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Bio 210 A08 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Anna Reider

Bio 210 A08 Exam 1 Study Guide Bio 210

Marketplace > Midlands Technical College > Biology > Bio 210 > Bio 210 A08 Exam 1 Study Guide
Anna Reider
Midlands Technical College

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outline of chapters 1 - 3 for exam 1
Human Anatomy/Physiology I
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Reider on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 210 at Midlands Technical College taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy/Physiology I in Biology at Midlands Technical College.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
Bio 210 A08 Exam 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1 – 3) Chapter 1: The Human Body & Orientation Anatomy: study of the structure of body parts & their relationship to one another Physiology: study of function of the body parts & how they carry out life sustaining tasks Principle of Complementary: function always reflects structure so anatomy and physiology can be studied independently but what structure does depend on form Chemical  Cellular  Tissue  Organ  Organ System  Organismal (figure 1.1 – pg. 3) Organ Systems: a) Integument (hair & skin) b) Skeletal (bone, joints) c) Muscular (muscles) d) Nervous (nerves, brain, spinal cord) e) Endocrine (pancreas, ovaries/testis, thymus, pineal, thyroid, pituitary, & adrenal glands) f) Cardiovascular (heart, blood vessels) g) Lymphatic (spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels) h) Respiratory (lungs, bronchus, trachea, larynx, pharynx, nasal cavity) i) Digestive (stomach, liver, oral cavity, esophagus, small & large intestine, rectum, anus) j) Urinary (kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra) k) Male Reproductive (prostate, penis, testis, scrotum) l) Female Reproductive (mammary glands, ovaries, uterus, vagina) Necessary Life Functions: 1. Maintaining boundaries 2. Movement 3. Responsiveness 4. Digestion 5. Metabolism 6. Excretion 7. Reproduction 8. Growth Survival Needs: 1. Nutrients 2. Oxygen 3. Water 4. Normal body temperature 5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure Homeostasis – maintenance of stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in the environment Disturbance of homeostasis can: - Increase the risk of disease - Contributes to aging process - Overwhelmed negative feedback can lead to destructive positive feedback (ex. heart failure) Axial – head, neck, & trunk Appendicular – limbs Body Planes (pg. 16): - Sagittal - Frontal/coronal - Transverse/Horizontal Body Cavities: Dorsal:  Cranial = brain  Vertebral = spinal cord Ventral:  Thoracic = lungs (2 pleural cavities)  Mediastinum = pericardial cavity  Pericardial = heart Abdominopelvic = stomach, intestines, spleen, & liver Pelvic = urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum Membranes in Ventral Body Cavity:  Serosa/Serous Membrane  Parietal serosa = lines internal body cavity walls  Visceral serosa (viscera) = covers internal organs Pericardium = heart Pleurae = lungs Peritoneum = abdominopelvic cavity Abdominopelvic Quadrants (pg. 19) Abdominopelvic Regions (pg. 19) Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive Matter = anything that has mass & occupies space  Mass does not equal weight  Solid, liquid, gas Energy = capacity to do work or put matter into motion  Doesn’t have mass  Kinetic = energy in action (ex. pushing a swing)  Potential = stored (inactive) energy that has the potential to do work  Potential energy becomes kinetic energy!  Chemical = stored in bonds of chemical substances  Electrical = results from movement of charged particles  Mechanical = directly involved in moving matter (ex. pedaling a bike)  Radiant/Electromagnetic = travels in waves (electromagnetic spectrum) All matter is composed of elements.  Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, & nitrogen = 96% of the body Protons = + charge, 1 amu Neutrons = no charge, 1 amu Electrons = - charge, no amu  # of positive protons is balanced by # of negative electrons, so atoms are electrically neutral  protons & neutrons are orbited by electrons Atomic Number = equal to the number of protons  ex. L3 – the atomic number would be 3) Mass Number = total # of protons & neutrons; total mass of atom  ex. LI – the mass number would be 7) Isotopes = structural variations of the same element  contain same # of protons but different # of neutrons  atomic # is the same, mass # is different Atomic Weight = average of mass number of all isotope forms of an atom Radioisotopes = isotopes that decompose to more stable forms Molecule = 2+ atoms bounded together (ex. H ) 2 Compound = specific molecule w/ 2+ different kinds of atoms bounded together (ex. C6H 12)6 Mixtures = 2+ components that are physically intermixed Solutions = homogeneous mixture, particles evenly distributed throughout (usually transparent)  Solvent = present in great amount (typically water)  Solute = substance dissolved in solvent Colloids = heterogeneous mixtures, particles not evenly distributed throughout; cloudy/milky; jello like Suspensions = heterogeneous mixture that contains large, visible solutes that do not settle; water & sand; blood Chemical