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Study Guides

by: Emma Notetaker

Study Guides COM100

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These notes review Chapter 2 and Chapter 12 in the textbook. Quizzes will be given in class on these concepts.
Communications Global Age
Julie Lellis
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM100 at Elon University taught by Julie Lellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
Emma Sapio 9/9/16 Chapter 12 Study Guide: Media Theory and Research ● Propaganda - involves total control of information transmission, without audience knowing message controller. Limited info sources. ○ Hypodermic-needle model - assumes messages have profound, direct, and uniform individual impact ‘magic bullet’ model of Communication ○ Used describing WWI by Harold Lasswell ● Payne Fund Studies(1933)12 volume report said film effects on kids in wide areas(sleep patterns, violence attitudes, delinquent behavior, foreign culture knowledge). Same film varies in influence from background/characteristics ○ Create ‘school of the air’,radio to educate children and NCER (National Committee on Education by Radio) and 300k for broadcast reform ● Orson Welles(1939) show radio social effects saying martians invaded East Coast: concluding ⅙ listeners believed broadcast, showing power of mass comm ● Albert Bandura(1950s)said kids exposed to TV violence more likely to repeat ○ Bobo Doll Study - cannot confirm they stay violent out of lab ● APA TV violence report Big World Small Screen(1992):shows correlation between seeing violence/aggression, but correlation isnt causation. Don’t cause each other ● Television in the Lives of Our Children(1960)Wilbur Schramm, Jack Lyle, Edwin Parker: investigates impact of TV on NA children. Some children under some conditions exhibit negative exposure symptoms. Institutions(family, religion, school) more likely to influence behavior ● George Gerbner: cultivation analysis - argues TV cultivates audience reality view similar to TV program world, coined: ● Mean-world syndrome - people perceive world as more dangerous than actuality from viewing countless media violence(seniors stay inside)not uniform! ● Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann - spiral of silence: explains why people may be unwilling to publicly express possibly minority opinions. 3 Premises: ○ People have natural isolation fear ○ Out of this fear, people reluctant to express minority felt views ○ Quasi statistical, 6th sense organ, allows people to gauge popular opinion climate and determining majority views of public importance ● Third-Person Effect - tendency for people to underestimate effect of persuasive message on selves, overestimate effect on others. ● Uses and gratification Research: why people use media, what they do with it(not what it does to them) 3 basic claims: ○ People use media actively for own purpose ○ People know those purposes and can articulate them ○ Despite media use differences, basic common patterns exist ● Stuart Hall(1970s)Encoding/decoding model: states media producers encode media products w/meanings, decoded in various ways by various audiences (aka Active audience approach) choosing dominant, oppositional, or negotiated reading (varies with background, education, identity, social factors) ● Framing - presentation/communication of message in particular way to influence perception: messages framing potential gain promote behavior, discussing risk may actually encourage unprotected sex etc) ● Cultural Studies(1970s)-interdisciplinary frame work of comm study, rejecting scientific approach, investigating culture’s role creating/maintaining social relations and power systems ● Critical Theory-Marxist theoretical approach of ideology, exploitation, capitalism, and economy in understanding and transforming society ● Culture Industry-Frankfurt School idea: how media companies produce or make culture in same way other companies produce products ● Ideology - comprehensive, normative idea body & standard held by group/indiv ● Information society - society when information production supplants industrial production, dramatically transforming culture, economy, and politics ○ Education and training, over manual labor. Ideas, knowledge, creativity. ● Digital Divide - gap between regions and demographics with/without modern, digital communications access ● Political Economy - Marxist examination between political and economic relations with media ownership and societal influence w/status quo ○ Corporate interest put ahead of public (Robert McChesney) ● Media Ecology - study of media environments and effects on people/society: Marshall McLuhan:’medium is message,’ medium itself>content in perception ● Technological Determinism - belief technology causes certain behaviors ● Agenda setting - media’s role in deciding which topics to cover, changing what public finds important and worthy to discuss(Max McCombs, Donald Shaw) ● Longitudinal Study - gathers data on subjects over long period ● Cross-Sectional Study - gathers data on subjects at specific time points ● Epistemology - study/theory of limitations and validity of knowledge, framework for understanding world. Two kinds: 1. Positivsm: view, common among physical/natural/social scientists that affirms objective reality to be discovered and explained thru rigorous research 2. Postpositivsm - largely agrees with positivism, but also recognized knowledge may