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UA / Biology / SCI 216 / what is Erythrocytes?

what is Erythrocytes?

what is Erythrocytes?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Human Physiology & Anatomy II
Professor: Austin hicks
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Description: Comprehensive study guide covering Chapters 17-19 for the first exam!
Uploaded: 09/11/2016
22 Pages 12 Views 6 Unlocks


what is Erythrocytes?

CHAPTER 19: Key Points 


blood info:  

• Liquid connective tissue  

• 5L in body @ given time

• 8% of total body weight

Blood is made up of plasma + formed elements

cell fragments  


cell FRAGMENTS that signal blood clotting is what?

extracellular  matrix  

suspended in  plasma  

what is Leukocytes?

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(erythrocytes,  leukocytes,  platelets)  

BLOOD We also discuss several other topics like mac 2311 fsu

• Erythrocytes-Red blood cells; oxygen transport

• Platelets- cell FRAGMENTS that signal blood clotting • Leukocytes- White blood cells,  Immune function/defense o 5 TYPES, 2 CATEGORIES 

✁ Granulocytes 

• Neutrophils

• Eosinophils

• Basophils

✁ Agranulocytes 

• Lymphocytes

• Monocytes

Hematocrit: % blood vol. that is RBC’s

o Erythrocytes= HEAVIEST (45%) 

o WBC’s & Platelets (1%) 

o Plasma= water, nutrients, proteins etc.  (55%) 

WHAT does BLOOD do!?

1. Transport oxygen, wastes, signaling molecules (hormones) 2. Protection against blood loss & infection

3. Regulation of body temp, pH, fluid volume

Plasma- 92%

Serum: remaining fluid  when blood clots

3 major categories of plasma proteins: 

1. Albumins: smallest, most  

a. Viscosity, osmolarity

2. Globulins: antibodies

a. Immune system functions

3. Fibrinogen etc.

a. Clotting


• No nucleus/ organelles

• Large Surface area: volume, **gas exchange**

• Primary Functions:

o Carry O2 from lungs ???? cell tissues  

o Pick up CO2 from tissues and bring to lungs

Hemoglobin: binds reversibly with O2



• Takes place in red bone marrow 

o Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC’s) produce formed elements

o 5-7 day process

o HSC’s differentiate into Colony-forming units (CFU’s) 

✁ Only produce one cell type

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Body maintains erythrocyte count: Negative Feedback Control • To avoid hypoxemia and viscosity

Iron Metabolism 

Erythrocyte Death 

1. Become trapped in spleen sinus

2. Spleen macrophages digest erythrocytes

3. Hemoglobin is broken down into amino acids, iron ions and billirubin 4. Billirubin sent to liver for excretion

4a. recycling 


-decrease in blood O2 carrying capacity, caused by kidney failure/dietary deficiency

3 main causes:

1. Decreased Hemoglobin

2. Decreased Hematocrit  

a. Blood loss

b. Rupture

c. Decreased production

3. Abnormal Hemoglobin

Nutritional Anemias:  

• Iron deficiency

• Pernicious  (b12 absorption and protein synthesis)


1. Tissue Hypoxia  

2. Reduced blood Osmolarity

3. Reduced Blood Viscosity


• Complete cells

• Less abundant than RBC’s

• Stay for few hours


**Diapedesis: travel out of cap. Into tissues

**Amoeboid motion



-lobed nuclei


-phagocytize bacteria  -3-5 lobed  



-2 lobes

-parasite destroying  


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-secretes histamine

-S shaped nuclei


-lack granules

-spherical/kidney shaped nuclei


-spherical nuclei

-blue rim

-destroy cancer cells etc.


-u shaped nucleus

- -dif. into macrophages

Leukopoiesis: production of WBC’s

• HSC’s????CFU’s????

