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LSU / Animal Science / ANSC 1011 / What is the row crop farming?

What is the row crop farming?

What is the row crop farming?


School: Louisiana State University
Department: Animal Science
Course: Introduction to Animal Science
Professor: T. bidner
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: IntroductiontoAnimalSciences, ThomasBidner, and ANSC1011
Cost: 50
Name: ANSC 1011 Section 1 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Description: This study guide contains terms and main ideas from the first lecture all the way up until the female reproduction lecture. Textbook/lecture notes Email me at trahan1997@ymail.com for further questions!
Uploaded: 09/11/2016
9 Pages 112 Views 4 Unlocks

ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

What is the row crop farming?


Most of the major terms/people and definitions will be on here.

Introduction to Animals Sciences: Domesticated Animals

∙ Domesticated animals serve many purposes, however the primary purpose is food ∙ Truck Farming: growing vegetables, fruits, and even flowers on a commercial basis o Provides food just for the human population

∙ Row Crop Farming: major crops are corn and soybean (food mainly for animals) ∙ Livestock Production

o Beef feedlots don’t usually keep and feed animals for very long

o Poultry (broilers- meat chickens) and Swine

▪ Desired color for both commercial groups is white

What is the eight categories of feedstuff classification?

∙ Looks better than darker hair/feathers on a carcass Don't forget about the age old question of What is meant by band theory?

∙ Domestication: the process by which humans take wild species and acclimatize them to  breed and survive in captivity

o Dogs were domesticated first around 14,000 years ago

▪ Started with the Russians breeding foxes to get the tamest  

o Sheep: 10,000 years ago

o Goats, hogs, and cattle: 8,500 years ago

∙ Animal science specialties

o Animal breeding (applied genetics): understanding genes and improving animals ▪ GMO’s- we can modify organisms at a lot higher rate than long ago

∙ Some think this is bad but it occurs naturally, we just accelerated it

What is the threee layers of uterus?

Don't forget about the age old question of How are chromosomes inherited at cell division?

o Nutrition: feeding animals and finding the best things to feed them  

o Physiology: studying all the mechanisms of animal life (systems, etc.) o Animal health: studying diseases, parasites, and environmental factors (vets) o Ethology: studying animal behavior (some consider it controversial)

▪ Some believe that animals have human characteristics and the controversy  comes from the idea that humans shouldn’t be used for food  

o Biotechnology: technological applications of modern biology (cellular, molecular) ∙ Animal Distribution  We also discuss several other topics like What is the average rate of change formula?

o 19.7 billion poultry (more than any other specie)

o 1.4 billion cattle (beef and dairy)

o 1.08 billion sheep (on the decline since many people don’t wear as much wool) o 93 million pigs (provide the most food products than any other specie) o 84 million goats (increasing)

∙ Animal Contributions to Mankind

o Food- meat, milk, blood, and fat

o Body covering- wool, leather, pelts, and hides

o Work- field work and transportation (not very much anymore)

o Body wastes- fuel, fertilizer (N-P-K), construction material, and feed

o Other- capitol storage, income, prestige, religion, by-products, companionship  ∙ Nutrient dense: measure of the chemical substances of food that provide nourishment as  compared to the calories Don't forget about the age old question of What is the copernican principle and what does it imply?

∙ Essential amino acids: smallest complete unit of a protein that is required by the body  but cannot be manufactured at a rate needed for growth, reproduction, or milk production

ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

∙ Meat

o Pig is the most important source

o Poultry is number one if you combine meat and eggs  

o Pork, poultry, and beef make up 90% of meat consumed 

∙ Animals convert inedible feeds to valuable food for humans  

o Animals get rid of what we can’t consume (2/3 of animal feeds is not suitable for  human consumption)

The Value of Animals to Mankind

∙ Food uses of animal products

o Meat: nutrients provided are important for survival  

o Protein and energy: protein (amino acids), energy measured as calories o Vitamins: fat and water soluble

o Minerals: macro and micro minerals

o Essential fatty acids: linoleic and linolenic acids

∙ Meat consumption!!!

o #1 is pork

▪ 2/5 of the meat in the world is pork We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 levels of measurement?

