Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide REHSCI 1200
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Whitney Martin on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to REHSCI 1200 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Karthik Hariharan in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Human Anatomy Study Guide (Exam 1) General Anatomy Name and define the different types of anatomy Name and define the approaches to studying anatomy What are the levels of body organization? What happens at each level? Name the systems of the body, organs involved, and their basic functions Name the planes of motion Name the axes of motion Name the descriptions of motion Name the sections Integumentary System Name the organs involved with the Integumentary System Name the functions of the Integumentary System Name the cells and layers in the Epidermis Layer Define the Dermis Layer and name the cells and regions involved Name pigments in skin color Define hair and its functions State the anatomy of hair Name the glands and state their function State the anatomy of the Nail State the different types of burns Skeletal and Articular System State functions of the bone State structure of the bone State formation of the bone State the two types of bone Define Ossification Define the types of Ossification Study Guide Answers (Exam 1) Name and define different types of anatomy o Gross Anatomy: study of structures that can be examined without the use of a microscope o Surface Anatomy: study of anatomical landmarks in the surface of the body through visualization and palpation o Radiographic Anatomy: study of structures with the use of x-rays o Developmental Anatomy: study of human development from fertilized egg to adulthood o Embryology: study of human development from fertilized egg to 8 th week in the uterus o Histology: microscopic study of the structure of tissues Name and define the approaches to studying anatomy o Systemic Anatomy: study of the body systems o Regional Anatomy: regionalizing the entire human body o Clinical Anatomy: emphasizing structure and function as it relates to the practice of medicine and other health sciences What are the levels of body organization? What happens at each level? o Chemical Level: atoms, and how oxygen is used o Cellular Level: molecules form together to form cells o Tissue Level: cells form together to form tissues o Organ Level: tissues form together to form organs o Organ System: organs form together to form organ systems o Organism: organ systems interact with each other to form organisms Name the systems of the body, organs involved, and their basic functions o Integumentary System: skin and all its derivatives; provides protection from external environment, regulates temperature, & receives stimuli o Skeletal System: all the bones and joints in your body; provides protection of internal organs, gives structural and postural support o Articular System: all the joints in the body; ligaments o Muscular System: smooth muscles (veins), cardiac muscles (pump) skeletal muscles; help with movement of the body, generates heat o Nervous System: sensory nerves, brain, spinal cord; most important in sustaining life, senses o Cardiovascular System: heart, blood, blood vessels; supplying blood, oxygen, and nutrients throughout your body o Lymphatic System: lymph, lymph vessels, spleen, thymus, tonsils; maintains immunity in body o Respiratory System: lungs and important passage ways; oxygenates your blood o Endocrine System: hormone producing glands; regulates other systems in the body and secretes chemicals transported in the body o Digestive Systems: stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder; breaks down and absorbs food for use by sells and eliminates waste o Urinary System: filters your blood to absorb nutrients needed and excrete the nutrients not needed via urine o Reproductive System: testes, prostate, ovaries, uterus Name the planes of motion o Medial Plane: through the middle; divides body into equal left and right halves o Sagittal Plane: runs parallel to the median o Frontal Plane: what you see when you are looking at someone o Transverse Plane: plane you see from above; divides body superior and inferior Name the Axes of Motion o Coronal: perpendicular the sagittal plane; motion in the sagittal plane o Anterior- posterior: motion in the frontal plane; perpendicular to the frontal plane o Longitudinal: motion in the transverse plane Name the descriptions of motion o Flexion/Extension: occurs on sagittal plane; flexion: decreases angle depending on joint measurement & extension: increases angle depending on joint measurement o Abduction/Adduction: movement in the frontal plane; abduction: movement away from median & adduction: movement toward the median o Medial/Lateral Rotation: transverse plane; medial: internal rotation & lateral: external rotation o Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion: dorsi: moves toes superiorly and plantar: moves toes inferiorly o Inversion/Eversion: frontal plane; inversion: movement of foot towards the median and eversion: movement of the foot away from median o Protraction/Retraction: protraction: movement anteriorly (forward) and retraction: movement posteriorly (backward) o Elevation/Depression: Elevation: superior and depression: inferior o Pronation/Supination: pronation: when forearm is rotated medially so palm is facing anteriorly and supination: when forearm is rotated laterally so palm is facing anteriorly