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CORNELL / Chemistry / CHEM 3570 / How many conformations does the molecule butane have?

How many conformations does the molecule butane have?

How many conformations does the molecule butane have?

Description

School: Cornell University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry for the Life Sciences
Professor: Ganem prof. dichtel
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: CHEM3570 Ch#2 Notes
Description: Alkanes
Uploaded: 09/12/2016
6 Pages 83 Views 1 Unlocks
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Alkanes  Don't forget about the age old question of Describe the training process for clinical psychology.

  • Instead of being bound to only hydrogens, carbon can be bound to a second carbon with enough hydrogens to fill the octet= ETHANE

Don't forget about the age old question of Why does a shorter wavelength have a better resolution?

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         Fig:

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Hydrocarbons are divided into 2 classes:

  • Aliphatic
  • Aromatic

  • Aliphatic: alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
  • Alkanes: Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds (methane + ethane are the simplest)

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Unbranched Alkanes

Methane CH4 

Ethane C2H6

Propane C3H8

Butane C4H10

Pentane C5H12

Hexane C7H16

Octane C8H18

  • Structural formula of a molecule is its Lewis Structure which shows the connectivity of the atoms

Example:

Condensed Structural Formula:

Unbranched Alkanes differ by one - CH2 - group

(methylene group): series of compounds that differ by addition of methylene groups (homologous series)

Conformation of Alkanes

  • Conformation of Ethane: To specify dihedral angles we must define. The relationship between the C-H bond on one carbon and on the other (Newman Projection)

  • Newman Projection: Planar Projection along one bond

     

  • Staggered: more stable, less torsional strain due to less repulsion from C-H bonds
  • Internal Rotation: Rotation around carbon-carbon bond

Fig:

Conformation of Butane: 2 distinguishable carbon bonds; two terminal

                                                  C-C + Central C-C

  • Van der Waals Repulsion: Extra energy required to force 2 nonbonded atoms together within their van der waals radii
  • When different stable conformation are in equilibrium, the most stable conformation is present in greatest amount

Sawhorse Projection: New of the projected bond as if we were looking at it from above and to the right

         

Wedge -Dash Rules:

  • Wedge + dah must be drawn on the same side of the carbon-cave on bonds in the backbone
  • The angle between in -plane bonds must be approximately the tetrahedra angel

Isomers:

  • Different compounds that have the same molecular formula

 

  • Isomers that differ in the connectivity of their atoms= Structural/Constitutional

Substitutive Nomenclature

  • Alkanes are named by applying the following rules in order:

  1. Unbranched Alkanes: are named according to the # of carbons
  2. For branched Alkanes: determine the principal chain (longest continuous carbon chain)

  1. If 2+ chains within a structure have the same length, choose as the principle chain, the one with the greatest # of branches
  2. # of carbons of principal chain from one end to the other in the direction that gives the lower # to the first branching pt
  3. Name each branch + Identify the carbon # , the principal chain at which it occurs
  • Substituents derived from Alkanes = alkyl groups
  • CH3 methyl (methane + yl)
  • CH2CH3 or C2H5 (ethyl (=ethane + yl)  
  • CH2CH2CH3 Propyl

Short branched chain alkyl groups:

  • When in doubt look for atom in parenthesis missing its usual # of bonds
  • When CH3 is in parenthesis the carbon only has 3 bonds

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