everything to match gesamkuntzvercht. santa gaudi 1900 s. coloma built to be spindly, organic, use of coloma de masonry and mosaic tiles, colors, as chapel cervello decoration. unfinished until 2002 metro hector 1900 paris very art nouveau looking metro stations guimard station entrance Built in cast iron, they make heavy reference to the symbolism of plants and are now considered classic examples of French Art Nouveau architecture. The roofed variety, known as édicules ( kiosks) feature a fanshaped glass awning; many, but not all, also featured an enclosure of opaque panelling decorated in floral motifs castel guimard 1900 paris art nouveau beranger residential building with twentysix apartments located at 14 rue de la Fontaine in the 16th arrondissement of Paris palais josef 1900 brussels art deco style stoclet hoffmann extremely gilded, precious, expensive, luxurious interior. pretentious but beautiful. In classic Art Deco, rectangular blocky forms were often arranged in geometric fashion, then broken up by curved ornamental elements. But always the aim was a monolithic appearance with applied decorative motifs.stucco, concrete, smoothfaced stone, and Terracotta. Steel and aluminum were often used along with glass blocks and decorative opaque plate glass hotel victor horta 1900 brussels art nouveau tassel ● dematerialized to let light into the facade. also a skylight for light to come in through the roof. happy to use industrial materials, complete transparency from front to back. nice. very delicate, ,gesamkuntsvercht, motives of things swirling around and wrapping up hotel horta 1900 brussels art nouveau solvay ● does the inverse of hotel tassel where tassel was convex, this is concave. on piano nobile level and has 2 skylights. garden ebenezer 1815 (project in use the tools of technology to city howard england) recreate beauty. problems: movement technology is creating overcrowding, pollution, etc. Solution: trains make it possible to work in the city but live outside of it, in a “slumless smokeless city”. Came up with the idea to use commuter rail lines to connect the city and smaller satellite cities (ex. Columbus and surrounding suburbs). 3 magnets: Town (city, “isolation of crowd”, but social opportunity) Country (agricultural center, familiarity, lacking economy) TownCountry (best of both worlds: low rents, high wages, low prices, social life, economic growth) majolika otto wagner 1900 vienna patterned surface, art nouveau, like house Gustav Klimt’s artwork church am otto wagner 1900 vienna steinhof postal otto wagner 1900 vienna ● “father of modernism” savings bank villa otto wagner 1910 vienna wagner II secession olbrich 1900 vienna building ernst olbrich 1900 darmstadt ludwig , germany building glasgow mackintosh 1900 glasgow deliberate asymmetry that’s school of introduced, not the “default school art building” (beauxarts classical thing). plan also really “wants to be classical” but isn’t. tugofwar of elements gives it life, not static form. center is all over the place; shows a different take on “arts and crafts” than ruskin. combines use of old and new materials; idea of motif coming in the square and grid at different scales on different surfaces. designed furniture etc. gusamkuntzvercht. hill house mackintosh 1900 helensbur like glasgow school of art, is like a gh geode. plain exterior with massive walls and small punch windows fancy delicate elegant dainty interior. facade get a gable roof but where’s the other half? slipped sideways. tower hidden in between, like a hinge, a way of confronting the problem of corner. gets an Lshaped plan, just like Red House in Bexleyheath. circulate through the house constantly oriented towards the garden. inglenooks, bay windows make spaces within spaces (comes from arts and crafts tradition). goldman & loos 1910 vienna salatsch shop steiner loos 1910 vienna house muller loos 1920 prague again, loosian themes of gaze, house diagonal view straight thru the house josephine loos 1920 paris ● fascination with the baker entertainer, designed a house house for her but she was uninterested. use of “wrapper”/exterior patterning einstein mendelsohn 1920 Potsdam, ● solar observatory in the tower germany postwar era. hook of oud 1920 hook of holland holland housing Bauhaus gropius 1920 Dessau fagus gropius 1920 alfeld shoe factory model gropius 1920 cologne factory (werkbund expo) double le corbusier 1920 siedlung, house in stuttgart Weissenh of barcelona mies van der 1920 barcelona ● reflections everywhere. pavilion rohe not the literal crystalshape from bruno taut but the idea of the crystal fragment, reflected, shiny brick mvdr 1920 (project) country house tugendhat mvdr 1920 brno, house czech rep. master mvdr 1920 stuttgart built for the Deutscher Werkbund plan exhibition of 1927, and included weissenho twentyone buildings comprising f seidlung sixty dwellings, designed by seventeen European architects, most of them Germanspeaking. The German architect Mies van der Rohe was in charge of the project on behalf of the city, and it was he who selected the architects, budgeted and coordinated their entries, prepared the site, and oversaw construction. Le Corbusier was awarded the two prime sites, facing the city, and by far the largest budget. The twentyone buildings vary slightly in form, consisting of terraced and etached houses and apartment buildings, and display a strong consistency of design. What they have in common are their simplified facades, fla oofs used as terraces, window bands, open plan interiors, and the high level of prefabrication which permitted their erection in just five months. schroeder gerrit rietveld 1920 utrecht, for Mrs. Truus SchröderSchräder house netherlan and her three children. She ds commissioned the house to be designed preferably without walls glass bruno taut 1920 cologne ● showcasing German pavilion glass