1. Myeloblasts- neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

2. Monoblasts- monocytes

3. Lymphoblasts- all lymphocytes

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• FRAGMENTS of megakaryocytes

• Initiated by Thrombopoietin

• Functions

o Secrete vasoconstrictors

o Platelet plugs

o Clotting factors

o Clot dissolving

o Attraction

o Phagocytize and destroy

o Growth factors



Spasm  Plaetelet Plug  

Formation  Coagulation  

Thrombolysis  Clot reaction


***interaction between plasma proteins and erythrocytes (aka ANTIGENS and  ANTIBODIES)


- surface of cell membrane

- unique to individual

- distinguish self from foreign

- Agglutinogens: antigens  on surface of RBC???? basis for blood  typing


-proteins secreted by plasma cells

-bind to antigens and mark for destruction

-Agglutinins: antibodies in plasma ???? transfusion mismatch

**Agglutination: antibody molecule binding to antigens, causes RBC clumping ABO blood type is determined by presence/absence of antigens on RBC’s 

Rh Factor and PREGNANCY

CHAPTER 17: Key Points 


LOCATION: mediastinum


1. pump blood throught pulmonary and systematic circuits 2. endocrine to maintain bp


• Pericardium- membranous structure surrounding heart ( 2x walled) o Serosa= serous membrane


1. Epicardium

a. Visceral pericardium, serous covering

b. Coronary blood vessels

2. Endocardium- smooth inner lining

a. Covers valve surfaces  

3. Myocardium- middle muscular layer of heart

a. Fibrous skeleton of heart  (collagen and elastic)

b. Wringing motion

Coronary Circulation: 5% of blood pumped from heart goes back to heart!!!!



Angina & Heart Attack 

• Angina pectoris: chest pain from obstruction of coronary flow • Myocardial Infarction- heart attack  

o Some protection from arterial anastemoses


• Superior & Inferior Vena Cava

• Pulmonary Trunk

• Pulmonary Veins

• Aorta


• 4 chambers

o R & L Atria

✁ 2 superior chambers

✁ receive blood returning to heart  

o R & L Ventricles  

✁ 2 inferior chambers

✁  Pump blood into arteries

✁ L ventricle walls thicker and more muscular  

o Interatrial septum- separates atria  

o Interventricular Septum- muscular separation

**pulmonary- short, low pressure (fed by R ventricle)  

**systemic- long, resistance (fed by L ventricle)

THE VALVES???? ensure one way flow  

1. Atrioventricular Valves (AV)- flow b/t  atria and ventricles

a. Right AV Valve= tricuspid (3)

b. Left AV Valve= bicuspid (2), mitral

c. Chordae Tendineae: connect AV valves to papillary muscle

2. Semilunar valves- flow into great arteries; open/close because of blood flow  & pressure  

a. Pulmonary: in opening between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk b. Aortic: in opening between L ventricle & aorta


1. Blood in systemic capillaries delivers oxygen to body cells

2. Systemic veins return deoxygenated blood to the R atrium

3. Blood passes from R atrium through tricuspid valve to  R ventricle  4. R ventricle pumps blood through pulmonary valve to trunk

5. Trunk delivers blood to pulmonary capillaries on R/L lungs where blood is  oxygenated

6. Pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to L atrium

7. Blood passes from L atrium through mitral valve to L ventricle 8. L ventricle pumps blood through aortic valve to aorta

9. Aorta delivers blood to the systemic Capillaries

10. Cycle Repeats

Two main types of Cardiac Cells 

• Pacemaker- (1%) rhythmically & spontaneously  generate AP that  trigger contractile  

• Contractile- (99%) transmit electrical signal from pacemaker cells to  rest of body

**autorhythmicity: Ability of cardiac muscle to set its own rhythm without a  need for input from the nervous system

Cardiac Muscle Structure 

• Cardiocytes: striated, short, thick, branched , central nucleus, glycogen • Intercalated Discs: Join cardiocytes end to end  

o 3 features not found in skeletal muscle  

i. Interdigitating folds

ii. Mechanical Junctions

1. Fascia adnerens  

2. Desmosomes

iii. Eectrical Junctions (gap)

!!!Damage repaired by fibrosis???? irreversible!!! 


