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Christian Scriptures Study Guide-Test 1

by: Harry Hasbrouck

Christian Scriptures Study Guide-Test 1 REL 1310

Marketplace > Baylor University > Religion > REL 1310 > Christian Scriptures Study Guide Test 1
Harry Hasbrouck
Baylor University

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About this Document

This is a cumulative study guide covering everything mentioned in class. It does not cover what will be discussed on Tuesday in class, which will also be on the test.
The Christian Scriptures
Dr. Derek Dodson
Study Guide
Baylor, religion
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This 1 page Study Guide was uploaded by Harry Hasbrouck on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to REL 1310 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Derek Dodson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 536 views. For similar materials see The Christian Scriptures in Religion at Baylor University.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Scripture- writings that function as authority for the faith of a particular religious group, but does not necessarily have a format Canon- is a list of the scripture texts. The 3rd/4th century is when the New Testament an organizational tool & list 3rd/4th century is when canon first appeared The Christian Bible- Two Divisions Old Testament New Testament “Testament” comes from a latin term that translate Greek term “convenient" Think about it in terms of Old Covenant & New Covenant Old Testament Torah/Pentateuch (First 5 books) - ca. 400 BCE Prophets - ca. 200 BCE Writings - ca. 200 CE Someone brought them together into a different collections as listed above New Testament Pauline Letters - ca. 100 CE Four- Gospel Collection - ca. 150 CE Catholic Collection - ca. 300 CE Old Testament Canon The Old Testament contains all parts of the Jewish/Hebrew Bible. So why is the Jewish bible intertwined with the Christian Bible? Two Distinctions: 1. Arrangement: Hebrew Bible (Tanak) Torah (Torah) Prophets (Nevi’im) Writings (Ketuvim) Tanak is a combination of all three parts of the Jewish Bible Jews do not refer to their bible as the Old Testament; only the Christian bible refers to that part of the bible as the Old Testament Christian Old Testament Pentateuch Historical Books Poetry/Wisdom Prophets Major Minor There is a theological consequence to how the Jewish Bible ends Hebrew bible ends with Chronicles, which fulfills the prophecy that Israel will return from Exile (2 Chronicles 36:22-23). Good news! The Christina Old Testament ends on a future promise to be fulfilled. There is a certain expectation that will eventually come to fruition in the New Testament. The fulfillment of this promise is Jesus Some Christian Old Testaments have 10-15 additional books Why does this exist? Septuagint (LXX)- it is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. Came from Alexandria, Egypt and started in the third century BCE and then completed in the second century BCE. The additional works of that are found in the Hebrew Bible. These extra books are referred to as the Apocrypha or Deuterocanonical books, as acknowledged by some Christian groups. The Canons of the Bible Torah/Pentatech - 400 BCE Prophets - 200 BCE Writings - 200 CE Jewish Canon is finalized 200 CE Septuagint - 250 BCE (preferred form of Jewish scriptures which contains additional works in the Old Testament) Christian usage - 100 CE Protestant Reformation - 16 Century Martin Luther puts extra books in an appendix because he wanted it to match the Jewish bible. Protestants took away extra books of the canon. Catholic Bible kept the extra books Differences are found at Septuagint New Testament Canon There is almost full agreement about 27 books of the New Testament among Christians 1. Gospels- story of Jesus’ life 2. Acts of the Apostle- tells about life after Jesus has risen, his followers, and the early Church 3. Pauline Letters- writes letters to churches for public announcement, advice from Paul 4. General Letters- 5. Revelation- how God will bring all things to an end; for some its good news and others its bad news Formation of the New Testament Canon Composition- Paul composes letters Circulation- Paul’s letters circulate as a collection Collection- His letters are collected Canon- Paul’s letter began forming a canon 1. Pauls letters were the earliest collection of the New Testament, not the Gospels Ten-letter collection- which was composed of a “seven church composition”: Rom., 1-2 Cor., Gal, Eph., Phil., Col. (+Philemon), 1-2 Thess. In beginning of third century, the 10 letter collection was eventually replaced by a thirteen or fourteen letter collection and there was an addition General letters are thought to have not been written by Paul It’s thought that Priscilla may have written Hebrews 2. The Four Gospel Collection The Gospels appeared in the mid 2nd century, it gained rapid acceptance among people These Gospels were seen as the most accepted because they were written in the first century while others were written in the second century Two Primary arrangement (1) Mattew, Mark, Luke, John (2) Matthew, John, Luke, Mark (apostolic emphasis) Only Matthew and John are recognized as Apostles, Mark and Luke that Luke was an associate of Paul and has given us his gospel Mark gives us the gospel according to Peter Their texts are authoritative because of their association with Apostles 3. The Catholic Collection Catholic is known as universal Catholic collection is made up of 7 writings Scholars suggest that this creates a “apostolic balance” to the Pauline collection. Catholic Collection balances out the Pauline Collection of 7 churches. 