Study Guide Part 1
Study Guide Part 1 1543
U of L
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by jethom25 Notetaker on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1543 at University of Louisville taught by James Alexander in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see DIVERSITY OF LIFE - S (Lecture) in Biology at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
First Exam Biology Study Guide Chapter 26 1.) What is taxonomy? Field of biology that is involved in naming, describing, and classifying organisms, both fossil (extinct) species and living (extant) species. 2.) When do you use taxonomy principles? a) To describe and give unique names to newly described species and to identify them from other organisms. b) Also used to order species into categories based on their similarities and differences in morphology, physiology, biochemistry, behavior, or genes. 3.) Why do we need taxonomy? So naming species won’t be confusing. 4.) What documents contains the rules of zoological nomenclature (naming animals)? International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) 5.) What is the object of ICZN? To promote stability and universality in the scientific names of organisms. 6.) Define classification. Ranked and ordered into series of hierarchical levels (species into genera, genera family, etc.), classification is one branch of taxonomy where various things (books, clouds, species, etc.) are identified and grouped into groups. 7.) Define systematics. Systematics is the field of biology concerned with identification of the evolutionary relationships among species through time. First Exam Biology Study Guide 8.) To scientist, the term “systematics” is a synonym of what? Systematics is a synonym for “classifications”, HOWEVER some classification methods do not spell out evolutionary relationships. 9.) Define phylogeny. Phylogeny is the pattern and history of evolutionary descent of all of the taxa used in a classification of organisms. 10.) Where do biologist attempt to make the classification system evolutionary? In Nature 11.) What the goal of most taxonomists? To create an evolutionary classification scheme that reflects the evolutionary history of the listed organisms. 12.) What’s considered perfect classification hierarchy? All of the species (extant and extinct) that had a common ancestor would be grouped together. 13.) How do biologist trace phylogeny? By using evidence from paleontology, molecular data, comparative anatomy, and other approaches. 14.) What is one of the main goal of systematics? Tracing phylogeny, the study of biological diversity in an evolutionary context. 15.) Who proposed th binomial nomenclature? th Proposed by Linneaus in Systema Naturae in the 18 century. 16.) What the twopart name that each species has? Genus species First Exam Biology Study Guide 17.) What is the closest group to which a species belongs? The Genus 18.) What’s the important thing about a genus name? That it’s unique! 19.) What’s the specific epithet? The second part of the twopart name, that refers to onspecies within each genus. 20.) When writing the genus, what rules must be applied? The first letter of the genus is capitalized and both names are italicized (or underlined) 21.) What’s the name of the species formed from? Formed from Latin words (or Latinized words) 22.) How does hierarchical classification group species? Into broader, more inclusive taxonomic categories: Domain Kingdoms – Phylum – Class – Order Family – Genus – Species (* I remember DKPCOFGS by the saying “Darn. King Phillip Cut Open Fiona’s Good Sister” *) 23.) What group are species that appear to be closely related grouped into? Genus 24.) What’s an example of species that are grouped in Genus (species that appear to be closely related?) The leopard Panthera pardus, belongs to a genus that includes the African Lion (Panthera leo) 25.) What species is in a closely related genus to the previous example? Felis catus First Exam Biology Study Guide 26.) What are genera (plural form of genus) grouped into? Progressively broader categories: Family, order, class, and phylum. 27.) What is the term division used for? Is used in place of phylum for plants. 28.) What has scientist recently added that’s a higher taxon (broader) than kingdoms? Domain 29.) List the major taxonomic categories from most inclusive to least inclusive. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 30.) What’s the name of the named taxonomic unit at any level called? Taxon. The named taxonomic unit at any level is called a taxon. 31.) Give two examples of a taxon. a.) Pinus is a taxon at a genus level (it’s a generic name for various species of pine trees) b.) Mammalia is a taxon at a class level, includes all the orders of mammals 32.) What are additional taxonomic categories used for many phylogenic groups? Subphylum, superphylum, superorder, suborder, subclass, superclass, etc. 33.) How do you indicate a specific subspecies? To indicate a specific subspecies, use a third name called trinomial nomenclature 34.) What’s an example of trinomial nomenclature? Homo sapiens sapiens – which refers subspecies called ‘modern’ humans 35.) What’s a Phylogeny? The history of descent of a group of organisms from their common ancestor First Exam Biology Study Guide 36.) What’s the tent in science regarding the phylogenetic tree? That there is one phylogenetic tree where all living species descended from a common hypothetical ancestor. 37.) How does Allopatric speciation occur? Due to physical separation of two populations of a species. (think of the word “alone”) 38.) What’s the two steps of allopatric speciation? a) First Geographical isolation happens (two populations of one species are separated from each other by a physical barrier Mountain, stream, lake, road, etc. Or are separated when a population moves to a new habitat.) b) Second two populations are completely isolated so that no gene flow can occur between them, which then may evolve into two distinct species (due to new conditions and environment which causes the two populations to adapt due to selective forces diverge from each other over time.) 39.) How does Sympatric speciation occur? When a new species is formed within the range of the parent population. Reproductive isolation occurs without geographic isolation, unlike allopatric. 