GEO 101, Exam Study Guides
GEO 101, Exam Study Guides GEO 101
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karly Danos on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 101 at Miami University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see in Geography at Miami University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 – CHAPTER 1 GEOGRAPHY MATTERS What is Geography? o Spatial Science o Academic Discipline – Define subfields Human Geography Physical Geography GIS o Purpose- Areal variation – place to place What is Place? o Definitions o Characteristics of place Influence of Place: well being, opportunities, lifestyle, commonsense knowledge What are food deserts, what is role of access to well being Place is Dynamic: can change in terms of boundaries, conditions, natural events, human activities Define boundary, examples of types of boundaries Meaning of Place: not inherent, overlap, symbolic (multiple scales), exception Sense of Place – definition, definition of identity & its relation to place o Intersubjectivity, insider/outsider knowledge- what is the role of symbolism? Tools of Geography – WHAT DO GEOGRAPHERS DO AND HOW? o Spatial Analysis – definition, meaning of absolute & relative o Location Absolute/Relative o Distance How its measured Absolute Relative o Travel time, Cost of travel, Cognitive distance Friction of Distance Utility of place Distance Decay o Direction Absolute/ relative o Accessibility Define Aboslute/Relative o Spatial Interaction Complementarity Intervening Opportunities Spatial Diffusion Contagious Hierarchical Methods o Examples of traditional methods o Contemporary – what distinguishes these from traditional methods? Remote Sensing What is it? What is it useful for? o GIS What is it? What kind of data does it require? What is the benefit of using it? CH 2 THE CHANGING GLOBAL CONTEXT What is Globalization? What are differences between earlier globalization and modern? o Characteristics of modern globalization What do we mean by how the world is organized? o Characteristics of organization Mini-systems: what are they? types of agricultural breakthroughs, results in terms of human organization, where (general, hearth, specifically which regions of the world) Early empires – o definition, purpose and how that purpose was achieved, o What is role of diminishing returns? What role did it play in empire formation? o What is imperialism, colonialism? Colonization? o Spatial results of colonization, functions of cities, where in the world did this happen primarily? World-systems – o Definition o Impact on human geography: Euro-centered hierarchy (reason/results), Merchant capitalism (2 trade routes), why not completely global (who was included and was not?) o What is industrial revolution? How did it impact human geography in terms of how places were thought about? In terms of spatial extent of world system? Core-periphery o Characteristics of system, characteristics of each: core, semi-periphery, periphery CH3 POPULATION GEOGRAPHY What is Population Geography o Demography o geodemography Tools to study population Geography o Census – define, purpose in general, purpose o Limitations of Census o Significance of example of Kirkuk Iraq o Other sources of population data Population Distribution o Define distribution o Generalizations about global population distribution, o Factors that influence distribution o 4 concentration areas o Where people aren’t Characteristics of four environmental zones, adaptations Crude Density o Definition, Limitations Quality of life: access to cultural/material resources, physical resources Physiological density Dynamics– how populations change – 3 ways o Birth and death Rates Cbr – formula, influencing factors, limitations Cdr- formula, influencing factors, limitations General distributions Demographic transition Theory o Historical setting, premises o What happens in each phase in terms of CBR, CDR, Population size What happens in society to influence those rates in each phase 5 phase – what is it? What are limitations of this model? Other measures of population dynamics o RNI Formula, world rate Doubling time General distribution: core/periphery, highest/lowest How do countries respond? Structure – how is population comprised? What influences structure o measures Cohort- definition, 3 significant cohorts, different concerns for different structures, distribution of cohorts Dependency ratio Sex-age pyramids – what is it, what does it measure, what does pattern tell us TFR – formula, replacement level, distribution IMR – formula, distribution LIFE EXPECTANCY – examples Migration o Definition, immigration/emigration o Measures: Gross/net o Rules o Reasons for migration o Characteristics o Define refugee, IDPs o 3 waves of migration in US THIS STUDY GUIDE IS NOT FINAL – IT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE. IT DOES NOT INCLUDE CHAPTER 7 GEOGRAPHIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT YET. THERE MAY BE MORE ADDED TO THIS STUDY GUIDE AND IT MAY CHANGE! CHAPTER 4: PEOPLE AND NATURE Nature is a social construct/concept; its meaning is determined by society (that’s why there are so many definitions of nature); it is time and space dependent Perspective for studying the interaction between humans and nature o How society has used technology to transform and adapt to nature Relationship between people/technology/nature: o How society has used technology to transform and adapt to nature o How these technological adaptions have impacted nature and humans Role of industrialization/urbanization (highly structured and specialized human populations) o The impacts of these processes are spatially variable o Direct impacts: the