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Cell Bio 1 Summary

by: Shamour Talbert

Cell Bio 1 Summary BIOL 203 - C01

Shamour Talbert
GPA 3.545

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About this Document

Exam 1 Chap 1-3
Cell Biology
Natasha Dias
Study Guide
cellular biology
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shamour Talbert on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 203 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Natasha Dias in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
Microscopy Light Compound  High Mag, Low Res Phase Contrast  Special condenser that splits a polarized beam into two o One passes through specimen, other hits the specimen  Increases contrast, phase differences Electron Transmission  Electron illuminated  Wavelength of e- shorter than photon  High res Scanning  Image seen in 3D black & white  High mag & res  Specimen coated in gold to bounce e- off Fluorescence  Specimens stained w/ fluorophores  UV light, increases res & contrast  Used to make proteins visible Confocal o High res & 3D reconstructions o Light passes through confocal aperture (pinhole) to reduce out light Cells Pluripotent Cells  Can become whatever cell is needed for the body  2006, Shinya Yamanka o Used mice o Loct4, sox2, cMyc, klf4 HeLa Cells  Herritta Lacks  Immortal Cell line Prokaryotic Cell  Bacteria & Archea Bacteria  Spherical, Rod, Spiral  Structure o Nucleoid: Circular nuclear material o Plasma membrane o Ribosomes o Cell Wall o Flagella o Cytosol Eukaryotic Cell  Animal, Plant, Protista  Anima/Plantl Structure o Vacuole: Swallows food o Vesicle: ferries material o Nucleus: double membrane  Nucleolus  Nuclear envelope  Nuclear Pore o Ribosomes o Peroxisomes: kill infectious material o Lysome: transport/digestion o Mitochonria (A/P): generate energy (double mem) o Cholroplasts (P): generate energy (double mem) o Endoplasmic Reticulum: smooth & rough  Internal membranes create intracellular structure: lumen  Rough: synthesizes protiens  Smooth: acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of lipids and steroids. o Golgi  Packages molecules into vesicles  Builds lysomes o Cytoplasm  Cytosol: blue gel of the cytoplasm o Cytoskeleton  Gives cell shape  Responsible for cell movement  Microfilaments(actin), microtubules, intermediate filaments Model Organisms  E.colli  Brewer’s Yeast  Arabidopsis: plant model  Drosophila: genes involved in properly structured adults  Zebrafish: genes involved in development (embryonic)  Mus musculus (mice): mammalian genetics, development, immunology, cell biology o Genes 95% homologous to humans  C. elegans: genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) Chemicals  Element: Substance that can’t be broken down  Atom: smallest particle, gives element chem properties  Molecule: 2+ atoms joined by bonds  Atomic #: # of protons  Atomic Mass: # of protons and neutrons  Valence Electrons o Valence: # of e- an atoms needs to share or lose  Ex: Oxygen= 2  Covalent Bonds o CB: when 2 atoms share an e- o Single bond o Double: 2 pair e- shared o C-C double bonds are shorter than C-C single  Noncovalent bonds o Weaker o Easily broken and reformed o Important is cell processes  Ionic o Electrostatic attractions btw opp charged atoms o Transfer of e-, makes to opp charged atoms  Pos ion: Cation  Neg ion: Anion o Weakened in H2O  Hydrogen o Polar interactions o Directional o H atom shared by 2 neg atoms (H, N, O, F) o Partial Charge  Van der Waals o Weakly attracts a close opp dipole atom o Induces temporary dipole  Hydrophobic o Nonpolar molecules are brought together o Repulsion of H2O & nonpolar Building Blocks 1. Sugars  Carbohydrates  Glyosidic Bonds  Formed by i. Condensation: H2O expelled ii. Hydrolysis: H2O consumed  Source of Energy  Found In CB i. Mono: 1 ex: glucose ii. Di: 2 ex: glactose iii. Oligo: 10- iv. Poly: 10+  Saccharides  Glycoprotein: protein w/ sugar  Glycolipid: lipid w/ lipid  Glycolayx: outer surface of cells made of Protoglycans 2. Amino Acids  Peptide Bonds i. Formed by hydrolysis ii. 2 terminals 1. Amino/ N-terminus 2. Carboxyl/ C-terminus  Made of i. Carbon atom ii. Amine group iii. Carboxyl group iv. Variable group  Small chain: peptide  Long chain: protein  Nature: L stereoisiomer  Groups i. Polar charged 1. Contain R grps, 2. Acid or base 3. Hydrophilic ii. Polar uncharged 1. Weakly A/B 2. Not fully charged @ pH 7 iii. Nonpolar 1. Hydrophobic R grp 2. Lack O& N 3. Fatty Acids  Food reserve  Diverse i. Steroids: 4 ring lipids 1. Major component of cell mem 2. Precursor to steroid hormones (cholesterol) ii. Phospholipids 1. Major in cell membranes 2. Hydrophilic head (choline) 3. Hydrophobic tail iii. Lipids: Triacylglycerols (Fats) 1. Glycerol + 3 ester bonds to 3 fatty acids a. FA Saturated: solid @ room temp b. FA Unsat: liquid @ rt iv. Fatty Acids: ex of lipids 1. 2 regions a. Hydrocarbon chains b. Terminal carboxyl grp 4. Nucleotides:  DNA  3’-5’ Phosphodiester Bonds  Backbone: hydrogen bonds  3 parts i. Phosphate ii. 5 C sugar iii. Nitrogenous base  2 main forms i. Ribonucleotides nd 1. O on 2 C ii. Dexoyribonucleotides 1. No O on 2 Cd  5 m i. Puines (2 N ring) PAG a. Guanine b. Adenine ii. Pyrimindines (1 N ring) 1. Cytosine 2. Thymine 3. Uracil  Nucleocide i. Base & Sugar Catalysis & Biosynthesis  Catalysis o Anabolic o Needs energy’ o Loses Heat  Enzymes o Proteins that’s speed up rxns  Specific substrate to specific  First Law o Energy Cant be created or destroyed, just converted o Potential energy o Kinetic Energy  Second Law o With every change the universe become MORE disordered/randomness o Entropy: measurement of disorder  Oxidation-Reduction Rxns o Red: gain electrons: (-) chrg o Oxi: lose electrons: (+) chrg o Reduction of Methane  Methane -> Methanol (CH4O) -> Formaldehyde(CH2O) -> Formic acid(CH2O2) -> Carbon Dioxide  Bioenergetics o G: Free energy= useful E in system o Delta G: changes in free energy occur. Rxn  Gproducts – Greactants  Measures disorder o Negative delta G= rxn moves forward (<0) o Positive delta G= rxn moves backward (>0) o Spontaneous rxn= Neg delta G o Condensation need energy  Activated Carrier  ATP  Acetyl CoA- lipids (cholesterol)  Biotin  NADP, NADPH, FADH o Catabolism= E favorable (Hyrdo) -G o Anabolic= E unfavorable (condensation) +G


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