∙ They have the most offspring per litter 

∙ Reproduce fastest (3 month 3 weeks and 3 days) 

∙ Takes a short time (about 5 months) to reach market weight 

∙ Variety Meats: edible by-products- heart, tongue, liver, etc.

∙ Milk products and eggs We also discuss several other topics like What is the history of horticulture?

o Very high quality foods (nutrient dense and essential fatty acids)

o Milk sources: cows- 84%, buffalo- 12%, remainder- sheep, camel, and goats o Eggs: mainly chicken eggs (large producer near Denham Springs- Cal Maine) ▪ Metric tons of eggs is slightly less than poultry meat

∙ Non-food uses of animals

o Body coverings, power, body wastes (construction, manure and compost, fuel),  pest and weed control, storage of capitol and food (animals can be a sign of  wealth)

∙ Cultural uses: religion, exhibition and spectator sports (rodeo, livestock shows),  companionship and service, social structure (dowry)

∙ Non-food by-products: blood, bones, etc.

∙ Other uses: large source of income for the US ($185-200 billion)


∙ Ruminants

o Goats, cattle, deer, sheep, etc.- FOUR COMPARTMENT STOMACH o Eat mainly grasses- because of the rumen (the fermentation vat)

▪ Need a good bit of forage to feed the bacteria in the rumen  

∙ Very efficient at digesting cellulose (symbiotic relationship)

∙ Non-ruminants  

o Horses, pigs, dogs, chickens, cats, etc.-Simple-stomach (mono-gastric)

ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

∙ Basic vs. Applied  

o Basic- people are trying to explain why (more for knowledge sake) o Applied- more interested in the outcome (directly benefits the livestock) ∙ Feed costs (highest cost of production for animals) as a % for total production costs for  the various species:

o Swine: 60-70%

o Beef cattle (feedlot): 70%

o Chickens: 55-65%

o Lambs: 50%

▪ So least cost rations are important!! 

∙ Functions of feeds that provide nutrients

o Maintenance: maintain the body at a constant weight and temperature  ▪ Burning the equal number of calories that you take in (calories in calories  out)

o Growth: deposition of weight (true growth- mainly muscle (younger animals) o Production: output of products (meat, eggs, wool, milk, etc.)

o Work: actual work (need high calorie feed for performance)- hunting dogs, etc. o Reproduction: essential function to the survival of the species

▪ 1st trait affected by inadequate nutrition

▪ Stops cycling if you get too skinny- don’t want to get pregnant if too thin ∙ Six classes of Nutrients

o Proteins (amino acids)

o Carbohydrates (CHO)

o Fats (lipids)

o Vitamins (vital amine)

o Minerals

o Water  

▪ FATS are the biggest source of energy- are the first thing deposited  throughout the body because it stores the most energy  

▪ CARBOHYDRATES give are second to fats in giving energy and are a  primary component of most livestock feed because it’s cheaper 

▪ PROTEINS give the least amount of energy: takes more energy to digest  it than it’s worth if you want to gain weight

∙ Water: most important, abundant, and cheapest nutrient and is often overlooked o Sources: drinking, feedstuffs (most feeds have a % of water), and metabolic  H20

o Functions- transport nutrients, other compounds, and wastes

o Regulates body temperature, regulates and cushions joints, solvent for solids ∙ Carbohydrates: major part of livestock feeds because it is cheap

o Sugars, starches, cellulose, etc.

o NOT EXACTLY REQUIRED IN THE DIET FOR NON-RUMINANTS  ▪ We can obtain glucose from amino acids, VFA’s, and glycerol  


ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

∙ Proteins

o Long chains of amino acids

o 10 essential amino acids


▪ Methionine, Arginine, Tryptophan, Threonine, Histidine, Isoleucine,  Leucine, Lysine, Valine, and Phenylalanine

∙ Poultry has two more- glycine and proline

∙ Cats- taurine (get this through meat)

∙ Can be produced synthetically  

∙ Considered non-essential  

o Functions: components of lean tissue, basic structural unit of the body ▪ GENES CODE FOR PROTEINS

▪ Metabolism: immune system, transmission of heredity, enzymes

▪ Energy  

∙ Lipids (fats)

o Esters (groups of things/chains) of fatty acids and glycerol  

o Provides 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates on an equal weight basis o Essential fatty acids: Linoleic (w-6), linolenic (w-3), arachidonic  

o Functions:  

