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CORNELL / Chemistry / CHEM 3570 / How many conformations does the molecule butane have?

How many conformations does the molecule butane have?

How many conformations does the molecule butane have?

Description

School: Cornell University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry
Professor: Ganem prof. dichtel
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: CHEM3570 Ch#2 Notes
Description: Alkanes
Uploaded: 09/12/2016
6 Pages 38 Views 1 Unlocks
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Alkanes  If you want to learn more check out What is another licensure requirement for clinical psychology?

  • Instead of being bound to only hydrogens, carbon can be bound to a second carbon with enough hydrogens to fill the octet= ETHANE

Don't forget about the age old question of When was penicillin discovered?

          Don't forget about the age old question of Where is the nucleus found?

         

         Fig:

           We also discuss several other topics like How do command and market economy differ?

Hydrocarbons are divided into 2 classes:

  • Aliphatic
  • Aromatic

  • Aliphatic: alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
  • Alkanes: Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds (methane + ethane are the simplest)

Don't forget about the age old question of What is an example of an isotope?

Unbranched Alkanes

Methane CH4 If you want to learn more check out How does a criminal justice system work?

Ethane C2H6

Propane C3H8

Butane C4H10

Pentane C5H12

Hexane C7H16

Octane C8H18

  • Structural formula of a molecule is its Lewis Structure which shows the connectivity of the atoms

Example:

Condensed Structural Formula:

Unbranched Alkanes differ by one - CH2 - group

(methylene group): series of compounds that differ by addition of methylene groups (homologous series)

Conformation of Alkanes

  • Conformation of Ethane: To specify dihedral angles we must define. The relationship between the C-H bond on one carbon and on the other (Newman Projection)

  • Newman Projection: Planar Projection along one bond

     

  • Staggered: more stable, less torsional strain due to less repulsion from C-H bonds
  • Internal Rotation: Rotation around carbon-carbon bond

Fig:

Conformation of Butane: 2 distinguishable carbon bonds; two terminal

                                                  C-C + Central C-C

  • Van der Waals Repulsion: Extra energy required to force 2 nonbonded atoms together within their van der waals radii
  • When different stable conformation are in equilibrium, the most stable conformation is present in greatest amount

Sawhorse Projection: New of the projected bond as if we were looking at it from above and to the right

         

Wedge -Dash Rules:

  • Wedge + dah must be drawn on the same side of the carbon-cave on bonds in the backbone
  • The angle between in -plane bonds must be approximately the tetrahedra angel

Isomers:

  • Different compounds that have the same molecular formula

 

  • Isomers that differ in the connectivity of their atoms= Structural/Constitutional

Substitutive Nomenclature

  • Alkanes are named by applying the following rules in order:

  1. Unbranched Alkanes: are named according to the # of carbons
  2. For branched Alkanes: determine the principal chain (longest continuous carbon chain)

  1. If 2+ chains within a structure have the same length, choose as the principle chain, the one with the greatest # of branches
  2. # of carbons of principal chain from one end to the other in the direction that gives the lower # to the first branching pt
  3. Name each branch + Identify the carbon # , the principal chain at which it occurs
  • Substituents derived from Alkanes = alkyl groups
  • CH3 methyl (methane + yl)
  • CH2CH3 or C2H5 (ethyl (=ethane + yl)  
  • CH2CH2CH3 Propyl

Short branched chain alkyl groups:

  • When in doubt look for atom in parenthesis missing its usual # of bonds
  • When CH3 is in parenthesis the carbon only has 3 bonds

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