PY 355 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
PY 355 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE PY 355
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 355 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Craig Walter Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see General Experimenta Psychology in Psychology (PSYC),Arts and Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
***PY 355 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE*** Chapter 1: Research in the Behavioral Sciences Aristotle Descartes John Locke • Knowledge • Monism v. • conscious • Nativism v. Dualism mind Empiricism composed of • Innate V. elements • elements Learned combined via principles of association **Up to this point no empirical support b/c no experiments William Wundt • Founder of psychology • Principles of Physiological Psychology • Lab • First Sci. Journal in Psych Empiricism: the use of systematic observation to draw conclusions **All researchers in this area apply scientific methodologies to the study of behavior, thought and emotion. GOALS OF BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH 1. Describe behavior 2. Explain behavior 3. Predict Behavior Functional Relationship: The relationship between changes in an independent variable and changes in a dependent variable; cause/effect relationship !!!Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes!!! Types of Research • Basic Research- understand psychological phenomena • Applied Research-find solutions • Primary difference is researchers purpose not the research itself **Common sense can be a hindrance and a help in psychology- it is still a science. Value of knowledge about research methods: 1. Help understand research relevant to profession 2. Become more intelligent and effective research consumer 3. Critical thinking 4. Become an authority Chapter 2: Behavioral Variability & Research 5 Propositions 1. Psychology & other behavioral sciences involve study of behavioral variability a. How and why behavior varies b. Functional relationship between environmental variables and behavior c. Behavior is not consistent 2. Research questions in behavioral sciences are about variability. 3. Design should allow researcher to answer questions about variability. 4. Measurement involves assessment a. Assigning numbers 5. Statistical analysis▯ describe what is observed a. How much, relation, causes Types of Statistics • Descriptive: summarize/ describe beavior • Inferential: draw conclusions about reliability & generalizability Variance: stat showing amount of variability in responses▯ ALL SCORES Range: difference between highest and lowest scores ** 2 sets of data can be different (variability) with same range How to find variance: 1. Find mean a. 4+1+2+2+4+3=16 b. 16/6=2.67 i. use mean to assess variability- how much scores vary around it 1. if tightly clustered, variance=small & vice versa 2. Calculate Deviation Score a. Each score minus the mean i. Positive result▯ score falls above the mean & vice versa 3. Each deviation score is SQUARED to get rid of negatives 4. Total Sum of Squares a. Square scores and add 5. Divide sum of sqares by (n-1) 6. VARIANCE!!:-) Total Variance= Systematic Variance+ Error Variance Systematic Variance: portion of total variability in scores that are related in orderly fashion to the variables investigated. Error Variance: portion that is unrelated, unaccounted variance • Statistical Analyses are used to separate the two ^^ • More error variance= more difficult to determine relation • Try to minimize error variance to detect systematic variance Effect Size: strength of relationship between two variables ▯proportion of total variance that is systematic ▯ easy to compare Meta-analysis: examine every study on a particular topic to analyze variables !!!ALL researchers are trying to account for the behavioral variability they observe!!! Chapter 3: The Measurement of Behavior Types of Measures • Observational o Direct observation o Behavioral measure & record are produced by researcher o Overt Behavior: behavior that can be seen by others (external) • Physiological & Neuroscientific o Between bio processes and behavior; specialized equipment o Covert Behavior: behavior that can not be seen by others (internal) • Self- Report measures o Measure: thoughts (cognitive), feelings (affective), actions (behavioral) o Self report measure is produced by the researcher o Behavioral record is produced by the participant o Can measure covert and overt behaviors Scales of Measurement 1. Nominal- simply labels a. EX: Males=1, Females=2 2. Ordinal- rank order a. EX: Stdent ranking 3. Interval- equal differences, no true zero a. EX: IQ scores 4. Ratio- true zero pt. a. EX: weight Observed Score= True Score+ Measurement Error True Score: score if you were able to measure without error Measurement Error: variability due to distortion factors Sources of Measurement Error 1. Transient States- temporary instability a. Mood, health, fatigue 2. Stable Attributes- enduring traits a. Literacy, paranoia, hostility 3. Situational Factors- char. Of researcher/ settings 4. Characteristics of Measure- long, difficult, painful 5. Mistakes in recording Reliability Reliability: consistency/ dependability of a measuring technique ▯ inverse function of measurement error ▯ if high reliability, observed scores will be close to true scores Reliability= True Score Variance/ Total Variance Total Variance= Variance Due to Test Scores + Variance due to measurement error • Estimate reliability by correlation coefficient Correlation Coefficient: strength of relationship between 2 variables • -1.00 to +1.00 • 0.00= no relationship • sign= positive or negative Test-Retest Reliability: consistency over time • measure on 2 occasions • correlation >.70= reliable Interitem Reliability: consistency among items on a scale ▯ are all items measuring the same thing? Item-total correlation: correlation between item and sum of all other items Split-half reliability: divide items on scale into 2 halves and compare correlation Cronbach’s alpha coefficient: equivalent to the average of all possible split half reliabilities ▯ if exceeds .70- adequate Interrater Reliability: consistency among researchers Increasing Reliability 1. standardize 2. clarify instructions and q’s 3. train observers 4. minimize error Validity Validity: degree to which measurement procedure measures what it sets out to Face Validity: extent to which measure appears to measure what its intended to Construct Validity Hypothetical Constructs: entities that cannot be directly observed , inferred ▯ intelligence, impulsivity, status, motivation, love Construct Validity: extent to which a measure of hypothetical construct relates to other measures Convergent Validity: how a measure correlates with other measures that it should EX: embarassibility should be positively correlated with shyness Discriminant Validity measure does not correlate if it shouldn’t EX: embarassibility with IQ Criterion-Related Validity: how much a measure allows distinction among participants based on behavioral criteria Concurrent Validity: scores relate as expected at time of measure ▯ current situation Predictive Validity: scores related as expected to future criterion Test Bias: measure not equally valid
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