40.) What’s one important goal to science? The construction of the phylogenetic tree, which provides information about the evolutionary relatedness of all extant (living) species), both to each other and to all extinct species. 41.) What does a phylogenetic tree show? Shows the order in which species “split” from each other through time 42.) What’s a goal for biologist regarding the phylogenetic tree? To have hierarchical classification of taxonomic groups reflect the phylogenetic tree as much as possible. First Exam Biology Study Guide 43.) How is phylogeny determined? By various evidence including fossils, molecular data, anatomy (morphology), and developmental patterns. 44.) What’s a cladogram? A way to depict the phylogenetic tree, is constructed from a series of dichotomies. The sequence of branching resembles historical chronology of common ancestry. 45.) Define Anagenesis Anagenesis= Phyletic evolution. Anagenesis is the transformation of one entire species over time into another. Unbranched lineage of organisms to such an extent that it can be called a new species 45.) What theory reflect Anagenesis (Phyletic evolution)? Darwin’s Theory on gradual changes in a species (descent with modification) 46.) Define Cladogenesis. Cladogenesis = branching evolution or divergent evolution. Type of speciation in which branching of new species from an ancestral lineage occurs. This leads to increase in diversity of species. 47.) How do the fossil records suggest that Cladogenesis is common? Because the within a taxon, the number of species typically increase over time. 48.) What are sister taxa? First Exam Biology Study Guide Two taxa connected through a single internal node on a phylogenetic tree 49.) What does a polytomy represent on a phylogenetic tree? An unresolved pattern of divergence, due to Cladogenesis or allopatric speciation. The split occurs very closely in time. 50.) Define Monophyletic taxon Also called a clade, includes the single ancestral species and all species descended from that ancestral species. No unrelated species included, and hopefully no related species is left out. 51.) Define Paraphyletic taxon Some descendant species have been left out for the group, but NOT the common ancestor. 52.) Define Polyphyletic taxon Species are derived from two or more ancestor forms not common to all members. Some descendant species have been left out AND the common ancestor. 53.) Define homology Same structure, different function. The more homologies that two species share, the more closely related 54.) What’s an example of homology structure? First Exam Biology Study Guide Forelimbs in bats, cats, humans 55.) Define Analogy Different structure, same function. Like a bird and butterfly. Species may share many analogies, but doesn’t mean there closely related. 56.) What’s an example of analogy structure? Wings in organisms like butterfly, bats, and birds 57.) What happens in convergent evolution? Different organisms come up with different adaptations to similar environment challenges, analogous traits in two organisms 58.) Define evolutionary reversal Loss of an advanced trait and this the organism reverts back to using a primitive trait. 59.) What’s an example of evolutionary reversal? Most frogs lack teeth on their lower jaw, but ancestors of frogs did have teeth. One genus Amphignathodon has reevolved teeth in lower jaw. 60.) Define homoplasy (homoplastic) Refer to the similarity in appearance of two groups due to independent evolutionary change. Due to convergent evolution and evolutionary reversal. 61.) What’s the one important to remember regarding homoplasy and homology? Homoplasy has NOTHING to do with homology. 62.) How must systematists separate shared derived characteristics from shared primitive characters? Must sort through homologous features or characters First Exam Biology Study Guide 63.) What does the distinction between homology and analogy depend on? On the taxonomic level examined 64.) What is cladistics? Systematic methodology, referred to “true” evolutionary patterns. 65.) Define Apomorphy Specialized or derived trait (Fur or hair) 66.) Define Pleisiomorphy Primitive or ancestral trait 67.) Define Autaomorphy Derived trait that is unique to one group in a clade (hair) 68.) Define Synapomorphy Derived trait shared by two or more groups in a clade (amniotic egg) 69.) Define Sympleisiomorphy Shared primitive trait (can be found only in the groups being analyzed, in other columns as well.) Example vertebral column) 70.) What is Biological Species Concepts (BSC)? Population or group whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, however, can’t produce fertile offspring with other species. Like a lock and a key 71.) What are 3 issues with the BSC concept? a) Only applies to sexual reproduction species b) Allopatric nature of species, it’s difficult to determine, if you have 2 species, if they can interbreed. They are similar in appearance but difficult to distinguish First Exam Biology Study Guide c) two species may possibly interbreed (hybridize) 72.) What do systematists infer phylogeny from? Molecular evidence. The more recent two species have branched from a common ancestor, then the more similar their DNA 73.) Who came up with the five kingdom scheme? Whittaker in 1969 74.) What are the 5 kingdoms and what organisms can be found in them? Monera Unicellular prokaryotes, bacteria Protista Primarily unicellular eukaryotes Plantae – Multicellular eukaryotes that are capable of photosynthesis Fungi – Multicellular eukaryotes, dead decay organic matter, Saprozoic nutrition Animalia – multicellular eukaryotes, liquid/solid organic matter, holozoic nutrition 75.) Who came up with the 3 domains? Woese 76.) What are the 3 domains? Bacteria eubacteria small prokaryotic organisms Archaea – small prokaryotic organisms, may live in extreme environments Eukarya – organism of all 4 eukaryotic kingdoms (protest, plants, fungi, and Animalia) 78.) What’s horizontal gene transfer process? First Exam Biology Study Guide Genes are transferred laterally at one time across multiply lineages, through a variety of means besides traditional reproduction (plasmids, viruses, and fusion of unicellular organisms via endosymbiosis
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