not be revealed thru scientific inquiry - Social constructionism - claims much or all of what we know/understand about world and scientific knowledge is constructed thru social interaction/language - Postmodernism - rejects grand narratives attempting to explain world and absolute truths(truth is relative and unknowable) - Pragmatism - affirms truths found in actions that work, rejects possibility of overarching or purely objective truth notions - Quantitative research - inquiry method, physical sciences, numerical/statistical data to measure and describe phenomena. Prove or disprove hypothesis with empirical data, controlled experiment - Sampling error - statistical analysis error(selected sample doesn’t represent population entirely) - Random sample - sample where every person has same chance of selection, represents entire population - Qualitative research - social sciences, explored unstructured phenomena w/ interviews, focus groups, participant observation - Ethnography - variety of qualitative research techniques involving immersion of research in particular culture to allow observation, participation, interviews, and interaction - Participant observation - qual. Method when researchers participate as group members of observed ­ Focus group - small group assembled by researchers to discuss topic. Closely observe interactions, record, and analyze to determine people’s opinions Emma Sapio 9/5/16 Study Guide: Expectations/Guidelines & Chapter II ● Julie C Lellis: Office Hrs M 2-:3:30, TT 12:30-2, by appt ● Considering importance of mass media in US and world with Converging Media ● Challenging, need to attend, pay attention, participate, take notes, study, think ● Moodle has assignments, updates, due dates, files, grades ● 2 assigned notetakers a day, handwritten notes, no phone/computer ● All students expected uphold 4 fundamental honor code values: honesty, integrity, responsibility, respect ● No plagiarism, lying, cheating, stealing, or academic dishonesty: F and suspension/expulsion ● Effective communication required: use office hours, email for 24-48hr response ● Open dialogue, free flow of ideas: don’t ask stupid or disrespectful questions(grade change, stupid ext) ● Deadlines important and firm (quality and accuracy, not effort graded) ● Late assignments significantly deducted, rare extensions for emergencies only ○ No final papers submitted more than 24hrs post deadline ● 24/7 rule: No grading questions until 24 hrs pass, must do it within 7 days or too late ● Can’t make up in class exercises. Must submit formal request in advance for in class makeup quiz ○ No makeup midterm unless emergency. Dif format, must request a final to dept chair ● Commitment 10%(attendance 40pts: 2 personal days, fail +5 missed, beyond case by case for emergencies with formal request), participation 50pts(in class ex5pts, prepared hw ptptn 15pts), engaged (25pts), professionalism(10pts): respect, humility, no tech, HW: Short Assignments 15%, Knowledge App: Exams 40%(2 exams, MC,short, essay not cumulative, presentations), Mini- Challenges: Quizzes(15%)10 inclass quizzes 10pts each with 1 pg written notes, work with ⅔ classmates 100 total pts poss, Critical Thinking/Research: Special Topic Analysis(20%):5pg discussion on mass comm Chapter 2 ● Media literacy - process of interacting with/critically analyzing media content considering presentation presentation, messages, ownership/regulation issues that affect what’s presented and what form Ways we receive messages: ● Semiotics - study of signs and symbols(signified, form, signified, and form represented) ● Framing - presentation and communication of message influencing our perception of it ● Echo Effect - Phenomenon when people surround themselves with online voices that echo and reinforce their views, believing they represent the majority (intensifying framed conversations) ● Media Grammar - underlying rules, structures, and patterns by which medium presents itself and is understood by aud ○ Print media, radio and recorded music, film/TV, digital media grammar(link, icon, zoom), commercial media debate, ● Actualities - edited audio clips from interviews with people ● Voice-over - unseen announcer/narrator talking while other activity takes place on radio or on TV scene ● Hypertext - text online linked by HTML coding to another web page/website to different part of same web page, link ● Laugh Track - TV sitcom device that generates prerecorded laughter times to coincide with punchlines of jokes ● Concentration of media ownership: less diversity and choices(large, multifaceted, and global) ● Influence our thinking and behavior ● Media Oligopoly - marketplace when media ownership/diversity are severely limited, actions of any single media group affect competitors a lot (content, price) ● Media Bias - real/perceived viewpoint held by journalists and new organizations slanting news coverage unfairly, contrary to professional journalism’s stated goals of balanced coverage and objectivity ● Developing Critical Media Literacy Skills with advs, movies, news, video games: What is the purpose of media content? Consider media source. Examine framing of media content. What stereotypes are presented? Question media ecosystem.Make media(media production skills, reconstruct) ● Information Overload - difficulties associated with managing and making sense of vast amounts of information available to us


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