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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jessy Notetaker

Exam 1 Study Guide Biology 1113

Jessy Notetaker
GPA 2.8

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About this Document

This study guide is pretty extensive, but I took it down to the main points. Also, this does not include week 4! The notes for week 4 will be available on Wednesday.
Biology 1113
Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein
Study Guide
Proteins, cells, Lipids, Biology, DNA, Carbohydrates, functional groups, carbon, Water
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessy Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1113 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 259 views. For similar materials see Biology 1113 in Biology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Key points of What Is Science  Science can be misused  Theory  Hypothesis  Science has limits  Science in inherently uncertain  Science can be done poorly  Human experimentation in WWII  Science can be misleading  Poorly conducted  Data misrepresented  Correlation does not equal causation  Bias involved  Outright lies    Key points of the Science of Life (Water)  Water has unique properties due to it’s structure and how it interacts with other  molecules  It is held together by polar covalent bonds  O is slightly negative  H is slightly positive   Several water molecules are held together by Hydrogen bonds  Properties of water  1. Cohesion  Water molecules are held to each other by Hydrogen bonds  2. Adhesion  Water molecules stick to other objects using Hydrogen bonds  3. Temperature regulation  Water has a high specific heat   It takes a large amount of heat to increase the temperature of water by  just 1 degree celsius   This helps organisms regulate their temperature  4. Expansion upon freezing  Frozen water floats on liquid water  Ice is less dense than liquid water because it is locked into a crystalline  structure, leaving holes inside for air between the molecules  5. Versatility as a solvent   Water is polar, so it can dissolve other polar molecules    Key points of Carbon: The Backbone Of Life  Carbon is special for 4 reasons  1. Carbon can form complex molecules and carbon skeletons  Polypeptide chains  DNA  Sterol  2. Carbon is abundant  3. Carbon’s electron configuration allows it to bond up to four times  Four electrons in it’s outer shell  4. Carbon can be directly used as an energy source  Arrangement matters  Structure equals function  Isomers­ have the same compounds with the same molecular formula but a  different arrangement of atoms  Different arrangement means it has a different purpose   Enantiomer­ mirror image of a molecule, but not the same thing  Essential in the pharmaceutical industry  Functional groups  KNOW THESE!!  Participate in chemical reactions in a predictable manner  Can cause drastic changes in function  Be able to recognize, locate, and define the following functional groups  Hydroxyl group  Carboxyl group  Carbonyl group  Amino group  Sulfhydryl group  Phosphate group  Methyl group    Group  Drawing  Formula  Hydroxyl  ROH  Carboxyl  RCOOH  Carbonyl  RCOR    Amino  RNH​ 2    Sulfhydryl  RSH    Phosphate  ROPO(OH)​ 2  Methyl  RCH​ 3          Key points of The Structure and Function of Large Molecules  Polymer­ a long molecule consisting of similar or identical building blocks linked by  covalent bonds  Building blocks = monomers  Building  Anabolism  Dehydration reaction  Removes a molecule of water from the molecule  Forms a covalent bond to make a longer molecule  Breakdown  Hydrolysis  Adds water to the molecule, which breaks a bond  One less molecule of water created than there are monomers  Carbohydrates  Monosaccharide   One saccharide molecule  Glucose is the most common  Disaccharide  Two monosaccharides  Sucrose (table sugar)  Polysaccharide  Several monosaccharides  3 carbons = aldose  4 carbons = ketose  5 carbons = pentose   6 carbons = hexose  There are two reasons we make polysaccharides  1.) Storage  Polysaccharides store excess glucose  Plants store it as starch  Animals store it as glycogen   Highly branched to store more in less space         2.) Structure   Chitin  Main component in insect exoskeletons  Cellulose  Main component in plant cell walls  Long strands group together to make fibers  Does not branch  Starch vs cellulose  Not nutritionally equivalent   Human bodies cannot break down cellulose  Cellulose is an insoluble fiber  Cows have a special bacteria in their stomach, so  they can get energy from cellulose  Human bodies do have the enzyme to digest starch  The hydroxyl group is on