Bonds = “energy relationships” between electrons of reacting atoms  Electron Shells  Valence Shell – outermost shell  Octet Rule (Rule of 8) Ionic Bonds = atoms that have gained/lost electrons & become charged  Anion = gained 1+ electrons; negative charge  Cation = lost 1+ electrons; positive charge Covalent Bonds = formed by sharing of 2+ valence electrons between 2 atoms  2 electrons = single bond  4 electrons = double bond  6 electrons = triple bond  Nonpolar = equal sharing of electrons; chemically balanced  Polar = unequal sharing of electrons  Greater electron-attracting = electronegative  Less electron-sharing = electropositive  H O2  Dipole = having 2 different charges Hydrogen Bonds = attractive force between electron & hydrogen of 1 molecule & an electron atom of another molecule; common between dipole; as as intramolecular bonds Chemical Equations: occur when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken  Reactants: substance entering into reaction together  Products: resulting chemical end products Synthesis/Combination: A+BAB Decomposition: ABA+B Exchange/Reduction Oxidation (Redox): AB+CAC+B & AB+CDAD+CB Exergonic = results in net release of energy  Products have more potential energy than reactants  Catabolic & oxidative reactions Endergonic = results in net absorption of energy (uses up energy)  Products have more potential energy than reactants  Anabolic reactions Rate of Chemical Reactions Can Be Affected By:  Temperature: increased temperature, increases rate of reaction  Concentration of Reactions: higher concentration, higher rate of reaction  Particle Size: smaller particles, higher rate of reaction Catalysts = increase rate of reaction w/o bring chemically changed or becoming part of the product (ex. enzymes) Biochemistry = study of chemical composition & reactions of living matter Inorganic Compounds = water, salts, & many acids & bases; NO CARBON Organic Compounds = carbohydrates, fats, proteins, & nucleic acids Water = most abundant inorganic compound (60 – 80% volume of living cells) a) High heat capacity b) High heat of vaporization c) Polar solvent properties d) Reactivity e) Cushioning Salts = ionic compounds that dissociate into separate ions in water  Cations (+) & Anions (-)  Not included H & OH ions-  Electrolytes = conduct electrical currents in solution  Specialized roles  Ionic balance is vital for homeostasis Acids = ionic compounds; proton donors; PH 0 – 6.99 Bases = proton acceptor; PH 7.1 – 14 Buffers = resist abrupt swings in PH  Can release H ions if PH rises +  Can bind H ions if PH falls Carbohydrates = includes sugars & starches; contain C, H, & O  Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides  Starch = carbohydrate storage form used by plants  Glycogen = carbohydrate storage form used by animals Lipids = contain C, H, O, & P (but less than carbohydrates); insoluble in water  Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanoids Proteins = 20 – 30% of cell mass; most varied functions of any molecule; polymers of amino acid monomers held together by peptide bonds Amino Acids = joined by covalent bonds called peptide bonds; can act as acid or base Enzymes = globular proteins that act as biological catalysts; lower the energy needed to initiate a chemical reaction Nucleic Acids = composed of C, H, O, N, & P are the largest molecules in the body; DNA & RNA ATP = chemical energy released when glucose is broken down; directly powers chemical reactions in cells Chapter 3: Cells – The Living Units Cell Theory: cell is structural & functional unit of life; how well the organism functions depend on individual AND combined activities of all the cells Generalized Cell: 1) Plasma Membrane – flexible outer boundary 2) Cytoplasm – intracellular fluid containing organelles 3) Nucleus – DNA containing control center Extracellular Materials: 1) Extracellular Fluids a) Interstitial Fluid – cells bath in this fluid b) Blood Plasma – fluid of the blood c) Cerebrospinal fluid – surrounds system organs 2) Cellular secretions (salvia, mucus) 3) Extracellular Matrix – substance acts as glue to hold cells together Membrane Lipids: Lipid Bilayer is made up of: o 75% phospholipids  phosphate heads – polar & hydrophilic (charged & water loving)  fatty acid tails – nonpolar & hydrophobic (no charge & water hating) o 5% Glycolipids  lipids with sugar groups on outer membrane surface o 20% Cholesterol  increases membrane stability Membrane Proteins: o allow cell communication w/ environment o integral & peripheral proteins Glycocalyx: o consists of sugars (carbohydrates) sticking out of cell surfaces Cell Junctions: o some cells are “free” (not bound) o most cells are bound together to form tissues & organs o tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions Passive Membrane Transport: o requires NO energy o Diffusion o Filtration Tonicity: o Ability of a solution to change the shape/ton of cell’s by altering the cell internal water volume Active Membrane Transport: o Require ATP to move solutes across a plasma membrane because the solute is too large for channels, is not lipid soluble, or is not able to move down the concentration gradient Endocytosis: transport into the cell Exocytosis: transport out of the cell


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