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by: Alexia Acebo


Alexia Acebo
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Comprehensive study guide covering Chapters 17-19 for the first exam!
Human Physiology & Anatomy II
Austin Hicks
Study Guide
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Austin Hicks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology & Anatomy II in Biology, Arts and Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
**BSC 216 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE** CHAPTER 19: Key Points ▯BLOOD▯ blood info: • Liquid connective tissue • 5L in body @ given time • 8% of total body weight Blood is made up of plasma + formed elements suspended in s extracellular plasma BLOOD matrix (leukocytes, , platelets) • Erythrocytes-Red blood cells; oxygen transport • Platelets- cell FRAGMENTS that signal blood clotting • Leukocytes- White blood cells, Immune function/defense o 5 TYPES, 2 CATEGORIES ▯ Granulocytes • Neutrophils • Eosinophils • Basophils ▯ Agranulocytes • Lymphocytes • Monocytes Hematocrit: % blood vol. that is RBC’s o Erythrocytes= HEAVIEST (45%) o WBC’s & Platelets (1%) o Plasma= water, nutrients, proteins etc. (55%) WHAT does BLOOD do!? 1. Transport oxygen, wastes, signaling molecules (hormones) 2. Protection against blood loss & infection 3. Regulation of body temp, pH, fluid volume Plasma- 92% Serum: remaining fluid when blood clots 3 major categories of plasma proteins: 1. Albumins: smallest, most a. Viscosity, osmolarity 2. Globulins: antibodies a. Immune system functions 3. Fibrinogen etc. a. Clotting ERYTHROCYTES • No nucleus/ organelles • Large Surface area: volume, **gas exchange** • Primary Functions: o Carry O2 from lungs ▯ cell tissues o Pick up CO2 from tissues and bring to lungs Hemoglobin: binds reversibly with O2 ▯OXYGEN MOLECULE BINDS TO ONE IRON ATOM FOUND ON HEME GROUP HEMOPOIESIS: PRODUCTION OF BLOOD • Takes place in red bone marrow o Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC’s) produce formed elements o 5-7 day process o HSC’s differentiate into Colony-forming units (CFU’s) ▯ Only produce one cell type Body maintains erythrocyte count: Negative Feedback Control • To avoid hypoxemia and viscosity Iron Metabolism Erythrocyte Death 1. Become trapped in spleen sinus 2. Spleen macrophages digest erythrocytes 3. Hemoglobin is broken down into amino acids, iron ions and billirubin 4. Billirubin sent to liver for excretion 4a. recycling Anemias -decrease in blood O2 carrying capacity, caused by kidney failure/dietary deficiency 3 main causes: 1. Decreased Hemoglobin 2. Decreased Hematocrit a. Blood loss b. Rupture c. Decreased production 3. Abnormal Hemoglobin Nutritional Anemias: • Iron deficiency • Pernicious (b12 absorption and protein synthesis) Consequences: 1. Tissue Hypoxia 2. Reduced blood Osmolarity 3. Reduced Blood Viscosity Leukocytes • Complete cells • Less abundant than RBC’s • Stay for few hours • COMBAT DISEASES **Diapedesis: travel out of cap. Into tissues **Amoeboid motion Granulocytes -sphered -lobed nuclei Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils -phagocytize bacteria -2 lobes -secretes histamine -3-5 lobed -parasite destroying -S shaped nuclei -MOST COMMON enzymes -pink Agranulocytes -lack granules -spherical/kidney shaped nuclei Lymphocyte Monocytes -spherical nuclei -u shaped nucleus -blue rim - -dif. into macrophages -destroy cancer cells etc. Leukopoiesis: production of WBC’s • HSC’s▯CFU’s▯ 1. Myeloblasts- neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils 2. Monoblasts- monocytes 3. Lymphoblasts- all lymphocytes Platelets • FRAGMENTS of megakaryocytes • Initiated by Thrombopoietin • Functions o Secrete vasoconstrictors o Platelet plugs o Clotting factors o Clot dissolving o Attraction o