▪ Extra fat allows the female to cycle and reproduce

▪ Diet: energy supply, provides essential fatty acids, necessary for the  absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins

▪ Body: insulation, heat, protection (cushion), energy storage

∙ Vitamins  

o Organic compounds needed in small amounts for growth and maintenance o Functions

▪ Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)

∙ Regulation of body functions (vision, blood clotting, and tissue  


∙ Can quickly become toxic if you take too much because fat-soluble  vitamins are absorbed/dissolved more slowly  

▪ Water-soluble vitamins (vitamin c, niacin, biotin, choline, cobalamin,  folic acid)

∙ Body metabolic regulation

∙ Take these almost daily because they are quickly absorbed

∙ Minerals  

o Inorganic compounds (bones and teeth)

o Macrominerals (trace minerals)

▪ Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), etc.

▪ Needed in larger quantities

o Microminerals

▪ Iron (Fe), iodine (I), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), etc.


ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

GI Tract and Nutrition  

∙ Digestion: the physical, chemical, and enzymatic means the body uses to break down  feed/food in order to absorb nutrients for sustaining life

∙ Methods of digesting

o Physical or mechanical- chewing (mastication) or muscular action (peristalsis)  o Chemical action- hydrochloric acid or bile

o Enzymes- catalysts (speed up the reaction)

∙ Steps of digestion

o Prehension- process by which the animal brings food into its mouth

o Mastication- chewing

▪ to reduce particle size for swallowing  

▪ Ruminants- chewing their cud (rumination) 

∙ Increases the pH of the rumen because saliva is basic

∙ Needs a lot of forage to keep a healthy rumen  

∙ Poultry  

o Don’t have teeth at all  

o Crop is a sack that holds extra food to be digested

o Proventriculus- the stomach  

▪ the gizzard, which stores small stones for grinding, is located behind it  ∙ Digestion  

o Stomach- where chemical and enzymatic digestion begins

o Food is churned by peristalsis and mixed with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and  enzymes (pepsin)

▪ HCl???? denatures protein, allows for hydrolysis by enzymes, kills bacteria ▪ Pepsin???? breakdowns protein

o Small Intestine (3 parts): function is to absorb water, electrolytes, vitamins,  minerals, and VFA’s produced by bacteria

▪ Duodenum (duodenal loop)- bile and pancreatic enzymes are secreted and  is a major site of chemical breakdown of food

▪ Jejunum- longest part where some digestion occurs but the main function  is absorption of nutrients

▪ Ileum- connecting to the large intestine, some digestion takes place

o Large intestine (3 parts): function is the same as the small intestine

▪ Colon  

▪ Cecum  

▪ Rectum  

∙ Excretion

o Defecation: elimination of excrement from the body via the rectum or cloaca o Micturition: process of urination which is the major way that excess nitrogen is  excreted, ammonia is converted to:

▪ Urea (mammals): CO(NH3 )2

▪ Uric acid (birds and other species)- C5 H4 N3 O3  

∙ This is because birds don’t have both a urethra and poop shoot

∙ Comes out the same place  

∙ Is white and takes less water than compared to urea- important for  

poultry they don’t have access to water when they are in the egg

ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

∙ Horse GI Tract

o Stomach- small, so feeding is frequent

▪ Has one-way peristaltic movements: can’t belch/regurgitate???? COLIC ∙ Colic is a buildup of gas that can’t be passed

o Small intestine: site of absorption and digestion, no gallbladder so bile is excreted  constantly, not as long as the human small intestine

o Large intestine (cecum/colon): way larger than ours

▪ Hindgut fermentor: microbial fermentation takes place

▪ The cecum is equivalent to the appendix

▪ Microbial protein not utilized much by the horse

∙ Coprography: the eating of feces (only if protein is deficient)

o Must have better quality feed (protein)

o The horse is less efficient than ruminants in feed utilization (2/3 for fiber) ▪ Ass backwards because of digestive system (fermentation in large  


∙ Ruminant Digestion

o Main function is the digestion of cellulose


o Rumen (paunch) accounts for 20% of bodyweight

▪ Contain microbes (bacteria/protozoa) that breakdown cellulose and starch  into VFA’s (you are feeding the animal and the bacteria)

