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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: RoseN

Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 109

GPA 3.98

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Hey guys! This is my outline for the study guide, I don't have the answers to it posted yet, but they should be up either Monday night or Tuesday morning. But this should be more than enough to get...
General Chemistry 1
Jason Kautz
Study Guide
General Chemistry, Chemistry
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by RoseN on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 109 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jason Kautz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
Chemistry 109 Dr. Kautz Unit 1 study guide NOTE: This weekend turned out to be CRAZY busy (family came by and stuff) and I wasn’t able to get you a completely finished study guide early. But I have the outline of what I am going to study for the next few days, and I will update with the complete one tomorrow evening! I am going to work out complete solutions to all the problems I posted, so you can see that too. So, I made this study guide using the learning objectives that were given to us for Unit 1. Not everything on here will be on the test, but we don’t really have any way of knowing exactly what will or will not be on the test. I have bolded the extremely important things to study, mostly things that were explicitly mentioned in lecture. I’m a straight A student, and this type of study guide works really well for me. We all learn differently, but I hope this works just as well for you. This is the first study guide that I’ve posted on StudySoup. So if there is something that you would suggest I add, or something that you think I should change, please let me know, I always love suggestions! I’m just going to kind of explain the steps that I take to study for this type of test, it might be overkill for you, or it might not be enough, but hopefully this will give you a guideline. 1. Revise lecture notes, write down a list of all the “Need to Know’s” that Dr. Kautz told me. 2. Do study guide, use it to figure out what I understand pretty well, and what I really need to work on. 3. Do problems in the back of the book. 4. Go to the Chemistry Resource Center and clarify anything I’m not sure about. 5. All this time, I am reviewing flash cards to make sure they are memorized well. Week 1 – Its pretty basic stuff, but just make sure you have a good understanding of each of these ideas. Making flash cards for definitions is always a good idea if you are having trouble differentiating between some of it. 1. The Scientific Method (1.1) a. What is a Hypothesis b. What is a Law c. What is a Theory 2. Classification of Matter (1.2) a. Different States (pg. 6) Solid Liquid Gas Density Compressibi lity Rigidity b. What is a Solid? i. Crystaline solid ii. Amorphous solid c. What is a Liquid? d. What is a gas? e. What is an atom? f. What is an element? g. What is a compound? h. What is a mixture? i. What is a homogenous mixture? ii. What is a heterogeneous mixture? i. What is a substance? 3. Physical vs. Chemical a. Properties i. What is a physical property? ii. What is a chemical property? b. Changes i. What is a physical change? ii. What is a chemical change? c. Intensive vs. Extensive i. What is an intensive property? ii. What is an extensive property? d. Suggested: Checkpoint 1.4 on pg. 16 4. Scientific Measurement a. Describe a quantitative measurement. b. What is an exact number? i. Which of the following are exact numbers: π, 3.14, 3 eggs, 24.762 g, Avogadro’s number (the definition), 23 6.022×10 atoms mol c. What are significant figures, and what are the rules for using them? (There is a complete list of rules on pg. 17) i. How many significant figures do the following have? 1. 45.0 2. 0.003765 3. 350 4. 12089 5. 0.120 ii. How many sig figs should the answers have? 1. 45.09 + 127.675= 2. 98.0369 x 2.147= 3. (46.234 – 124.834) x 76.3424 = d. Define accuracy and precision i. Accuracy ii. Precision iii. Look at practice problems on (pg. 20-21) 5. Temperature Scales a. What’s the difference between the Celsius, Kelvin and Fahrenheit scales? b. Convert between Celsius and Kelvin i. What’s the equation for converting? 1. 24K to °C 2. 107°C to K 6. Density a. Define density b. Calculate density and volume (pg. 12-13) i. What is the density of a cube measuring 4.32 cm on one side that has a mass of 94 g? ii. What is the mass of a cube of the same substance as above measuring 1.98 cm on one side? Week 2 1. Atomic Theory a. Law of definite proportions b. Law of Multiple Proportions c. Law of Conservation of Mass d. John Dalton’s Atomic Theory i. Elements are made of small particles, called elements. ii. All atoms of a given element are identical. An atom of one type of element is different from every other type of atom. iii. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one type of element. The elements of a compound are always present in the same ratio. iv. A chemical reaction rearranges atoms in compounds; it does not create or destroy atoms. 2. Nuclear Model of the Atom a. What did J.J. Thomson do? i. Whats the plum pudding model (or blueberry muffin) b. What did Robert Millikan do? c. What did Ernest Rutheford do? d. How did the view on the atomic nature of matter change since Dalton’s idea? e. What are the three subatomic particles? f. How do we use isotopic symbols? i. Do problems 2.23, 2.25, 2.27. 