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BIOL 1105- First study guide

by: Words'nNotes

BIOL 1105- First study guide BIOL 1105

Virginia Tech

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About this Document

Study guide for the first test the answers can be found in the notes posted previously and it covers up to the end of cell communication
Principles of Biology
Eric P. Hogan
Study Guide
Cell, communication, membrane, Biology, atoms, Macromolecules
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Words'nNotes on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1105 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Eric P. Hogan in Fall 2016 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
Matching Carbohydrates Nucleotides Nucleic Acids Amino Acids Proteins Fatty Acids Lipids Monosaccharides Select (correct/incorrect) answer  Nucleic acids are made up of: sugar, a (monosaccharide/nitrogenous base) and 1 or more phosphate groups  Nitrogenous bases can be (purine or pyrimidine/ carboxyl or functional)  Carbohydrates are made of (mono and poly/ unilateral or divergent) -saccharides  Carbohydrates can occur in (linear or ring/ crystalline or organic) structures Label as mono, di, or poly saccharides Matching RNA RNA and DNA DNA Form nucleic acids A Uracil C G nucleotides T Cytosine Thymine Select (correct/incorrect) answer Proteins are (polymers/ subunits) of amino acids There are (10/ 17) polar amino acids There are (20/ 10) non-polar amino acids Positively charged amino acids are (polar/ non-polar) negatively charged amino acids are (polar/ non-polar) A protein’s amino group is bonded to (central carbon/ side chain) A protein’s functional group is bonded to (central carbon/ side chain) A protein’s carboxyl group is bonded to (central carbon/side chain) Label the level of protein structure  interactions between polypeptides  B sheets and alpha helix  amino acid sequence, covalent bonds  between distant amino acids, form loops, involve sidechains Select the correct answer What is one thing that all cells Don’t have  A nucleus or nucleoid  Cytoplasm  Chloroplast  Cytosol  Ribosomes- which make proteins  Phospholipid bi-layer What is not a component of Eukaryotic Cells  Cytoskeleton  Compartmentalization  Complex  Ribosomes Archaea and Bacteria are  Prokaryotic Cells  Eukaryotic Cells Place the steps of the endomembrane system in order  Proteins are then enclosed into vesicles and transported to the cis face of the golgi apparatus  The proteins can stay in the cell or exit the cell  The protein then exits through the trans face of the golgi apparatus  Nucleus- DNA is transcribed into RNA  Proteins are synthesized from the RNA  The protein is modified in the golgi apparatus  RNA is transported to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Select (correct/incorrect) answer Cell size is limited due to (Diffusion/ Respiration) Select the correct answer What is not an effect on diffusion rate?  Surface area  Temperature  Solution concentration  Concentration gradient  Distance Plasma membranes separate cell from the extracellular membrane  True  False Carbohydrates help stabilize the phospholipid bilayer  True  False Label the two parts of the phospholipid: Indicate which image describes each term for phospholipid structure Micelle Bilayer Indicate if the listed items can permeate a cell’s membrane  Charged molecules  Small uncharged polar molecules  Ions  Large un-charged molecules  Small non-polar molecules Fill in the blanks A model commonly used to describe the cellular membrane is called the _______ The _____ and ______ of a cell have different parts and attachments to serve different purposes Membrane proteins can be _______ (a part of the bilayer) or ______ (against the bilayer but not attached, only on the interior of the membrane) Integral proteins can be either ____________ (reaching either side of the cell membrane) or ___________ (covalently attached to the membrane surface) Transport proteins move hydrophilic and larger molecules that ______ pass through the phospholipid bilayer Matching Passive Transport energy from a molecule/ion moving down the gradient through a protein is used to power one moving up Facilitated Diffusion moves from a low concentration gradient to a high one “against the current”; this uses energy, most of these proteins are ATPases (they use ATP), the Na/K pump is the most notable and important user of this system Active Transport molecules being transported move down the concentration gradient, can be molecule specific, some can open or close, others are always open Coupled Transport a sort of passive transport; the specific molecule bonds to a point on the protein, the protein changes shape and releases the molecule to the opposite side of the cellular membrane, the protein reverts to the normal shape Fill in the blanks Too _______ water in a cell and it will burst, too ____ and it shrivels up Plant cells are more protected than animal cells due to their strong __________ Matching Endocytosis Solute and water are brought into the cell by portions of the membrane wrapping around them and enveloping them. That portion, a vesicle, then breaks loose of the membrane and floats off inside the cell, like a bag of water/solute Pinocytosis how cells rid themselves of waste, vesicles come from the trans Golgi and merge with the plasma membrane, releasing the contents outside the cell Receptor-mediated endocytosis A cell consumes another cell, forming a vesicle and “eating” it, simple life forms eat this way and some cells break down non-useful cells in this way, can also be an immune defense Exocytosis Receptors in a coated pit on the membrane recognize a specific molecule and form a vesicle around them, the coated pit is lined with clathrin which bends the membrane to form that specific vesicle, this makes a coated vesicle Phagocytosis how cells assimilate material from outside their membranes Matching Direct Contact detect peptides proteins and neurotransmitters as they can’t cross the cell membrane, surface detectors have three parts: an extracellular domain for binding to the signal, a transmembrane domain that holds it in place, and cytosolic domain that leads to a transduction pathway Transduction pathways include several steps of activation to a cellular response Paracrine Signaling is used only by nerve cells, has a long and short distance variety, the long distance takes place along the elongated cell membrane where it is released at the end to a nearby cell, fast but long distance. Autocrine Signaling is similar to Paracrine Signaling in that a cell releases a signal but then the same cell is the intended target cell, signaling itself, somewhat fast, used in immune system Endocrine Signaling is between two touching cells, gap junction (small tubes between the two cells) allow for signals to travel, used where cells must function together, the fastest form of communication, commonly used to coordinate such as with heart muscles Synaptic Signaling are located inside the cell and bond to hydrophobic signals (ligands) as they can pass through the cellular membrane, the receptors then activate a signal transduction pathway, the pathway has fewer steps than Surface receptors, used by steroids Cell Surface Detectors is where signals are diffused a short distance to other nearby cells, local and somewhat fast, this only lasts a short while as the nearby cells quickly absorb the signal protein, used in immune system Intracellular Receptors is where signals are secreted into the bloodstream and must travel a long distance to reach their target, slow but long lasting as it takes longer for the signals to be absorbed, in this process signals are called hormones Choose the correct answer Which of these is Not a function of steroids  Control gene expression  Transport oxygen  Involved in endocrine signaling  Transcription factors Phosphorylation is used as an on/ off switch in some proteins  True  False Most signal pathways are reversible  True  False Select the correct representation of signal amplification


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