∙ Can’t switch feeds straight away (have to do it gradually because  

the bacteria are not adjusted to the new feed)- BACTERIA WLL  


▪ A pH of 6 is normal (slightly basic): chewing the cud increases the pH of  the rumen, mixes fermentation fluid, and reduces particle size 

▪ Papillae increase absorptive surface area of rumen  

∙ Too low of a pH will destroy the papillae (animals on feedlots)

▪ High grain feeds???? RUMEN ACIDOSIS

∙ Fermentation of starches in grains happens rapidly, decreases pH

o Reticulum (honeycomb)- essentially an open compartment connecting to rumen ▪ Site of microbial action and of initiation of stomach contractions

o Omasum (manyplies)

▪ Can be surgically removed without any negative side effects

▪ Function: absorption of water and VFA’s and reducing particle size  o Forestomach: rumen, reticulum, and omasum combined

▪ Microbes in stomach can utilize Non Protein Nitrogen to convert to  microbial protein


o Abomasum- the true stomach (equivalent to simple stomached animals) ∙ Fermentation

o Very slow process (takes days) that allows the animal to utilize cellulose o Plant material stays in the rumen until particle size fits through omasal orifice o Rumination: highly digestible food is retained and the cow chews its ‘cud’ o Rumen contents must constantly be stirred  

o Eructation: elimination of gases by controlled belchin

ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

o Bloat: something goes wrong and gases accumulate, usually due to froth and  bubbles caused by early growth clovers in the spring

∙ VFA’s

o Acetic acid- CH3 COOH: colorless liquid, sour taste and pungent smell o Propanoic acid- CH3 CH2 COOH

o Butyric acid- CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH



o Main source of glucose, converted by the liver for brain function and milk prod.

Feedstuff Classification  

∙ Eight Categories

o Dry forages and roughages- hay, fodder, cottonseed hulls, square bales ▪ Easy to transport

▪ Very low moisture, protein 2-30%

o Pasture, range plants, and green forage- grasses, wheat pasture

o Silages and baleage- process of ensiling under anaerobic conditions, fermented  plant materials

▪ common storage method for feed, but does not improve quality

▪ Silages are usually fed to beef cattle on the feed lot (corn silage)

∙ Corn silage: harvests the whole plant (good forage)

▪ Ensiled round bales, corn harvest/shelled corn

o Energy feeds

▪ High starch (carbohydrates), NFE (nitrogen free extract)

▪ Cereal grains: low protein quality, low Ca, moderate P

∙ Not worried as much about quality because the bacteria are being  

fed first for the ruminants

∙ Corn, grain sorghum (milo), wheat, by-products

o Protein supplements (greater than 20% crude protein)

▪ Mostly plant sources- corn gluten meal (CGM), cottonseed meal (CSM),  and soybean meal (SBM)

▪ Animal sources (more expensive)- fishmeal, dried skim milk,  

▪ Nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)- urea (more for ruminants (microbial protein)) ▪ HOW MUCH?? SHOULD NOT EXCEED ONE-THIRD OF  


▪ Very expensive feeds: plant source- primary from meal of oilseeds,  

usually more than 40% protein (soybean meal)

o Mineral Supplements: needed in small amounts; IMPORTANT TO BALANCE ▪ Macro- Ca, P, S, Na, K, Cl

▪ Micro- Mg, Mn, Cu, Se, Fe, Co, Zn, Mb

▪ Salt, bonemeal, dicalcium phosphate, rock phosphate, premixed, etc.

o Vitamin Supplements: some vitamins interact with minerals

▪ Added to mineral supplements for grazing animals, or as part of diet in  finishing diets

o Non-nutritive Additives: large group of ingredients added to diets for reasons  other than their nutritive value (stimulate growth, enhance health, etc.)

ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

∙ Good quality forage: relatively immature, green, leafy, not much stems, free of mold,  palatable, and free of foreign material

o The first cut is the best in terms of nutritional value

o Legumes vs. alfalfa: alfalfa and clovers usually higher quality than grasses ∙ Amino Acids

o First rate limiting amino acid: the first amino acid that restricts the performance  of the animal

o Will be an essential amino acid such as lysine, methionine, or tryptophan

Female Reproductive System

∙ Reproduction is the most economically important trait in farm animal production o Production of young is the primary determinant of income for most species o Increasing reproductive efficiency will increase financial returns

∙ Female Reproductive Tract  

o Vulva: external genitalia (Vu)

o Vagina: organ of copulation (Ve, Cv)

o Cervix: barrier to pathogens (CX)

o Uterus: site of fetal development (Uh)

o Oviduct: transportation of oocyte and sperm

o Ovary: oocyte development (O)

o Broad ligament: (BL)

∙ Uterus: site of fetal development; connects oviduct to cervix

o Three layers:

▪ Perimetrium (outermost layer)

▪ Myometrium (middle layer)

▪ Endometrium (innermost layer, layer women shed out)

o Species differences:  

▪ Simplex: no uterine horns, one cervix, primates and people

▪ Duplex: two cervices, marsupials and rabbits

▪ Bicornuate: poorly to moderately developed uterine horns, horses and cow ∙ Oviduct: transport of oocyte (unfertilized egg) and sperm between ovary and uterus o equivalent to the fallopian tubes in women  

o Three segments:

▪ Isthmus: closest to uterine horn

▪ Ampulla: middle section

▪ Infundibulum: closest to the ovary, catches egg after ovulation

∙ Ovaries: female gonads; produces oocytes, which develop within follicles o Produces hormones: estradiol (stimulates follicles) and progesterone (stim. CL) o Two primary regions in the ovaries:

▪ Cortex: the outer part, from which the egg breaks through

▪ Medulla: the middle, from which the egg is formed

o The horses’ ovary is different as compared to other species, with the medulla  being where the cortex should go  

∙ Phases of Follicular Development

o Folliculogenesis: immature follicles develop into more advanced follicles that  may become candidates for ovulation

ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan

o Preantral Phase: follicle starts filling with follicular fluid

o Antral Phase: filled with follicular fluid

o Preovulatory Phase

o Ovulation: the release of an oocyte (egg) from the ovary

o Corpus Luteum: after ovulation, the follicle sack becomes the corpus luteum  ▪ If pregnant, stays in the ovary instead of dying away and produces enough  progesterone to stop the next cycle

o Luteolysis: stage where the CL regresses into nothing (cell death)

∙ 4 Classes of Hormones

o Proteins: gonadotropins- LH, FSH, GnRH

o Monoamines: serotonin, melatonin

o Lipid hormones: (based on fat molecules) eicosanoids- prostaglandins o Steroids: estrogens, progesterone, testosterone

∙ Estradiol (steroid): from the antral follicle and it causes an LH surge and changes estrus  behavior

∙ Progesterone (steroid): from the corpus luteum and maintains pregnancy ∙ Luteinizing Hormone (LH) (protein): from the anterior pituitary and causes ovulation  and CL formation

∙ Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) (protein): from the anterior pituitary and  stimulates follicles to grow  

∙ Prostaglandin F2 α (eicosanoid): from the uterus and causes luteolysis of the CL ∙ Control of Reproduction (describes how the hormones react with each other) o Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

o Hypothalamus: control center of reproduction- gonadotropin releasing hormone  (GnRH)

o Pituitary: responds to GnRH to release either FSH or LH

o Ovary secretes estradiol and progesterone in response to FSH/LH

∙ Estrous Cycle Terminology  

o Estrous (adj): pertaining to the cycle (estrous cycle)

o Estrus (noun): period of sexual receptivity  

o Diestrus (noun): period of sexual non-receptivity  

o Anestrus (adj): absence of an estrous cycle

o Anovulatory: absence of ovulation

o Polyestrous: displaying numerous estrous cycles (people)

o Seasonally Polyestrous: displaying numerous estrous cycles only during specific  times of the year

∙ Estrous Cycle

o Equivalent to the menstrual cycle, which is only in primates and people o Period of reproductive cyclicity throughout a female’s adult life  

o Two primary phases

▪ Follicular Phase: a short period of estrus up until ovulation  

∙ Dominated by estradiol  

▪ Luteal Phase: longer period from ovulation until luteolysis  

∙ Include development and function of the CL

∙ Dominated by progesterone

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