•Voltage: Difference in electrical potential between two points

•Membrane Potential: The voltage/charge difference that exists across the  membranes of all cells, including excitable cells.

•Resting Membrane Potential: The membrane potential of an excitable cell at rest  (Avg. -60 and -90 mV).

•Ion Gradient: Difference in the concentration of ions across a plasma membrane. •Current: Flow of ions or electrons with a chemical or electrical gradient. •Depolarization: Change in resting membrane potential to a less negative value.  Occurs when positive charges rush into a cell.

•Repolarization: The return of a cell to its negative resting membrane potential.  Occurs when positive charges leave the cell.

**Plateau Phase  lengthens cardiac AP

**Refractory Phase: pd. During which excitable cell cannot be stimulated again

SA Node 

•  Does not have stable resting potential???? gradual depolarization from Na  influx = pacemaker potential

o slow inflow w/o compensation

• when threshold is reached , calcium & sodium channels open

• faster depolarization

• K channels open & leave

• Cycle restarts


**Entire ventricular myocardium in unison

**Ventricular systole progresses up from the apex of the heart( wringing)


• Internal pacemaker & pathways in myocardium

o No outside nervous stimulation necessary

o All heart cells contract @ same time

1. SA node  2. signals spread  

throughout atria  3. AV node  

4. AV Bundle  5. Purkinje  


Nerve Supply to Heart

• Sympathetic???? raise HR

• Parasympathetic???? slow HR


P wave

Atrial Depolarization

QRS Complex

Ventricular Depolarization

T wave  

Ventricular Repolarization

R-R Interval

Duration of cardiac action potential

P-R Interval

Atrial depolarization and AV node delay

Q-T Interval

Duration of entire ventricular action


S-T Segment

Ventricular plateau phase

Cardiac Rhythm 

• Sinus- normal  

• Ectopic Focus- another part of the heart fires before the SA node • Firing from part other than SA node (ectopic foci)

o Nodal Rhythm: SA node damaged, heart rate set by AV node

o Intrinsic Ventricular Rhythm: SA and AV not functioning????

pacemaker required

• Arrhythmia- any abnormal cardiac rhythm

• Heart block-some signals not transmitted (no QRS)

• Premature Ventricular Contractions- spontaneous firing of ectopic foci  before SA node

• Ventricular Fibrilation- no coordination, cardiac arrest

Contractile Activity 

• Systole???? atrial/ ventricular contraction

• Diastole????Atrial/ ventricular relaxation


1. Ventricular Filling 

2. Isovolumetric Contraction 

3. Ventricular Ejection 

4. Isovolumetric Relaxation 

CHAPTER 18: Key points 

???? Blood Vessels✂ 

Arteries: efferent path carrying blood AWAY from heart 

Veins: afferent path carrying blood TO heart 

Blood vessel STRUCTURE 

1. Tunica interna

a. Innermost, direct contact w/ blood  

b. Endothelium, elastic

2. Tunica media  

a. Middle muscular layer  

b. Controlled by sympathetic nervous system

i. Vasoconstriciton, vasodilation

3. Tunica Externa

a. Outermost collagenous


1. Elastic: thick walled, near heart

2. Muscular: blood to organs ( most arteries)

3. Arterioles: blood to capillary beds


• Venules: result from convegence of capillaries

• Veins: convergence of venules



Heart Arteries   Arterioles  

Veins  venules  Capillaries

Simple: **Passes through ONE cap. Network between departure and return Portal: **2 consecutive networks

Anastomosis: **where 2 blood vessels converge

Atriovenous Anastomosis: **artery direcly into vein

Venous Anastomosis: most common, one vein directly into another Arterial Anastomosis: 2 arteries merge, provides alternative routes

Blood Flow= vol. of blood flowing for a given amount of time

Cardiac output- 5-6 L/min

Blood Pressure= force/unit area by blood on vessel wall

!!!!!VESSEL RADIUS HAS GREATEST INFLUENCE ON BLOOD FLOW!!!! ???? control of peripheral resistance

Laminar Flow: flowing in layers, fastest at center  

• Aorta to capillaries… blood velo decreases

o Greater distance  

o Smaller vessels  

o Farther from heart

• Capillaries to Vena Cava… increases again

o Veins are larger

o More blood in smaller channels

o Never regains velo of lrg. Arteries

!!!Arterioles are most significant point of control over periph. Resistance and flow!!! 