Name the sections o Longitudinal Section: runs the length of the long axis of the body or extremities o Transverse: sections of the body are cut at right angles to longitudinal axes of body o Oblique: slices cut on one of the previously mentioned axes o Open Kinetic Chain: distal segment of limb in question is moving while proximal segment is fixed o Closed Kinetic Chain: distal segment of limb in question is fixed while proximal segment is moving Name the organs involved with the Integumentary System o Skin, hair, hair follicles, nails, nail beds, scalp, glands Name the functions of the Integumentary System o Protection from the external environment o Heat regulation, sensation, excretion of salts, and organic compounds o Immunity (can heal quickly) o Blood reservoir o Synthesis of vitamin D Name the cells and layers in the Epidermis Layer o Keratinocytes: protects body from UV rays; waterproofing the skin o Melanocytes: pigmentation; produces melanin o Langerhan Cells: cells produced in bone marrow; UV rays destroy these o Merkel Cells: responsible for light touch; found in deepest layer of epidermis o Stratum Basale: deepest layer; single row of cells o Stratum Spinosum: 8-10 layers of melanocytes o Stratum Granulosum: 3-5 layers of flattened cells where melanocytes become keratinocytes; stages of degeneration where cell death begins o Stratum Lucidum: no longer any pigmentation; dying stage o Stratum Corneum: top layer; dead skin cells; waterproofing/protection Define the Dermis Layer and name the cells and regions involved o Dermis layer: dense connective tissue containing collagen and elastin o Macrophages: white blood cells; fight infections by engulfing foreign substances o Fibroblast: responsible for formation of fiber; produces connective tissue when there is a break in skin o Papillary Region: has finger like projections into the dermis; ridges created fingerprints o Reticular Region: contains sweat glands and pacinian corpuscles (pressure touch); root of hair extends to here; provides collagen and elastin to provide strength to skin Name pigments in skin color o Melanin: responsible for darkness of skin o Carotene: concentrated to eye; precursor of vitamin A; pigments for vision o Hemoglobin: gives blood a red appearance Define hair and its functions o Hair is present on all skin surfaces except palms and soles of feet; composed of dead keratinocytes o Functions: eyebrows/eyelashes protect eyes; ears/nostrils for protection of eyes State the anatomy of hair o Shaft: projects from surface of the skin o Roots: deep in the skin surface; medulla: center of the cortex; cortex; cuticle: outer layer/external hair o Follicle: extends from the surface to dermis and contains hair root o Bulb: area of nourishment and growth Name the glands and state their function o Subaceous Gland: connects to the hair follicle; secretes sebum and prevents dehydration of hair and skin o Subdoriferous Gland: sweat gland, used for thermal regulation o Eccrine Gland: distributed throughout skin (pores) o Apocrine Gland: have a scent, active in puberty, respond to emotional stress, association to autonomic nervous system o Ceruminous Gland: produce ear wax in canal and ducts; protection from loud noises and external environment State the anatomy of the nail o Free edge: where trimming occurs o Nail body: transparent with white half of moon lunula o Nail root: embedded on the fold of the skin o Lunula: most active growing region o Cuticle: attaches margin of nail wall to epidermis State the different types of burns o 1 degree: injury to epidermis only nd o 2 rddegree: damage to the epidermis and some dermis o 3 degree: destroys epidermis and accessory organs of the skin State the functions of the bone o Protection of internal organs o Structural support o Assistance in movement o Storage of minerals (calcium) o Blood cell production o Energy reserve State structure of the bone o Diaphysis: body or shaft of the bone; where growth and width occurs o Metaphysis: on the ends of the bone; connects diaphysis to epiphysis o Epiphysis: end of the bone o Articular Structure o Periosteum: outer most layer or the bone o Medullary Cavity: hollow part of the bone where bone marrow is State bone tissue in the bones o Osteogenic Cells: any cells associated with the bone o Osteoblast: cells involved with formation of the bone o Osteocytes: final product of the bone o Osteoclast: responsible for destruction of bones; responsible for growth and remodeling State the two types of bones o Cortical Bone: provides structure and strength externally Volkmans canal: horizontal, perforating canal Haversian canal: vertical; carries blood and lymphatic vessels through the bone Concentric Lamellae: surround Haversian canal Lucunae: Space between osteocytes o Spongy Bone: comprises most bone tissue of short, flat, irregular- shaped bones and epiphyses of long bones Latticework of thin columns of bone (take amount of force transmitted to the body) Stores red bone marrow Define Ossification o Process by which bone is formed o Derived from mesenchyme and cartilage loosely shaped like bones Define the types of Ossification o Intramembranous Ossification: flat bones in skull, directly occurs in fibrous connective tissue o Endochondral Ossification: occurs in long bones; cartilage replaced; bones develop Primary ossification center: occurs in diaphysis, results in growth in bone width Secondary ossification center: results in growth in length
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