actual roads, buildings, factories etc. o Indirect impacts: health issues etc. that happen because of the road building, oil extracting… o Why are these processes (industrialization/urbanization) so significant?: Scale: processes and impacts are not just local but can also be regional… global. Crosses political borders Impact: which can make it difficult to assess and address Result: more intense outcomes o Impacts are not immediately evident, they aren’t always clear Nature and society defined o Nature is both:1 Object: physical environment that includes human beings Social creation: belief system of a group which shapes the way it thinks about and uses nature- it’s time/space dependent o Society: the sum of inventions, institutions, and relationships created and reproduced by human beings across particular places and times There are internal and external relationships between groups Society’s relationship to nature is mediated through technology o Technology 1. Tools- the physical objects a society creates (the artifacts) 2. Applications- the processes a society engages in in using those artifacts 3. Understandings- knowledge of technology Types of impacts: Technology impacts nature every step of the way o Harvesting Manufacturing Consumption Methods for human/nature interaction: o Adaptation: the process of deliberate change in reaction to external stimuli o Modification: producing changes in the environment or landscape, which had direct and indirect results Ex. (direct) fossil fuel use (Indirect) global warming Theories of relationship between people and nature o Environmental determinism: human activities are controlled by their physical environment Role in geography: gave the study a hard theory and made it popular, until people realized that imperialism was wrong Imperialism: the dominant groups stated that certain climates were forcing people to not behave as cultured or productive- so this validated imperialism. o Environmental probabilism: environment probably influences behavior o Environmental possibilism: the environment possibly has an effect on behavior o Reciprocal relationship between humans and nature What does nature do? – shapes and limits society What do humans do and how? – society shapes and controls nature through technology and social institutions Dominant Western theme, alternative approaches – main idea of each o Why is it important to know how humans think about nature? Thought actions o What is the dominant western theme? Thought: Humans are superior to nature Action: nature must be tamed or controlled o What role does this theme play on a global scale? This perspective dominates global activity (because it is believed by the dominant power) though it is culturally limited (not all cultures believe this) o Alternatives Thoreau Theory: all creatures are dependent upon each other Context: he was writing during the industrial revolution; centered in New England (where he wrote Walden), near water; outside the second most populated city of workers and consumers Foundation: Native American Traditional views- nature should be venerated; Romanticism- emphasized the interdependence of humans and nature; the source of divinity according to Thoreau is the relationship between you and nature Significance: this view is contrary to the notion that humans control nature; especially in light of industrialization Conservation Natural resources should be used thoughtfully Humans should act as stewards not exploiters We have a responsibility to the future Preservation Views conservation as passive Certain things should remain off limits to human use, regardless of whether the use maintains or depletes the resource Nature has its own intrinsic value, not based on human consumption Environmental ethics Society has a moral obligation to treat nature according to the rules of moral behavior that exists for humans Eco-feminism Patriarchy is at the center of our present environmental problems. Equates all forms of inequality or oppression led by patriarchy- abuse of nature has the same foundation as sexism, racism, homophobia, religious hatred. Environmental justice Environmental damage is the result of institutionalized inequality inherent in the capitalist economic system. A grassroots movement- the people realized that capitalist structures were causing economic inequality and with that inequality comes a poor quality of living situations Human created institutions are inadequate in resolving environmental problems; it is necessary to address it through a belief in a higher power. Political ecology: human-environment relations can be adequately understood only by relating patterns of resource use to political and economic forces; understanding society, the market, and the state to help us understand the environment. Cultural ecology: looks at how human society has adapted to environmental challenges through technology; What kind of relationship does a cultural group have with the environment? – how each approaches a problem What is significant about modern (Anthropocene) period? o This is the modern geological era during which humans have dramatically affected the environment Mostly through: Industrialization, urbanization Through two main impacts: 1. Fuel production and consumption 2. Land use as inputs to the industrial process o Fuel production and consumption has environmental impact every step of the way o Renewable: fuels that we can quickly remake; they do impact the Earth o Non-renewable fuels: fuel sources that are considered non-renewable because it takes so much time for them to be made- not possible to be made in one lifetime; we rely on this type of fuel almost exclusively o Fossil fuels: fuels formed by