3. Periodic table a. What is the periodic law? b. Why do metals lose electrons to form cations? c. Why do non-metals gain electrons to for anions? d. What are anions and cations? e. Where do the metal, non-metal and metalloid divisions fall on the periodic table? f. Know which groups are alkali, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble gases. g. Know the charge of monoatomic ions based on their group. i. What are the charges of these ions? Week 3 1. Average atomic mass (section 2.5) a. What is atomic mass? b. How do we calculate the average atomic mass of an element? c. What does a mass spectrometer do? d. Need to be able to do these two things: i. Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the abundance of each isotope and the mass of each isotope. 1. Do problems 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 and practice problem 2.3.B (pg. 53 and 54) 2. Interconverting mass, moles and numbers of molecules/atoms. a. What is the mole (no, not the animal )? b. What is the molar mass? c. What is the difference between molar mass, molecular mass, and formula mass? d. Need to be able to do the following procedures: i. Do the problems 3.35, 3.37, 3.39, 3.41, 3.43, 3.45, 3.47, 3.49, 3.51, 3.55, 3.57 on page 120 in the textbook. I’ll attach my answers to each of them. 3. Types of chemical formulas and molecular models (3.4) a. What is an empirical formula? b. What is a molecular formula? c. Need to be able to do the following: i. Find an empirical formula if given a molecular formula. Do problem 2.79 on page 78 4. Ionic or covalent compounds a. What is an ionic bond? b. What is a covalent bond? c. How do you know if a substance is ionic from the chemical formula? d. How do you know if a substance is covalent from the chemical formula? e. Do you have the common polyatomic ions memorized? (There is a chart in the textbook) f. Be able to determine the type of bonds (ionic, covalent, or both) found in a given compound. i. Do all odd numbered problems in section 2.6 on page 77 5. Nomenclature a. Know the metals that have more than one common charge (Chart in textbook, I made a list too, its attached). b. Know how to use Roman Numerals to indicate the charge of metals with more than one charge. c. Name binary ionic compounds (including ones that have polyatomic ions) d. Name molecular compounds (including acids) e. Be able to write the chemical formula for any type of compound from its name. f. Know the types of bonds a compound contains from its name. g. Do the problems 2.83, 2.109, 2.117 on pages 78-80 and the nomenclature worksheet on in the Unit 1 folder on blackboard. 6. Mass percent (3.2) a. What is mass percent composition? b. Be able to calculate the mass percent composition of a substance given the masses of individual components. c. Determine the mass of a part of a substance given the mass of the substance and the percent composition d. Calculate the mass percent composition of a substance given only the chemical formula. i. Do problems 3.9, 3.11, 3.13 and 3.15 on pg. 118 Week 4 1. Empirical formulas a. Use the mole concept to calculate the ratio of atoms in chemical formulas b. How do you find the empirical formula from mass percent composition data? c. Determine the molecular formula from the empirical formulas using molar mass and mass spectronomy. d. Should know how to do this if you did all the problems in section 3.4 (listed above in mass/mole/atom conversion) 2. Combustion Analysis a. How do you recognize a combustion reaction? b. How do you find the empirical formula of a substance using combustion analysis? c. Determine the molecular formula from the empirical formula. d. Do problems 3.63 and 3.65 on pg. 121, or any of the combustion problems in the “Additional Problem section”, if you want me to work out the solutions for you, just email me! 3. Stoichiometry a. How do you balance an equation (keeping in mind the law of constant composition and the law of conservation of mass)? b. What is the significance of stoichiometric coefficients? c. How do you stoichiometric coefficients to balance chemical equations? d. Use balanced equations to perform the following types of stoichiometric calculations: i. Find the amount of product formed given a specified amount of reactant ii. Find the amount of reactant needed to give a specified amount of product iii. Find the amount of one reactant needed to completely react with a specified amount of a different reactant iv. In reactions that produced more than one product, if the amount of one product is known, find the amounts of the other products produced. e. Do problems 3.71, 3.73, 3.75, 3.77, 3.79, 3.81 and 3.83 4. Theoretical Yield a. What is a limiting reagent? b. How do you find the limiting reagent in a chemical equation? c. How do you calculate the theoretical yield (maximum yield) of a reaction. d. How do you find the amount of excess reagent that remains after a reaction is complete. 5. Percent Yield a. What is percent yield? b. What is the difference between theoretical yield and percent yield? c. How do you calculate the percent yield of a reaction d. How do you calculate the amount of a product produced given a known percent yield? e. How do you calculate the amount of reactant needed to produce a certain amount of product given a known percent yield? f. For both sections 4 and 5, do problems 3.89, 3.91, 3.93, 3.95, 3.97 and 3.99.


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