Phagocytize and destroy o Growth factors Hemostasis▯ Vascular Spasm Plaetelet Plug Coagulation Formation Thrombolysis Clot reaction BLOOD TYPES ***interaction between plasma proteins and erythrocytes (aka ANTIGENS and ANTIBODIES) Antigens - surface of cell membrane - unique to individual - distinguish self from foreign - Agglutinogens: antigens on surface of RBC▯ basis for blood typing Antibodies -proteins secreted by plasma cells -bind to antigens and mark for destruction -Agglutinins: antibodies in plasma ▯ transfusion mismatch **Agglutination: antibody molecule binding to antigens, causes RBC clumping ABO blood type is determined by presence/absence of antigens on RBC’s Rh Factor and PREGNANCY CHAPTER 17: Key Points ▯THE HEART▯ LOCATION: mediastinum FUNCTIONS: 1. pump blood throught pulmonary and systematic circuits 2. endocrine to maintain bp STRUCTURE: • Pericardium- membranous structure surrounding heart ( 2x walled) o Serosa= serous membrane • THE HEART WALL 1. Epicardium a. Visceral pericardium, serous covering b. Coronary blood vessels 2. Endocardium- smooth inner lining a. Covers valve surfaces 3. Myocardium- middle muscular layer of heart a. Fibrous skeleton of heart (collagen and elastic) b. Wringing motion Coronary Circulation: 5% of blood pumped from heart goes back to heart!!!! ARTERIAL CIRCULATION CORONARY CIRCULATION Angina & Heart Attack • Angina pectoris: chest pain from obstruction of coronary flow • Myocardial Infarction- heart attack o Some protection from arterial anastemoses The GREAT VESSELS • Superior & Inferior Vena Cava • Pulmonary Trunk • Pulmonary Veins • Aorta THE CHAMBERS • 4 chambers o R & L Atria ▯ 2 superior chambers ▯ receive blood returning to heart o R & L Ventricles ▯ 2 inferior chambers ▯ Pump blood into arteries ▯ L ventricle walls thicker and more muscular o Interatrial septum- separates atria o Interventricular Septum- muscular separation **pulmonary- short, low pressure (fed by R ventricle) **systemic- long, resistance (fed by L ventricle) THE VALVES▯ ensure one way flow 1. Atrioventricular Valves (AV)- flow b/t atria and ventricles a. Right AV Valve= tricuspid (3) b. Left AV Valve= bicuspid (2), mitral c. Chordae Tendineae: connect AV valves to papillary muscle 2. Semilunar valves- flow into great arteries; open/close because of blood flow & pressure a. Pulmonary: in opening between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk b. Aortic: in opening between L ventricle & aorta BLOOD FLOW THROUGH CHAMBERS 1. Blood in systemic capillaries delivers oxygen to body cells 2. Systemic veins return deoxygenated blood to the R atrium 3. Blood passes from R atrium through tricuspid valve to R ventricle 4. R ventricle pumps blood through pulmonary valve to trunk 5. Trunk delivers blood to pulmonary capillaries on R/L lungs where blood is oxygenated 6. Pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to L atrium 7. Blood passes from L atrium through mitral valve to L ventricle 8. L ventricle pumps blood through aortic valve to aorta 9. Aorta delivers blood to the systemic Capillaries 10.Cycle Repeats Two main types of Cardiac Cells • Pacemaker- (1%) rhythmically & spontaneously generate AP that trigger contractile • Contractile- (99%) transmit electrical signal from pacemaker cells to rest of body **autorhythmicity: Ability of cardiac muscle to set its own rhythm without a need for input from the nervous system Cardiac Muscle Structure • Cardiocytes: striated, short, thick, branched , central nucleus, glycogen • Intercalated Discs: Join cardiocytes end to end o 3 features not found in skeletal muscle i. Interdigitating folds ii. Mechanical Junctions 1. Fascia adnerens 2. Desmosomes iii. Eectrical Junctions (gap) !!!Damage repaired by fibrosis▯ irreversible!!! Electrophysiology •Voltage: Difference in electrical potential between two points •Membrane Potential: The voltage/charge difference that exists across the membranes of all cells, including excitable cells. •Resting Membrane Potential: The membrane potential of an excitable cell at rest (Avg. -60 and -90 mV). •Ion Gradient: Difference in the concentration of ions across a plasma membrane. •Current: Flow of ions or electrons with a chemical or electrical gradient. •Depolarization: Change in resting membrane potential to a less negative value. Occurs when positive charges rush into a cell. •Repolarization: The return of a cell to its negative resting membrane potential. Occurs when positive charges leave the cell. **Plateau Phase lengthens cardiac AP **Refractory Phase: pd. During which excitable cell cannot be stimulated again SA Node • Does not have stable resting potential▯ gradual depolarization from Na influx = pacemaker potential o slow inflow w/o compensation • when threshold is reached , calcium & sodium channels open • faster depolarization • K channels open & leave • Cycle restarts EACH DEPOLARIZATION OF SA NODE SETS OFF 1 HEARTBEAT **Entire ventricular myocardium in unison **Ventricular systole progresses up from the apex of the heart( wringing) CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM • Internal pacemaker & pathways in myocardium o No outside nervous stimulation necessary o All heart cells contract @ same time 2. signals spread 1. SA node throughout atria 3. AV node 5. Purkinje Fibers 4. AV Bundle Nerve Supply to Heart • Sympathetic▯ raise HR • Parasympathetic▯ slow HR ELECTROCARDIOGRAM P wave Atrial Depolarization QRS Complex Ventricular Depolarization T wave Ventricular Repolarization R-R Interval Duration of cardiac action potential P-R Interval Atrial depolarization and AV node delay Q-T Interval Duration of entire ventricular action potential S-T Segment Ventricular plateau phase Cardiac Rhythm • Sinus- normal • Ectopic Focus- another part of the heart fires before the SA node • Firing from part other than SA node (ectopic foci) o Nodal Rhythm: SA node damaged, heart rate set by AV node o Intrinsic Ventricular Rhythm: SA and AV not functioning▯ pacemaker required • Arrhythmia- any abnormal cardiac rhythm • Heart block-some signals not transmitted (no QRS) • Premature Ventricular Contractions- spontaneous firing of ectopic foci before SA node • Ventricular Fibrilation- no coordination, cardiac arrest Contractile Activity • Systole▯ atrial/ ventricular contraction • Diastole▯Atrial/ ventricular relaxation EVENTS 1. Ventricular Filling 2. Isovolumetric Contraction 3. Ventricular Ejection 4. Isovolumetric Relaxation CHAPTER 18: Key points ▯ Blood Vessels▯ Arteries: efferent path carrying blood AWAY from heart Veins: afferent path carrying blood TO heart Blood vessel STRUCTURE 1. Tunica interna a. Innermost, direct contact w/ blood b. Endothelium, elastic 2. Tunica media a. Middle muscular layer b. Controlled by sympathetic nervous system i. Vasoconstriciton, vasodilation 3. Tunica Externa a. Outermost collagenous Artery STRUCTURE 1. Elastic: thick walled, near heart 2. Muscular: blood to organs ( most arteries) 3. Arterioles: blood to capillary beds Vein STRUCTURE • Venules: result from convegence of capillaries • Veins: convergence of venules BLOOD DISTRIBUTION ROUTE▯ Heart Arteries Arterioles Veins venules Capillaries Simple: **Passes through ONE cap. Network between departure and return Portal: **2 consecutive networks Anastomosis: **where 2 blood vessels converge Atriovenous Anastomosis: **artery direcly into vein Venous Anastomosis: most common, one vein directly into another Arterial Anastomosis: 2 arteries merge, provides alternative routes Blood Flow= vol. of blood flowing for a given amount of time Cardiac output- 5-6 L/min