BIO 106 D, Week 2, Exam 1 Study Guide
BIO 106 D, Week 2, Exam 1 Study Guide BIO*106*D
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lydia Laws on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO*106*D at Elon University taught by Kathleen Gallucci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Biology: The Science of Life in Biology at Elon University.
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BIO 106 D Nature of Science Exam 1 Study Guide Nature Science Exam 1 Study Guide Scientific Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a tentative explanation about the natural world. o Tentative meaning not confident or unsure about the explanation. What makes a hypothesis scientific is that it must be testable and falsifiable o Testable meaning that it is true or false based on evidence obtained through the senses. o Falsifiable meaning that it can be disproved. Characteristics of hypothesis testing: o Tentativeness: Any uneasiness and therefore lack of confidence to prove a hypothesis true. o Confidence: Being optimistic and very sure of your findings o Usefulness of rejected hypothesis: This is actually a good thing. Hypothesis’ that are rejected help scientists rule out many possible explanation to help them narrow down the list to what can possibly be proven. o Luck: Sometimes we just get lucky! o Creativity: Thinking outside the box. o Perseverance: Never stop trying to find further explanations and evidence to support your findings. Formulating a hypothesis based on a question: o First you make an observation: The biscuits are too hard to eat. o Question: What needs to be added to make the biscuits fluffier? o Hypothesis: I hypothesize that adding Crisco will make the biscuits raise better. o Experiment: Add Crisco to the ingredients but keep everything else the same. BIO 106 D Nature of Science Exam 1 Study Guide o Results: The biscuits turned out to be fluffier. o Conclusion: By adding Crisco to the recipe, the biscuits were made bigger and fluffier. Scientific Variables: In the example above here is a list of the scientific variables of the experiment as well as the definition: Independent Variable: is what is being manipulated in the experiment as a potential cause. o The Crisco because it is being tested to see if it will make the biscuits fluffier. Dependent Variable: is the response, output or the effect under the investigation. o The fluffiness of the biscuits because we want to see if it improves the biscuit texture. It’s the outcome we desire to see. Control: a test of the value of the independent variable, or a test in the absence of the independent variable. o In this case, it would be the Crisco Controlled variables: Used to establish a baseline for the experiment. It may be the explanation for the observations but is held constant while another independent variable is being tested. o The biscuits according to the original recipe before adding the Crisco. They are compared to the recipe under experimentation. Hypothesis vs. Prediction: Hypothesis is a tentative explanation BIO 106 D Nature of Science Exam 1 Study Guide A prediction refers to what behavior is expected if the hypothesis is supported. Baloney Detection Kit: 1. How reliable is the source of the claim? 2. Does the source makes similar claims? 3. Have the claims been verified by someone else? 4. Does this fit with the way the world works? 5. Has anyone tried to disprove the claim? 6. Where does the preponderance of the evidence point? 7. Is the claimant playing the rules of science? 8. Is the claimant providing positive evidence? 9. Does the new theory account for as many phenomena as the old theory? 10. Are personal beliefs driving the claim? BDK Items: o Independent confirmation o Debate the evidence o No authorities o Spin more than 1 hypothesis o Don’t get attached to one hypothesis o Every link in the chain must work o Occam’s Razor o Hypothesis must be falsifiable Evidence used in science: Anecdotal: stories that involve unique events with a sample size of one or very few. The results do not follow from a carefully designed test. o Value: Human interest, raises questions, gives a timeline o Problems: not controlled, only one subject; does not show cause and effect; not quantified and not really evidence Observational or Descriptive: Some structure, events, people, etc., are carefully described and measured in detail. There is no attempt to do a correlation or an experiment. o Values: larger sample; objective; provides data BIO 106 D Nature of Science Exam 1 Study Guide o Problems: multiple variables and no control Correlation: studies that are not controlled experiments, but show how one factor tends to change in a regular way with another factor o Values: pattern seen; not necessarily causation o Problems: lacks a control, but is implied Controlled experiment: an experiment in which the independent variable is manipulated while the rest of the variables are controlled. The effect of that one variable on the dependent variable can be observed. In a well designed experiment, all possible controlled variables are identified and held constant. o Values: controlled; quantified; variables separated o Problems: rats are not humans; assesses second hand smoke, not smoking effects. Also sometimes what effects animals does not have