natural processes (ex. petroleum oil) o Biomass fuels: a type of renewable fuel; fuels made from biological material from living or recently living organisms (ex. wood, waste, gas, alcohol) o Generalizations about fuel production/consumption: There are positive economic impacts Impact on nature occurs at every step of the process of energy production and use Different types of fuel have varying degrees of impact Impacts of these fuels are not spread evenly Consumption is high and increasing at a very rapid pace The core produces and uses more energy than the periphery Industrialization is increasing in periphery Types of energy extraction, their hazards, and impacts o Coal mining Impacts- large scale ecosystem destruction; loss of vegetation and top soil; erosion; water pollution; health issues; emits harmful gases o Oil Potential impacts of production ruptured pipelines, spills Impact of consumption release of toxins into the atmosphere o Natural gas Risk of explosions, groundwater leaks (fracking), contamination in air o Biomass fuels Deforestation soil erosion, landscape/habitat destruction; pollution when burned o Nuclear energy Positives: clean, efficient, mostly safe; we have enough uranium to last in 100s of years Negatives: waste disposal is difficult because it is radio active; nuclear accidents Use in periphery is going to increase to meet the demands of population increase What is acid rain? o Wet deposition of acids upon the Earth through the natural cleansing properties of the atmosphere o There is uneven governmental regulation on the pollutants that cause acid rain o Therefore there is an uneven cause and effect; because acid rain doesn’t necessarily impact just the one place that may have caused the pollution (because it is weather) Changes in land use as result of industrialization and impacts of those land use changes o Deforestation – the periphery has the highest rate of deforestation because it is a source of energy and allows them entry into the global economy. They can then use the land. The core is re-foresting and exploiting the land in the periphery. o Cultivated land – Most cultivated land is in the periphery; the core uses the periphery’s arable land (land grabs: by core buying land peripheral countries); exploitative and ruins periphery’s sense of place. o Grass lands – disappearing due to desertification: the spread of desert like conditions due to deforestation, overgrazing, and poor rainfall CHAPTER 5: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Definitions of culture: o Simple: a particular way of life; a range of activities that characterize a particular group o Complex: a shared set of meanings that is lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life Define: o Values: what a culture holds to be true; its beliefs o Norms: a culture’s routines; valued behavior o Taboos: was that are not proper; go against the cultural norm o Sanctions: methods that the culture uses to enforce the norms o Institutions: structures of society in which these norms are created and reinforced o Artifacts: the “things” of a culture How is culture dynamic/not static? What methods are there for cultural change? o Culture is lived through; it can be redefined through changes in values and norms in response to stimuli. o Methods for change: Internal- changes from within the culture External- forced changes by outside events Cultural traits: a single aspect of the complex nature of routine practices that constitute a particular cultural group; a cultural trait may not be exclusive to one culture; no one trait defines a culture o Rites of passage: a particular type of cultural trait that many cultures have; acts, customs, practices, or procedures that recognize key transitions in human life Cultural complex: combination of traits that are characteristic of a particular culture. Cultural region: an area where certain cultural practices, beliefs or values are more or less practiced by the majority of inhabitants. o These can vary in scale o They are not necessarily contiguous Cultural system: a collection of interacting components that taken together shape a group’s collective identity o Broader than a complex: includes traits, territory, history, religion and language o Can be variation within the system (not everyone in that culture does all the cultural practices) o Most abstract and hypothetical Relationship between space/time and culture o How do spatial scales impact culture? Culture can manifest/exist at different spatial scales Extent of a culture’s influence: Spatially limited OR Universal (we take wherever we go o How do temporal scales impact culture? Length of influence Can be a portion of your life or stay with you through all life stages o How can multiple scales lead to conflict? Potential conflicts because what is acceptable in one group may not be acceptable in another group of which one is a member Folk culture: traditional practices of small groups, especially rural people, where that group is homogenous; an authentic reflection of culture that doesn’t change much over time Popular culture: practices and meaning systems produced by large groups whose norms and tastes are often heterogeneous and change frequently; culture for sale- what’s being consumed is what is popular Commodification: the transformation of goods and services as well as ideas or other entities that normally may not be considered goods into a commodity to be consumed by the masses CH 5 (6): CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY: LANGUAGE Language o General: way of communicating ideas or feelings by means of conventionalized system of signs, gestures, marks or articulate vocal sounds. o Verbal definition: organized system of spoken words by which people communicate with each other with mutual comprehension o Language’s role in culture Create/define culture Transmit culture (generation after generation) o Characteristics of language: Symbolic- meanings not inherent, we give the words meaning, serve to unify culture by a shared meaning Not static – language is influenced spatially and temporally Meanings can change over time New words can be created and eventually formalized o Globalization Impact: some theorists say 50%, some say 10% of languages that we have today will be present in the year 2100 Basis for survival –ethnolinguistic vitality Status: position in global hierarchy Demography: number of speakers Institutional support: incorporation of the language into media, government, education Types of languages that are threatened Minority languages (less than half of a country’s population) Indigenous languages Responses to threats: Disappear, hybrid (dominant mixes with non dominant), resist o Resistance (linguistic revival): violent, political, educational El Silbo Gomero Non-verbal language – relationship to words?: reproduces the Spanish language Relation of language to physical and human geography?: made to accommodate the large valleys and ravines Forces of globalization impacting language?: migration, tourism, and modern technology/communication Methods to preserve language?: local government has created legislation for teaching the whistle Language classification Family o Same prehistoric origin o 30-100 language families recognized o Indo-European is the largest language family (includes 50% of languages) Branch o Common origin and similar vocabulary Group o Common origin, similar vocabulary, similar grammar Language tree: visual that allows us to see how languages relate to each other and change Role of geography in language formation/change o Geography is essential in formation and change o As soon as a country gets physically separated a new language forms Linguistic net: o Linguistic continuum in which speakers understand one another o If space or obstacle comes between a group and new language will form because there is no more back and forth contact in that area Dialect: regional variations in language: Accent/pronunciation Vocabulary Grammar CH 8 GEOGRAPHIES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT What is economic development: process of change involving the nature and composition of the economy of a particular region. The outcome is an increase in economic prosperity. o Who defines it? According to whose standards? Western Capitalist countries, the core o Know and describe expected results of economic development: profit, material wealth o What is economy: wealth and resources of a country or region, particularly in terms of production and consumption of goods. o What types of change can one expect with development? 1. The structure of the economy (low tech high tech; rudimentary sophisticated) what goods you produce and how you produce them 2. Form of economic organization (small scale global economy); the economic system you participate in 3. Availability and use of technology o What are implications of this biased definition? It allows for evaluation- defines what is good and what is bad (economically); assumes that material prosperity is good to all What are Global patterns of economic development? o Main characteristic of the pattern Uneven! Result of: the nature of the capitalist system- competitive and dynamic; the nature of the differences between countries- history, politics, and culture o Identify and be able to define differences between Core/Periphery/semi- periphery Periphery: narrowly specialized, low productivity, small share of wealth, primitive technology Semi-Periphery: in transition, increasing in industrial production Core: diverse economy, high productivity, high prosperity, advanced technology th th o What are tth historical events (16 and 18 C) that led to this pattern? 16 C: Imperial expansions by Europe 18 C: Industrial revolution A series of technological innovations led to changes in patters of economic development o What are technology systems? Clusters of interrelated energy, transportation, and production technology that dominate economic activity for several decades. Cyclical ~ 50 years Spatial implication: Each system has different needs Different places across the globe specialize or fill these needs A places ability to fulfill the technology system’s needs increases its significance Geography is re-written with each system Significance of place: gives you power and exploitation of resources if you fit into that technology system Factors influencing development o What are the three main resources related to development? What role does each type play in development? 1. Energy: used in consumption; used in trade- access to energy economic inequality 2. Cultivable land: sustains the population 3. Industrial resources: component parts in the industrial production o What factors influence this distribution of these resources? Physical location (by luck of the draw, location certain resources and how well you can participate in global economy) Political Stability o What is the pattern of access to resources (core/periphery)? The core is self-sufficient Periphery cannot produce, can’t afford to import; core dependent What is the issue of post-colonialism in the periphery in relation to access to resources? When EUR decolonized countries, they took the power vacuum with them; left the poor countries destabilized; periphery then needed to set up their own government; left periphery with mono-economy o Can you develop without resources? Yes; Ex. Japan- they import