4. Acts and Revelation Does not come out as a collection Yet Acts is associated with the Catholic Collections/Letters in the early church acts was collected with the Catholic Collections Canon Lists: Moratoria Canon Catalogue of Cd. Claramonuments Athanasius’ Festal Letter 39 Bishop of Alexandria 367 AD writes to churches with an Easter letter and tells them what day to observe easter and what texts are authoritative scripture This is the earliest canon list that corresponds with the new testament today as we have Different order, but same content 1. Apostolicity Written by an Apostle or associate written in a time or near the time of Apostle agrees with apostolic teaching (“rule of faith”) 2. Catholicity- is it relevant to the church in its entirety Once Paul’s letters are all in a collective from it is catholic and has relevance 3. *Traditional Use- the text that has been around for a long time and is widespread across time and space in the Church 4. Inspiration- although it was used it was not seen as a necessary criteria. The Language of the New Testament Koine Greek Manuscripts means “handwritten” by scribes & copyists, the printing press did not exist yet. 1456 Gutenberg printing began Material parchment is an animal hide material (leather, but finer) very durable Papyrus is a plant less durable 2nd/3rd century C.E. scribes begin to write on papyrus Form scroll- were glued or attached together and held together by sticks; during reading you had to un scroll (preferred) codex (codices)- taking pieces of paper and folding stacks then putting holes in the side and binding them with string like a modern day book Christians prefer the codex; most Christian manuscripts are codex Continous Script (scriptio continua) the script is continuous Nomina sacra words that get special attention and are over lined in manuscripts form of ancient abbreviation to put a line through the word What is the origin? Scholars believe the Jewish did this as a Jewish scribal treatment of the Tetragrammaton Tetragrammaton- refers to the 4 letters for God (Yahweh) Adoni (Lord) God’s name gets a different treatment (special treatment) Lord in non-capital letters means master Capital letters means Lord God is generic for deity Problem 1. No autographs (just copies); no originals from the author 2. None of the autographs agree exactly 300,000 variant readings Variant readings are differences Translators have to decide which is most original or earliest 3. Unintentional changes Errors of the eye- mistakes made by the eye they can be easily explained because they are so minor Errors of the ear 4. Intentional changes Reason for change is to harmonize Smooth out difficulties- whether they be grammatical or otherwise more difficult reading is probably the more original reading Purpose and Principles of Textual Criticism 1. Purpose of Textual Criticism For the recovery of the original text/reading A reconstruction of the text’s history 2. Principles of Textual Criticism External Evidence Internal Evidence (rules) More difficult reading is preferred Shorter reading is preferred The reading that fit’s the writer’s style/vocabulary is preferred Reading that best explains other readings is preferred Preliminary Comments Old Testament-Hebrew New Testament-Greek Latin Vulgate- In the 4th century Jerome translated the Bible for Western Christianity for the about 1200 years Two factors that dramatically changed the History of Bible translation 1. During the Protestant reformation in the 1500s, the bible is the language of the people the bible was the sole authority Luke translated the bible into German England translation of the bible begin to flourish because of Protestant ideas The reformation encourages people to translate the bible 2. Printing Press 15th century invention provides a way in which bibles can be printed/circulated critical to Protestant reformation History of the English Bible Wycliffe Bible (1384) was the first English translation of the Bible he translated from the Latin Vulgate first English bible is a translation of a translation Tidal Bible (NT 1526; Pentateuch 1530) was the first printed English Bible he translated from Hebrew and Greek not a translation from a translation Coverdale Bible (1535) was the first completed printed English Bible translated from Latin and Tyndall’s Bible The King James Version or Authorized Version (1611) King James I authorized it Committee translators based text off of Hebrew & Greek texts Why the need to update KJV? inferior text base modern translation has a much better text basis Archaic language nobody speaks like this terms are irrelevant it needs to be in the language of the people it has evolved as the English language has evolved Translation is an act of interpretation Two major Theories of Translation Formal Correspondence “word for word" nouns translated as nouns, prepositions translated as prepositions trying to stay as close as possible to grammatical structure, form Even the translation of idioms (figure of speech) King James version “he who pissith against the wall” translated today as “male" Dynamic Equivalence “meaning for meaning" functional equivalence it is concerned with the meaning of the original into the target text you use modern language and structure to capture meaning of the original text A. Genesis 1:1-2:3 - Literary Context The deep- water God creates light 1. Day 1-Light separation of dark and light day and evening 2. Day 2-Sky (Dome/Firmament) waters are separated there is a separation of lower and higher waters (sea and sky) 3. Day 3-Dry land with vegetation separation of water and land vegetation covers the earth First three days God is giving shape to formlessness Next three days God is filling the earth 4. Day 4- Sun, moon, and stars (mirrors day 1) greater light-the sun lesser light-the moon God places the vessels (sun & moon) in the dome 5. Day 5- Water & air creatures (mirrors day 2) fill the the water with creatures and the sky with creatures 6. Day 6- Land creatures, humans, vegetation for food (mirrors day 3) male & female created in the image of God 7. Day 7- Sabbath of God a day that stands alone just as God stands alone Language poetic repetition; rhythmic formal structure Liturgical the script of worship an adjective printed the word’s prayer or the apostle’s creed some scholars believe that this text came out from people who were connected to the temple P tradition-“Priestly" used in a form in a setting of worship Portrait of God God comes across as transcendent there is creator & creation God comes across as a sovereign King whose commands are fulfilled Genisus 2 Language vivid feels like a story Portrait of God God is seen as a gardner, craftsman, and surgeon Anthropomorphic God is portrayed in human like ways; takes on human ways as a result God is more personal God is transcendent and personal (paradox?) this is the first thing we learn about God (they are both true about who God is) J tradition- Yawehist it presents God as anthropomorphic Gen 2- Lord/Yahweh Gen 1- God/elohim Setting Gen 1- watery chaos Gen 2- desert Cultural Context Enuma Elish- Babylonian creation story They share a similar cosmology Differences One God vs. multiple Gods Goodness of creation vs creation by violence humanity created in God’s image vs. Humanity created through violence (called savage) Significance? Theological protest it’s different story of how the world was scene emphasis is on God’s character (theological) creation stories say something about who your God is emphasis on nature of humanity (ethical) if humanity is named savage you have a particular view of how humanity is Contemporary Context Is Genesis 1-2 a scientific description of the organ of the universe? it is true given its attended meaning meaning is often dictated by genre designed to say something about who God is intention was theological, ethical, and liturgical it is true even though it may not be fact we have bought the truth that factual=truthful Genesis is a theological/ethical text, not scientific Genesis is about the “who” and science is about “How" The Creation of Woman Predicament: man is lonely (“it is not good that man should be alone”-Gen. 2:18) Solutin: the creation of “helpmate” (ever kenegdo; “helper corresponding to”) “helper”- one who comes to the aid of another it’s usually a military image; a savior, to rescue them in their time of need they become partners; and they correspond with each other; a solution to help man out of his desperation Structure of Genesis Genisus 1-11: Primeval History Gen. 1-2: God’s good creation Genesis 3-11: Humanity’s corruption of God’s good creation; sinfulness of humanity Genesis 12-50: Ancestral History Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Genesis 3-11: Humanity’s Sin Adam & Eve (3:1-24) Transgression/sin: Disobedience there is some motive that moves this act of disobedience: Idolatry they are not willing to accept their creativeness and want to be like their creator (God); they want to put themselves with God wanting to be divine Consequence: Man- hard labor Woman- labor pains; man shall rule over her (consequence of sin and not God’s intended creation) Serpent- must crawl on its belly God’s Mercy: He provides clothing Allows man and woman to live long enough so that they may have children; they do not actually die that exact day. Cain & Abel (4:1-16) Transgression/sin: Murder- Cain kills Abel Jealousy outward act is motived by something interior Consequence: He is told to leave the land He is told to be a wanderer The land has been polluted in a sense by the blood of the brother God’s Mercy: Marks him with protection “Sons of God” and Women (6:1-4) (Prologue Transgression/sin: “Sons of God” have sexual relations with women Heavenly beings have intercourse with earthly beings breeches the separate spheres of heaven and earth offspring makes a race of giants Consequence: Limited lifespan life is limited to 120 years God’s Mercy: none it functions as a prologue to flood story The Flood and Noah (6:5-9:17) Transgression/sin: God is sorry; it greaves him (J tradition-anthro) “J” account (6:5-8)- wickedness and evil inclinations “P” account (6:9-17)- violence and corruption Consequence: Destruction by flood; a return to chaos flood purifies “P” perspective God’s Mercy: Noah & the ark God promises not to destroy the earth again; Noah covenant= rainbow Tower of Babel (11:1-9) Transgression/sin: Pride; they want to make a name for themselves Disobedience- God’s intention for them is to fill the earth; they are congregated in one place and haven’t separated Idolatry- they want to be like God; they want to build this tower to reach heaven Consequence: God confuses language the word Babel- “scatter" God’s Mercy: This “gap’ rhetorically connects 1-11 with 12-50; God’s mercy is the covenant with Abraham Genesis 12-22: Abraham Covenant Who: the One who called the cosmos into being is also the One who cals Abraham. What: this second calling represents God’s continued intention to bless creation corrupted by human sin. How: With this second calling, however, god’s intention to bless and redeem seems to require a new strategy When: Gen. 11:26-30 When creation seems to be broken down, that God decides to work through Sarah God chooses people to work through that nobody would choose to work through God’s Covenant with Abraham: 1. Possession of Land 2. Descendants/nation 3. Blessing God blesses Abraham God blesses the families of the earth through Abraham Promissory covenant an obligation to believe, have faith, and to go Sign of the covenant: circumcision this will show that they are God’s people


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