Cell Bio 1 Summary
Cell Bio 1 Summary BIOL 203 - C01
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shamour Talbert on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 203 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Natasha Dias in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Microscopy Light Compound High Mag, Low Res Phase Contrast Special condenser that splits a polarized beam into two o One passes through specimen, other hits the specimen Increases contrast, phase differences Electron Transmission Electron illuminated Wavelength of e- shorter than photon High res Scanning Image seen in 3D black & white High mag & res Specimen coated in gold to bounce e- off Fluorescence Specimens stained w/ fluorophores UV light, increases res & contrast Used to make proteins visible Confocal o High res & 3D reconstructions o Light passes through confocal aperture (pinhole) to reduce out light Cells Pluripotent Cells Can become whatever cell is needed for the body 2006, Shinya Yamanka o Used mice o Loct4, sox2, cMyc, klf4 HeLa Cells Herritta Lacks Immortal Cell line Prokaryotic Cell Bacteria & Archea Bacteria Spherical, Rod, Spiral Structure o Nucleoid: Circular nuclear material o Plasma membrane o Ribosomes o Cell Wall o Flagella o Cytosol Eukaryotic Cell Animal, Plant, Protista Anima/Plantl Structure o Vacuole: Swallows food o Vesicle: ferries material o Nucleus: double membrane Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Nuclear Pore o Ribosomes o Peroxisomes: kill infectious material o Lysome: transport/digestion o Mitochonria (A/P): generate energy (double mem) o Cholroplasts (P): generate energy (double mem) o Endoplasmic Reticulum: smooth & rough Internal membranes create intracellular structure: lumen Rough: synthesizes protiens Smooth: acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of lipids and steroids. o Golgi Packages molecules into vesicles Builds lysomes o Cytoplasm Cytosol: blue gel of the cytoplasm o Cytoskeleton Gives cell shape Responsible for cell movement Microfilaments(actin), microtubules, intermediate filaments Model Organisms E.colli Brewer’s Yeast Arabidopsis: plant model Drosophila: genes involved in properly structured adults Zebrafish: genes involved in development (embryonic) Mus musculus (mice): mammalian genetics, development, immunology, cell biology o Genes 95% homologous to humans C. elegans: genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) Chemicals Element: Substance that can’t be broken down Atom: smallest particle, gives element chem properties Molecule: 2+ atoms joined by bonds Atomic #: # of protons Atomic Mass: # of protons and neutrons Valence Electrons o Valence: # of e- an atoms needs to share or lose Ex: Oxygen= 2 Covalent Bonds o CB: when 2 atoms share an e- o Single bond o Double: 2 pair e- shared o C-C double bonds are shorter than C-C single Noncovalent bonds o Weaker o Easily broken and reformed o Important is cell processes Ionic o Electrostatic attractions btw opp charged atoms o Transfer of e-, makes to opp charged atoms Pos ion: Cation Neg ion: Anion o Weakened in H2O Hydrogen o Polar interactions o Directional o H atom shared by 2 neg atoms (H, N, O, F) o Partial Charge Van der Waals o Weakly attracts a close opp dipole atom o Induces temporary dipole Hydrophobic o Nonpolar molecules are brought together o Repulsion of H2O & nonpolar Building Blocks 1. Sugars Carbohydrates Glyosidic Bonds Formed by i. Condensation: H2O expelled ii. Hydrolysis: H2O consumed Source of Energy Found In CB i. Mono: 1 ex: glucose ii. Di: 2 ex: glactose iii. Oligo: 10- iv. Poly: 10+ Saccharides Glycoprotein: protein w/ sugar Glycolipid: lipid w/ lipid Glycolayx: outer surface of cells made of Protoglycans 2. Amino Acids Peptide Bonds i. Formed by hydrolysis ii. 2 terminals 1. Amino/ N-terminus 2. Carboxyl/ C-terminus Made of i. Carbon atom ii. Amine group iii. Carboxyl group iv. Variable group Small chain: peptide Long chain: protein Nature: L stereoisiomer Groups i. Polar charged 1. Contain R grps, 2. Acid or base 3. Hydrophilic ii. Polar uncharged 1. Weakly A/B 2. Not fully charged @ pH 7 iii. Nonpolar 1. Hydrophobic R grp 2. Lack O& N 3. Fatty Acids Food reserve Diverse i. Steroids: 4 ring lipids 1. Major component of cell mem 2. Precursor to steroid hormones (cholesterol) ii. Phospholipids 1. Major in cell membranes 2. Hydrophilic head (choline) 3. Hydrophobic tail iii. Lipids: Triacylglycerols (Fats) 1. Glycerol + 3 ester bonds to 3 fatty acids a. FA Saturated: solid @ room temp b. FA Unsat: liquid @ rt iv. Fatty Acids: ex of lipids 1. 2 regions a. Hydrocarbon chains b. Terminal carboxyl grp 4. Nucleotides: DNA 3’-5’ Phosphodiester Bonds Backbone: hydrogen bonds 3 parts i. Phosphate ii. 5 C sugar iii. Nitrogenous base 2 main forms i. Ribonucleotides nd 1. O on 2 C ii. Dexoyribonucleotides 1. No O on 2 Cd 5 m i. Puines (2 N ring) PAG a. Guanine b. Adenine ii. Pyrimindines (1 N ring) 1. Cytosine 2. Thymine 3. Uracil Nucleocide i. Base & Sugar Catalysis & Biosynthesis Catalysis o Anabolic o Needs energy’ o Loses Heat Enzymes o Proteins that’s speed up rxns Specific substrate to specific First Law o Energy Cant be created or destroyed, just converted o Potential energy o Kinetic Energy Second Law o With every change the universe become MORE disordered/randomness o Entropy: measurement of disorder Oxidation-Reduction Rxns o Red: gain electrons: (-) chrg o Oxi: lose electrons: (+) chrg o Reduction of Methane Methane -> Methanol (CH4O) -> Formaldehyde(CH2O) -> Formic acid(CH2O2) -> Carbon Dioxide Bioenergetics o G: Free energy= useful E in system o Delta G: changes in free energy occur. Rxn Gproducts – Greactants Measures disorder o Negative delta G= rxn moves forward (<0) o Positive delta G= rxn moves backward (>0) o Spontaneous rxn= Neg delta G o Condensation need energy Activated Carrier ATP Acetyl CoA- lipids (cholesterol) Biotin NADP, NADPH, FADH o Catabolism= E favorable (Hyrdo) -G o Anabolic= E unfavorable (condensation) +G
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