today; previously they colonized other places How is economic development measured? o Define and understand quantitative measures GDP: Gross Domestic Product; estimate of the total value of all material food, goods, and services that are produced by a country in a particular year. Money flowing in from producing products domestically. GNI: Gross National Income; measure of the income that flows to a country from production wherever in the world that production occurs. Money flowing in from producing products anywhere. PPP: Purchasing Power Parity; measures how much of a common market basket of goods and services each currency can purchase locally. key- compares the cost of living internationally o What are the two limitations to quantitative measures we discussed? Be able to identify, define and give examples of the alternatives to quantitative measures 1. Economic statistics do not necessarily account for all economic activity, for example: Informal economy: (black market), activities that are unregulated, unlicensed, lack a formal contract; earnings that go unreported (not taxed) o Examples: Subsistence: things you do in order to survive (grow food) Commercial: things that you do to make a profit o Who participates? What are the issues with it? Peripheral countries who can’t get into the globalized economy People in core who have been shut out of the formal economy- people in the poor areas, not just undocumented workers, but native born people too (this is increasing) o What are the three rules of the “flea” market from the power of the informal economy video? 1. Cooperative- offers a means for people to earn a living 2. Facts are relative- what’s bad to one (government) is not necessarily to another (local distributers) 3. Alternatives are important- alternative currency barter system (for people who can’t break into the economic system) 2. Not everyone measures success in dollars, for example: Gross National Happiness (GNH) o Who developed it? Dragon King of Bhutan o What does it measure? A single numbered index; a score that measures happiness; 33 indicators under 9 domains o What are criticisms of it? Not as credible as stats like PPP; subjective, difficult to measure Happiness is culturally defined Internal turmoil (in Bhutan); the King was discriminating against his people How is ECONOMIC STURCTURE defined? o Combination of all economic activities in all four sectors of the economy o Be able to define each sector’s activities, give examples and explain spatial patterns for: Primary sector: concerned with natural resources; agriculture, mining, forestry, fishing, ex. growing coffee beans. Mostly in Asia and Africa. Does not make very much money Secondary sector Process, transform, fabricate or assemble raw materials derived from primary activities; ex. steel making, textile manufacturing, auto assembly Know where manufacturing is done, where its rate is increasing and why it is moving o TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION: investments and activities that span international boundaries; subsidiary components (companies, factories, offices or facilities) in several countries o SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES: geographical regions that have economic and other laws that are more free market oriented than a country’s typical or national laws o Criticisms of TNCs: they exploit areas where the work is being done to benefit the core; there is a profit/location mismatch o Patterns: most manufacturing is done in the core, but it is decreasing in the core Newly Industrialized Countries (semi-periphery)- where growth in manufacturing is happening Foreign direct investment: powerful core countries are investing in a periphery country making them semi- periphery Tertiary: sale and exchange of goods and services; ex. warehousing, retail, pest control; core Quaternary: handling and processing of knowledge and information/ abstract ideas; ex. research and development, entertainment, education, government; core o Geographic division of Labor: Economic specializations at various scales Different parts of the world doing different things What is its role in international trade?: specialization by country, allows participation in global economy, we come together and trade. What is international trade? o Exchange of goods on a global scale How is it organized? Trading Blocs What is rationale behind trading blocs? o TRADING BLOC: groups of countries with formalized systems of trading agreements Rationale: physical proximity and geopolitical relations o AUTARKY: economic policy or situation in which a nation is independent of international trade and not reliant upon imported goods What is international debt? What is it based on? o Inequality in international trade; it is systematic between the core and periphery; based on terms of trade o Terms of trade: ratio of prices at which imports and exports are exchanged; differently valued goods are exchanged on global system o Role of Primary goods: don’t reflect demand; periphery o Complex goods: prices do reflect demand ^demand ^$$; core o Trade inequality: inequality in the types of goods/services being traded; leads to debt and poverty; debt is a huge handicap to economic development; core lends aid but charges interest to the periphery, which puts them further in debt. What is Fair Trade? A movement focused on creating equitable relationships between consumers and producers in the most economically disadvantaged regions of the world CH9 FOOD AND AGRICULTURE What is food? How is it obtained? Understand shift from historical to current: o Food: any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body o Obtained: Historically: hunting and gathering; agriculture