Blood Pressure= force/unit area by blood on vessel wall !!!!!VESSEL RADIUS HAS GREATEST INFLUENCE ON BLOOD FLOW!!!! ▯ control of peripheral resistance Laminar Flow: flowing in layers, fastest at center • Aorta to capillaries… blood velo decreases o Greater distance o Smaller vessels o Farther from heart • Capillaries to Vena Cava… increases again o Veins are larger o More blood in smaller channels o Never regains velo of lrg. Arteries !!!Arterioles are most significant point of control over periph. Resistance and flow!!! Other Variables: • Blood viscosity • Vessel length BLOOD PRESSURE (systemic) **Heart pumping generates blood flow, resitance▯ pressure • Systolic- out of left vent into aorta (top #) • Diastolic- aorta recoil (bottom #) • PULSE PRESSURE= systolic- diastolic VENOUS RETURN 1. Pressure Gradient 2. Gravity 3. Skeletal Muscle Pump 4. Thoracic Pump 5. Cardiac Suction **EXERCISE increases venous return **INACTIVITY causes pooling 3 ways of controlling vasomotion: 1. Local a. Autorgulation b. Vasoactive chemicals i. During trauma/ stress c. Angiogenesis 2. Neural a. Vessels under remote control by central and autonomic NS b. VASOMOTOR CENTER▯ regulate blood vessel diameter c. Increased sympathetic Activity▯vasoconstriciton▯ increase bp d. Decreased Sympathetic Activity▯ vasodilation▯ decreased bp e. Changes detected by: f. Precapillary Sphincters ONLY respond to local/hormonal control bc no innervation g. Chemoreflex, chemoreceptors h. Primary role: adjust changes in respiration i. Secondary: Vasomotion j. Medullary Ischemic Reflex- auto response to a drop in perfusion of brain 3. Hormonal a. Vasoactive effects or water balance i. Angiotensin II- vasoconstrictor ii. Aldosterone- salt retainer iii. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide- increase sodium excretion iv. Antidiuretic v. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine effects CAPILLARIES 3 types 1. Continuous 2. Fenestrated 3. Sinusoidal Capillary Networks= BEDS ▯ not enough blood to fill all capillaries at once SO ¾ always shut down • Most important blood in body is in capillaries • Only exchange location with tissues, 2-way movement • Chemicals pass through by: o Endothelial cell cytoplasm o Intercellular clefts o Filtration pores ▯ Mechanisms: diffusion, transcytosis, filtration, reabsorption DIFFUSION: most important capillary exchange • Lipid- soluble substances • Water soluble substances TRANSCYTOSIS- endothelial cells pick up material on one side of the plasma membrane by pinocytosis or receptor-mediated endocytosis, transport vesicles across cell, and discharge material on other side by exocytosis . Filtration & Reabsorption • Filters out of arterial end of cap and osmotically enters @ venous end • Deliver to cell and rid waste • Blood hydrostatic pressure drives fluid out of capillary • COP draws fluid into capillary • Absorb~85% of filtered fluid, rest▯ lymph system EDEMA-excess fluid in tissue CAUSES 1. Increased capillary filtration 2. Reduced capillary absorption 3. Obstructed lymphatic Drainage Consequences • Tissue necrosis • Pulmonary Edema • Cerebral Edema • Severe Edema/ Circulatory Shock • Cardiac output doesn’t meed needs o Cardiogenic shock o Low venous return ▯ Hypovolemic Shock ▯ Obstructed Venous Return Shock ▯ Venous Pooling Shock • Forms of circulatory shock o Neurogenic- loss of vasometer tone, vasodilation o Septic- –Bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increased capillary permeability o Anaphylactic-–Severe immune reaction to antigen, histamine release, generalized vasodilation, increased capillary permeability • Responses: o Compensated shock ▯ Ex: fainting, horizontal- blood flows back o Decompensated ▯ When compensated mechanism fails


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