the same effect on humans and vice versa. Observation vs. inference: Observation: Is noting a fact about something by using your five senses (sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing) Inference: is a conclusion that is arrived at by reasoning from evidence. o Only as good as knowledge base (pure science) Junk Science: has issues with evidence Similar to pseudoscience because it is another type of invalid science, but it occurs when gathering and interpreting data are not sufficient or supportive. The data is unreliable and incomplete. BIO 106 D Nature of Science Exam 1 Study Guide Consider the following to determine junk science: o Certain evidence is ignored o The data is insufficient and unsupportive o Overall the data and analysis are bad quality o The correlation is faulty o The evidence does not converge o The experimental control is ignored o Poor peer review An example of junk science would be the FDA trying to convince e-cigarette users that e-cigs are a danger to their health and well being because the liquid within e-cigs contains levels of carcinogen. o The FDA is only concerned with this one piece of evidence and believe it negatively effects all users. BDK questions for junk science: o Have the claims been verified by someone else? o Where does the preponderance of the evidence point? o Is the claimant providing positive evidence? o Does the new theory account for as many phenomena as the old theory? Precautionary Principle: is used to cope with possible risks when trying to understand something scientific is not complete. Human activities may lead to harm of life that is applauded by science but is uncertain and could be unmoral. o Examples: genetic engineering, nano technology Post hoc, ergo propter hoc: Latin for, “After this, therefore because of this” If you look at the breast implant case study, after women got implants, there were reported cases and stories of them BIO 106 D Nature of Science Exam 1 Study Guide developing illness, hysteria and very emotional, but there was no confirmation of the evidence. Social and cultural influences of Science: Use of acquired scientific knowledge has implications for society and politics (The fish kill mystery) Attitudes and opinions may influence interpretation of data (Breast implant case study) Government accountability may take preference over evidence (times beach study) Science cannot be used to legitimize personal beliefs and it cannot answer all questions Science can never be completely objective Valid Science: example would be the science described in the Fish Kill Mystery Hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable o Everything must be tested and competing ones must be developed Must be based on evidence o Collected by observation or experiment Objective methods must be used o With a control and controlled variables Conclusions must be universally valid o A discovery or claim must be confirmed Antiscience: Rejects everything in science as well as the scientific method. A position of critical science. Personal beliefs, political agendas, biases and popular beliefs influence conclusions BDK questions for Antiscience: BIO 106 D Nature of Science Exam 1 Study Guide o 1. How reliable is the source of claim? o 2. Does the source make similar claims? o 10. Are personal beliefs driving the claim? Example: attempting to discredit scientists and their findings (i.e. The Big Bang Theory) Pseudoscience: o Any type of study in any field that cannot be tested by science. o Example: The previous owners of my house said that there is an invisible man in my attic. There is no way to scientifically prove that there is an invisible man in your attic because someone says so, unless you’re Ghostbusters (joking). BDK questions: o Does this fit with the way the world works? o Has anyone tried to disprove the claim? o Is the claimant playing by the rules of science? Theory: A well-substantiated explanation that is broader than a hypothesis. o They have not been shown to be false o But it explains multiple observations o It is never disproved, but can be improved o A theory is a body if knowledge that explains a phenomenon o Theories seek to increase understanding on something Example: The Cell Theory states that all living organisms consists of cells that were from preexisting cells. Law: A generalized statement about how some aspects of the natural world behaves under certain circumstances. o After observations it is considered an obvious fact. BIO 106 D Nature of Science Exam 1 Study Guide Example: Laws of Gravity; it is obvious that when a pear falls off of a tree it is going to hit the ground. It cannot be denied that truth. Fact: An observation that has been repeatedly confirmed. Deontological Arguments: the rightness or wrongness of the act depends on the act itself, not its consequences. Example: Killing someone is wrong, even if someone can argue they were using self-defense Utilitarian Arguments: Acts are judged right or wrong according to their consequences. Example: When parents decide to select an embryo that is free of an inherited disease Ernyst Mayr’s definition of life: Living organisms are living systems with emergent properties The activities of living organisms are governed by a generic program
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