Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Biology 1113
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessy Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1113 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 259 views. For similar materials see Biology 1113 in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Key points of What Is Science Science can be misused Theory Hypothesis Science has limits Science in inherently uncertain Science can be done poorly Human experimentation in WWII Science can be misleading Poorly conducted Data misrepresented Correlation does not equal causation Bias involved Outright lies Key points of the Science of Life (Water) Water has unique properties due to it’s structure and how it interacts with other molecules It is held together by polar covalent bonds O is slightly negative H is slightly positive Several water molecules are held together by Hydrogen bonds Properties of water 1. Cohesion Water molecules are held to each other by Hydrogen bonds 2. Adhesion Water molecules stick to other objects using Hydrogen bonds 3. Temperature regulation Water has a high specific heat It takes a large amount of heat to increase the temperature of water by just 1 degree celsius This helps organisms regulate their temperature 4. Expansion upon freezing Frozen water floats on liquid water Ice is less dense than liquid water because it is locked into a crystalline structure, leaving holes inside for air between the molecules 5. Versatility as a solvent Water is polar, so it can dissolve other polar molecules Key points of Carbon: The Backbone Of Life Carbon is special for 4 reasons 1. Carbon can form complex molecules and carbon skeletons Polypeptide chains DNA Sterol 2. Carbon is abundant 3. Carbon’s electron configuration allows it to bond up to four times Four electrons in it’s outer shell 4. Carbon can be directly used as an energy source Arrangement matters Structure equals function Isomers have the same compounds with the same molecular formula but a different arrangement of atoms Different arrangement means it has a different purpose Enantiomer mirror image of a molecule, but not the same thing Essential in the pharmaceutical industry Functional groups KNOW THESE!! Participate in chemical reactions in a predictable manner Can cause drastic changes in function Be able to recognize, locate, and define the following functional groups Hydroxyl group Carboxyl group Carbonyl group Amino group Sulfhydryl group Phosphate group Methyl group Group Drawing Formula Hydroxyl ROH Carboxyl RCOOH Carbonyl RCOR Amino RNH 2 Sulfhydryl RSH Phosphate ROPO(OH) 2 Methyl RCH 3 Key points of The Structure and Function of Large Molecules Polymer a long molecule consisting of similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds Building blocks = monomers Building Anabolism Dehydration reaction Removes a molecule of water from the molecule Forms a covalent bond to make a longer molecule Breakdown Hydrolysis Adds water to the molecule, which breaks a bond One less molecule of water created than there are monomers Carbohydrates Monosaccharide One saccharide molecule Glucose is the most common Disaccharide Two monosaccharides Sucrose (table sugar) Polysaccharide Several monosaccharides 3 carbons = aldose 4 carbons = ketose 5 carbons = pentose 6 carbons = hexose There are two reasons we make polysaccharides 1.) Storage Polysaccharides store excess glucose Plants store it as starch Animals store it as glycogen Highly branched to store more in less space 2.) Structure Chitin Main component in insect exoskeletons Cellulose Main component in plant cell walls Long strands group together to make fibers Does not branch Starch vs cellulose Not nutritionally equivalent Human bodies cannot break down cellulose Cellulose is an insoluble fiber Cows have a special bacteria in their stomach, so they can get energy from cellulose Human bodies do have the enzyme to digest starch The hydroxyl group is on the bottom Lipids NOT a polymer Hydrophobic Stay grouped together and do not mix with water Most biologically relevant lipids Fats Phospholipids Steroids Phospholipids Hydrophobic region The tail Middle of the cell membrane Does not allow things to pass through the cell membrane Hydrophilic region Head Makes up outer layer of cell membranes Steroids Characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings Distinguished by different chemical groups attached to the rings NOT a polymer (not produced by dehydration reactions) Cholesterol Important component of cell membranes Helps keep membrane fluid but also provides structure Precursor from which different steroids are synthesized Estrogen and testosterone Good cholesterol HDL = high density lipoprotein Cholesterol mixed with other lipids and proteins Binds to LDL and flushes it out of the body Bad cholesterol LDL = low density lipoprotein Cholesterol mixed with proteins Tends to get stuck in arteries to make plaque Proteins Responsible for almost everything an organism does Structurally diverse Wide range of functions Enzymatic proteins Catalyst of chemical reactions Storage proteins Store extra amino acids Defensive proteins Immune system Transport proteins Allows molecules to cross in and out of the cell Hormones Receptor proteins Help cells talk to one another Contractile and motor proteins Muscle Structural proteins Collagen Keratin Gives support Made from polypeptides Polypeptides Polymers constructed from amino acids A protein is a functional molecule that results from folding the polypeptide into its correct 3D shape Structure = function All amino acids share the same core structure (amino group, carbon, and carboxyl group) All differ at the R position What are essential amino acids? The human body cannot make these amino acids on our own Building a polypeptide Makes a peptide bond between 2 amino acids Dehydration reaction Composed of backbone and side chains Backbone: amino acid, carbon, carboxyl group over and over 4 levels of protein structure Primary Chain of amino acids The primary structure of a polypeptide is determined by the DNA sequence of that gene Secondary Repeating amino acids start to interact Hydrogen bonds between atoms of a polypeptide chain Alpha helix Spiral Beta sheet Accordion Tertiary Interactions between R groups Polypeptide folds in on itself Positive and negative charges are attracted Hydrophobic and hydrophilic Most proteins are done folding here Quaternary Not found in all proteins Aggregation of multiple polypeptides How important is folding? Misfolded proteins are associated with several diseases How important is one amino acid? DNA determines the synthesis of amino acids Changing one subunit in the primary structure changes the whole structure and function Nucleic Acids Made of nucleotides Joined by covalent bonds known as phosphodiester linkages Composed of 3 parts Nitrogenous base DNA: A, C, G, or T RNA: A, C, G, or U A and G are purines T, U, and C are pyridines 5carbon sugar Phosphate group Two types DNA Always double stranded 5' is the phosphate group 3' is the hydroxyl group Strands run antiparallel Bases are on opposite strands held together by Hydrogen bond Bases pair up in a specific manner Adenine with Thymine Guanine with Cytosine If you know one strand you know the other It is the specific sequence of bases that determines the order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain Function Contain genetic information RNA Translates the instructions Usually singlestranded Various functions Protein synthesis Gene expression Catalyze reactions Genetic material (found in some viruses) The Cell All organisms are made of cells Why are cells so small? Cells take in raw material and get rid of waste through the cell membrane If a cell gets too large, there is not enough surface area (membrane) to let everything pass Surface area increases while total volume remains constant You have increased the roadways in and out of the cells and keep the same volume Cells will either stop growing or split when it gets too big Prokaryotes Bacteria Much smaller No defined nucleus Nucleoid No membrane bound organelles Do have ribosomes Do have a cell membrane Eukaryotes Everything else True nucleus More complex Have a variety of organelles Has a cell membrane For the Exam: Any Tophat questions can be changed or reworded on the exam Have a good understanding of the roles everything plays in the big picture
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