Currently: manufactured food industry How do we conceptualize food? Understand shift from historical to current. o Historically: food was the ultimate expression of the human/nature relationship; human’s ability to manipulate nature in order to survive o Currently: characterized by industrial manufacturing processes; we make vs. grow food; it’s now a product for profit, not for nourishment What is agriculture? (more complex) o Science, art, and business direct at the cultivation of crops and raising livestock for sustenance and profit Difference between farming and agriculture? o Farming is the activity or business of growing crops and raising livestock What forces influence the different types of agriculture that are practiced? o Culture o Locational differences o Available technology Subsistence/ Commercial agriculture – what are they, examples o Subsistence agriculture: post hunting/gathering, communal limits (how many people it can sustain), located in periphery; diminishing in the periphery, because the core has come in and disrupted the way they do things o Commercial: food for profit o Shifting Cultivation: maintain soil fertility by rotating fields that are cultivated; rotation of fields, not crops; methods: slash and burn, takes 5 years and needs communal land and low population density because it takes a lot of space and doesn’t produce a lot of food o Pastoralism: breeding and herding animals to satisfy human needs for food, shelter, and clothing Methods: Sedentary- stay in one space Nomadic pastoralism o Transhumance: humans follow the movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms Know the three agricultural revolutions o 1 Revolution: domestication of crops and animals; seed agriculture; animals for food and work; agriculture replaced hunting and gathering and led to settlements civilizations; Tigris/Euphrates, Nile- diffused from this hearth o 2nd Revolution: the use of natural inputs to increase agricultural productivity; improved techniques; commercial market began to develop rd o 3 Revolution: the use of synthetic/chemical inputs to increase food production; mechanization; food manufacturing, led to modern agriculture more food to sell. What is meant by commercial agriculture? The purpose Industrial agriculture? The processing and mechanization of food for economic profit. What is the role of the farm in industrialized agriculture? Shift from the farm as the center of agriculture to the farm as one part of the complex agricultural process. What are the components of the integrated, multilevel process of modern agriculture? o Production Storage Processing distribution marketing retailing What is meant by food manufacturing?: we make food (in labs) versus grow it; it’s a value added process; shifted from primary sector product to secondary sector product Bio revolution: Genetic engineering of plants and animals in an attempt to increase agricultural productivity Biotechnology : technique that uses living organisms to improve, make, or modify plants and animals or to develop micro-organisms o Examples: sugar plants; plant cloning o Benefits: controls costs, control production, control environmental impacts o Costs: impacts on health and environment are unknown; excludes peripheral countries because of their geography and lack accessibility Bio pharming: bio engineering plants to produce pharmaceuticals What is the distribution of industrial agriculture o First came to periphery because of the green revolution, which used GMOs and pesticides to help feed poor countries; now core is in the periphery for exploitation- crops for profit. Core uses periphery for industrial agriculture. o What are the results of the modern distribution of industrial agriculture? Modern technology takes away locational advantage for the peripheral countries who were good at growing one particular item The periphery can’t afford or partake in global activity o Nontraditional Agricultural Exports (NTAE) Crops that are competitive in the global market Crops that bring higher profits Replace traditional crops/exports More requirements and standards Contract Farming: not good for the farmer; these are agreements between farmers and processing marketing firms for the production, supply, and purchase of agricultural goods What are alternative food movements a reaction to: the impersonal production- taste is lost, impact on local workers and areas is negative What are they based on: Sustainability: vision of growth based on balancing economic development, environmental impact, and social equity. What is each of the following movements about: o Organic farming: farming without the use of commercial fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, and growth hormones o Local food movements: consuming food that is produced within 100 miles (locavores) Often characterized by co-ops- investing money in a farmer and paid back with food o Urban agriculture: growing food in urban areas; historically in blighted areas; now into more generalized areas o Slow food movement: Resisting fast food; appreciation for culture and the meal as an event Food deserts: related to the slow food movement/and urban agriculture- an area where healthy, affordable, food is difficult to obtain. Mostly in low socio- economic areas; result of physical and economic barriers in accessing healthy food FOOD, INC. Shows the state of the current global food system Mass produced food- we can make a lot of food this way Chicken farming: poor treatment of animals Corn: is in so many products; it is cheap and easy to manipulate E-coli- is a problem because cows are being fed a corn diet instead of grass
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