the bottom   Lipids  NOT a polymer  Hydrophobic  Stay grouped together and do not mix with water  Most biologically relevant lipids  Fats  Phospholipids  Steroids  Phospholipids  Hydrophobic region  The tail  Middle of the cell membrane   Does not allow things to pass through the cell membrane  Hydrophilic region  Head  Makes up outer layer of cell membranes  Steroids   Characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings  Distinguished by different chemical groups attached to the rings  NOT a polymer (not produced by dehydration reactions)  Cholesterol  Important component of cell membranes  Helps keep membrane fluid but also provides  structure  Precursor from which different steroids are  synthesized  Estrogen and testosterone  Good cholesterol  HDL = high density lipoprotein  Cholesterol mixed with other lipids and  proteins  Binds to LDL and flushes it out of the body  Bad cholesterol  LDL = low density lipoprotein  Cholesterol mixed with proteins  Tends to get stuck in arteries to make  plaque    Proteins   Responsible for almost everything an organism does  Structurally diverse  Wide range of functions  Enzymatic proteins  Catalyst of chemical reactions  Storage proteins  Store extra amino acids  Defensive proteins  Immune system  Transport proteins  Allows molecules to cross in and out of the cell  Hormones  Receptor proteins  Help cells talk to one another  Contractile and motor proteins  Muscle  Structural proteins  Collagen  Keratin  Gives support  Made from polypeptides  Polypeptides  Polymers constructed from amino acids  A protein is a functional molecule that results from folding the  polypeptide into its correct 3D shape  Structure = function  All amino acids share the same core structure (amino group, carbon, and  carboxyl group)  All differ at the R position  What are essential amino acids?  The human body cannot make these amino acids on our own  Building a polypeptide  Makes a peptide bond between 2 amino acids  Dehydration reaction  Composed of backbone and side chains  Backbone: amino acid, carbon, carboxyl group over and  over  4 levels of protein structure  Primary  Chain of amino acids  The primary structure of a polypeptide is determined by the DNA  sequence of that gene  Secondary  Repeating amino acids start to interact  Hydrogen bonds between atoms of a polypeptide chain  Alpha helix  Spiral  Beta sheet  Accordion  Tertiary  Interactions between R groups  Polypeptide folds in on itself  Positive and negative charges are attracted  Hydrophobic and hydrophilic  Most proteins are done folding here  Quaternary  Not found in all proteins  Aggregation of multiple polypeptides  How important is folding?  Misfolded proteins are associated with several diseases  How important is one amino acid?  DNA determines the synthesis of amino acids  Changing one subunit in the primary structure changes the whole structure and  function  Nucleic Acids  Made of nucleotides  Joined by covalent bonds known as phosphodiester linkages  Composed of 3 parts  Nitrogenous base  DNA: A, C, G, or T  RNA: A, C, G, or U  A and G are purines  T, U, and C are pyridines  5­carbon sugar  Phosphate group  Two types  DNA  Always double stranded  5' is the phosphate group  3' is the hydroxyl group  Strands run antiparallel  Bases are on opposite strands held together by Hydrogen bond  Bases pair up in a specific manner  Adenine with Thymine  Guanine with Cytosine  If you know one strand you know the other  It is the specific sequence of bases that determines the order of  amino acids in a polypeptide chain  Function  Contain genetic information  RNA  Translates the instructions  Usually single­stranded  Various functions  Protein synthesis  Gene expression  Catalyze reactions  Genetic material (found in some viruses)  The Cell  All organisms are made of cells  Why are cells so small?  Cells take in raw material and get rid of waste through the cell membrane  If a cell gets too large, there is not enough surface area (membrane) to let  everything pass  Surface area increases while total volume remains constant  You have increased the roadways in and out of the cells and keep the  same volume  Cells will either stop growing or split when it gets too big  Prokaryotes  Bacteria  Much smaller  No defined nucleus  Nucleoid  No membrane bound organelles  Do have ribosomes  Do have a cell membrane  Eukaryotes  Everything else  True nucleus  More complex  Have a variety of organelles  Has a cell membrane        For the Exam:  Any Tophat questions can be changed or re­worded on the exam  Have a good understanding of the roles everything plays in the big picture   


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