Other Variables:

• Blood viscosity  

• Vessel length

BLOOD PRESSURE (systemic) 

**Heart pumping generates blood flow, resitance???? pressure • Systolic- out of left vent into aorta (top #)

• Diastolic- aorta recoil (bottom #)

• PULSE PRESSURE= systolic- diastolic


1. Pressure Gradient

2. Gravity

3. Skeletal Muscle Pump

4. Thoracic Pump

5. Cardiac Suction

**EXERCISE increases venous return 

**INACTIVITY causes pooling 

3 ways of controlling vasomotion: 

1. Local  

a. Autorgulation

b. Vasoactive chemicals

i. During trauma/ stress

c. Angiogenesis

2. Neural 

a. Vessels under remote control by central and autonomic NS b. VASOMOTOR CENTER???? regulate blood vessel diameter

c. Increased sympathetic Activity????vasoconstriciton???? increase bp d. Decreased Sympathetic Activity???? vasodilation???? decreased bp e. Changes detected by:

f. Precapillary Sphincters ONLY respond to local/hormonal control bc  no innervation

g. Chemoreflex, chemoreceptors

h. Primary role: adjust changes in respiration

i. Secondary: Vasomotion

j. Medullary Ischemic Reflex- auto response to a drop in perfusion of  brain

3. Hormonal

a. Vasoactive effects or water balance

i. Angiotensin II- vasoconstrictor

ii. Aldosterone- salt retainer

iii. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide- increase sodium excretion iv. Antidiuretic

v. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine effects


3 types 

1. Continuous

2. Fenestrated

3. Sinusoidal

Capillary Networks= BEDS

???? not enough blood to fill all capillaries at once SO ¾ always shut down • Most important blood in body is in capillaries

• Only exchange location with tissues, 2-way movement

• Chemicals pass through by:

o Endothelial cell cytoplasm  

o Intercellular clefts

o Filtration pores

✁ Mechanisms: diffusion, transcytosis, filtration, reabsorption

DIFFUSION: most important capillary exchange

• Lipid- soluble substances

• Water soluble substances

TRANSCYTOSIS- endothelial cells pick up material on one side of the plasma  membrane by pinocytosis or receptor-mediated endocytosis, transport vesicles  across cell, and discharge material on other side by exocytosis  .

Filtration & Reabsorption 

• Filters out of arterial end of cap and osmotically enters @ venous end • Deliver to cell and rid waste

• Blood hydrostatic pressure drives fluid out of capillary  

• COP draws fluid into capillary

• Absorb~85% of filtered fluid, rest???? lymph system

EDEMA-excess fluid in tissue 


1. Increased capillary filtration

2. Reduced capillary absorption

3. Obstructed lymphatic Drainage


• Tissue necrosis

• Pulmonary Edema

• Cerebral Edema

• Severe Edema/ Circulatory Shock

• Cardiac output doesn’t meed needs

o Cardiogenic shock

o Low venous return

✁ Hypovolemic Shock

✁ Obstructed Venous Return Shock

✁ Venous Pooling Shock

• Forms of circulatory shock

o Neurogenic- loss of vasometer tone, vasodilation

o Septic- –Bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increased capillary  permeability

o Anaphylactic-–Severe immune reaction to antigen, histamine release,  generalized vasodilation, increased capillary permeability

• Responses:  

o Compensated shock

✁ Ex: fainting, horizontal- blood flows back

o Decompensated

✁ When compensated mechanism fails

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