production but also has the idea of being transparent, no secrets, “no war with glass” ● literal crystal shape hufeisensi bruno taut 1920 berlin horseshoe shaped housing complex edlung housing USA ARCHITECTURE trinity richardson 1880 boston ● uses different materials church and patterning in stones and stays true to historic styles (latin cross plan, “truth”) ames richardson 1880 north ● built out of boulders, gatehouse easton, eyebrow windows again MA ● Richardsonian Romanesque a style that emphasized, large arches; rusticated stone; massing; beauxarts proportions and symmetry (about the only things he kept from Beaux Arts training), can be found in any town that was around in 1885 watts richardson 1880 newport, house RI marshall richardson 1880 chicago ● style is different from his fields eastern buildings but still true to the 7 lamps (honesty in material, beauty, etc.) (1871 Great Fire in Chicago consumes a large portion of the city. Response to fire: build faster, fireproof materials… fire became an opportunity to get rid of the old small buildings and replace them all with modern ones.) home jenney 1880 chicago insurance building boston mckim, 1880 boston ● did some shinglestyle public mead, white library houses but most wellknown for beauxarts ● program of a library requires just one entry, so a different conversation between interior/exterior space is needed. penn mckim, 1900 NYC geometry, proportions, use of glass station mead, white guaranty sullivan + 1890 buffalo very similar to wainwright, but building adler windows are slightly arched monodano burnham + 1900 chicago thick, heavy, strong masonry ck building root building. Masonry b/c it’s made of stone, not thinner steel. Bottom level flares out to emphasize “this is a heavy building. it will be heavy.” Plan between lower and upper level shows difference. reliance burnham + 1900 chicago built very quickly. structural steel. building root completely different from Monadnock building, very thin and delicate for a tall building; terracotta facial panels use purely for decoration, not structure columbia burnham 1900 chicago Head architects Daniel Burnham exposition and Frederick Law Olmsted. (master Olmsted did some landscaping and plan) scenery, put different cultures and native american tribes “on display”. Burnham promised to build a “White City”, wanted to be neoclassical, show europe, “America is classy too, not just you. classicism is classy, so are we.” But these neoclassical buildings just seemed kind of fraudulent. Eiffel tower, etc. is engineering, this was kinda shallow. still pretty, but shallow. Sullivan built the transportation building, just made another building in his style, missed the neoclassical memo. Architects from all over, designed different buildings for the expo to celebrate the centennial of the US. carson sullivan 1910 chicago ● contrast between steel pirie scott condition below and glazed brick above (very pretty ● use of “Chicago window” departmen (horizontal) t store) ● thinks about artnouveau innate belief that architecture needs ornament ● very department stoey peoples sullivan 1910 sidney, ● Gesamtkunstwerk (Total savings OH work of art) sullivan has and loan bank designed the furniture, wood carving, interior and exterior. ● question: how do you make a very small building monumental? really tasteful ornamentation. bold, overscaled movements. inside is also bold. designed squirrel pelt column capitals. lol. beauuuutiful! merchants sullivan 1910 grinnel, similar to sullivan’s previous peoples national iowa savings and loans bank bank Gamble greene + 1910 pasadena, ● also inspired by house greene CA hooden at the columbia exposition ● of the american prairie houses, has the clearest reference to the 9sq grid lovell richard 1920 LA, CA International style modernist health neutra residence designed and built by house Richard Neutra between 1927 and 1929 larkin FLW 1900 buffalo clear idea: big vertical space in the building middle wrapped by office zones; very hierarchical (boss at top level, can see people in clerical pool on first level) hollow piers organize program darwin FLW 1900 buffalo ● supersimplified, martin assemblage of discrete house pieces working in unison rather than thinking of the building as a block that gets split up. broadacre FLW 1940 project According to him, cities would no city longer be centralized; no longer beholden to the pedestrian or the central business district. Broadacre City was a thought experiment as much as it was a serious proposal—one where the automobile would reign supreme. guggenhei FLW 1940 new york ● extremely iconic m ● Question:if you have something as ideal as a circle, how do you enter without violating its form? make a smaller circle and enter through the crack! (same move as unity temple) ● stands out so much in fabric of NYC. johnson FLW 1940 racine, WI ● wax johnson FLW 1940 racine, WI ● seems to take inspiration research from Japanese pagoda tower talisien FLW 1940 Scotsdale, Frank Lloyd Wright's winter west AZ home and school in the desert from 1937 until his deat. Today it is the main campus of the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture and houses the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. Beth FLW 1950 elkins ● glowing mt. sinai roof. shalom park, PA triangle motif. synagogu e ● has no idea what he’s doing with material, just trying to make a trianglefilled glowing volume glass philip 1950 New designed by Philip Johnson as his house johnson Canaan, own residence, and "universally CT viewed as having been derived from" the Farnsworth House design THEORIES essai, laugier 1750 drawing primitive hut seven john ruskin 1850 truth, beauty, sacrifice, power, memory, lamps obedience, life four semper 1850 platform, frame, woven wall, hearth elements of primitive hut
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