Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Esc 1510
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittney Tilghman on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Esc 1510 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Dr. Bradley Reynolds in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Environmental Science: systematic study of the environment and the proper place in it. - Highly interdisciplinary - Mix of natural and social sciences - Solves environmental problems Environmental problems - Global warming and global climate change - Rising pollution - Ecosystem destruction - Overpopulation (drives environmental problems) - Resource depletion - Ozone depletion - Loss of biodiversity “Wicked” environmental problems: one that is not easily solved. (Solution= huge trade offs) Principle of Environmental unity - Every action has more than one effect - Everything effects everything Framework of Environmental Science 1. Human Population Growth - John Eli Miller (head of largest family in the US) - Exponential Population Growth: constant, unlimited growth that multiplies Because of a decrease in the death rate and birth rate remaining consistent, there is an increase in population. 7.3 billion people on Earth - Carrying capacity: number of individuals in a population the environment can support with NO net increase/decrease and without a disastrous depletion of resources. (depends on the quality of life we are willing to accept.) - Midway point: optimal yield growth rate highest 1918-1919: Spanish Influenza By 2001: AIDS killed 20 million people 1. China 1.38 billion 2. India 3. USA - Population growth is big deal because overpopulation strains our resources, creates more pollution, and influences the quality of life. 2. Urbanization of our World - Cities: urban environment - Megacities: city that contains a minimum of 10 million people - Urban Sprawl: haphazard outward growth of a city. Atlanta: population grows by 30% every year - Heat Island Effect: when vegetation is removed and replaced with roads and buildings. Building materials act as solar collectors, generating tons of heat. 3. Sustainability - Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. - Resource: don’t use resource fast their resource can replace itself. - Economics (sustainability development): tries to balance needs of humans with the health of environment. - Ecology(protect environment), Economy(make a profit), Equity(fairness) 4. People and Nature - Principle of Environmental Unity: everything is interconnected. - We affect nature and change the environment by living in it. 5. A Global Perspective - Requires solution in slope - Montreal Protocol: Phasing out CFCs - Earths climate not stable - Human influence: contributing to climate change, rate of change is happening too fast. 6. Science and Values - Science without ethics is blind, ethics without science is empty. - Ethics: study of what’s right and wrong and the reasons why we do what we do. Without ethics, science is dangerous for the environment. Just because you can, doesn’t mean you should. - There must be an ethical vision to guide environmental policy. - When confronted with environmental problem, science is used to tell us our options, but it wont tell us which option to implement. (that’s a question of values) - Values: we have to choose, and when we choose values are implemented What is science? - Organized knowledge - A process, a way of knowing - Brings about conclusions, generalizations, and scientific theories. o Theory: speculation (in the world). In science, you are sure about a theory as you possibly can be. o “show me the data” o Hypothesis The Scientific Method 1. Make observations/develop questions 2. Form a hypothesis, a tentative explanation 3. Conduct EXPERIMENTATION 4. Collect data 5. Analyze/interpret the data 6. Draw conclusions from the data 7. Reject or accept the hypothesis Pseudoscience: ideas appear scientific but are not. - Untestable - Lack of support - Based on faulty reasoning. ** some pieces may be accepted science but the whole idea may not. U.S Conservation Movements First Era 1850-1872 - Marked by disappearance of Eastern forests and biodiversity was harmed - Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection - Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species “the book that struck the world” - Naturalist writers o Ralph Waldo Emerson: American Transcendentalism (the rejection of material goals in order to seek happiness through nature) Challenged by British Romantics 1. Self reflection 2. Importance of the individual 3. NATURE “What is a weed? A plant whose virtue has not been discovered.” o Henry David Thoreau Walden: “simplify, simplify” experiment in simple living 1. read books 2. tended to his garden 3. thought about nature - Conservation institutions o Central Park in New York City 1857-1861 Frederick Law Olmsted Father of modern landscape architectures Bring the forest back o Yellowstone National Park 1872 Complete ecological picture Thermal features World’s first ecological park Second Era: 1890-1909 - Marked by western settlement reaching the Pacific Ocean - Transcontinental railroad: from Mississippi River Pacific (crucial to westward expansion) - When we hit the Pacific, we were forced to realize that the land was limited and resources finite. - Helped Western Expansion 1. Railroad 2. Gold Rush 3. Homestead Act - Allowed settlers with no credit to get property - Government gave you 160 acres - Had to build a house, dig a well, have at least broke(plowed) 10 acres, fenced space - At one time, 60 million bison. Goes down to less than 1000. o Bounced back (kinda) - Passenger Pigeon, extinct now o 5-6 billion in North America o Professional pigeon hunters and unregulated hunting responsible for the extinction this species. o Zero today, last one died in 1914 - Science Concepts o Biotic Succession: H.C. Cowles Maturing of ecosystem over time Succession: process by which a community recovers after a disturbance. Ecological climax: achieved level of stability Biotic succession showed us the ecosystems change over a time scale that we humans impact. o Ecology: Sir Arthur George Tansly Study of living organisms and their interaction with the environment. “oikos”-family household Economy of nature Gave us the tools we needed to manage those finite resources. - Naturalist Writers o John Muir: Preservationist (protests nature for natures sake) because its beautiful. NPS (National Parks Service) o Gifford Pinchot: Conservationist (but let’s use those resources for the good of humanity.) NFS (National Forests Service) - New Conservation Institutions o U.S. Forest Service Gifford Pinchot (first) Lands managed by the “Wise Use Principle” greatest benefit, greatest number of people, greatest amount of time o National Wildlife Refuge System Pelican Island Refuge Teddy Roosevelt “very well then, I so declare it” (first time land had been set aside for conservation of biodiversity) o Antiquities Act: Empowers the President to designate national monuments. U.S. Parks and Monuments System Clinton protected 1.9 million acres in Utah with the Grand Staircase Monument Third Era: 1930-1949 - Marked by the Dust Bowl (major ecological disaster) o Improper farming techniques and drought led to wind erosion. o FIRST major ecological disaster o Replaced grasses with row crops o Poor farming techniques and improper land management o 1935: Dust Bowl Rehabilitation - Science concept o Ecosystem: community of organisms and their nonliving environment. - Naturalist Writers o Aldo Leopold: Sand County Almanac Wildlife scientific game management The Land Ethic: treat the land with respect. Personal values should extend to the natural world. o Margory Stoneman Douglas The Everglades: River of Grass “Mother of the Everglades” Everglades: loads of invasive species ** Subtropical Environment - New Conservation Institutions o CCC: Civilian Conservation Corp 1. Help along the development of our country’s natural resources. 2. Provide employment o Soil Conservation Services Help manage America’s private lands Now called “Natural Resources Conservation Services” o U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service The angency for protection of biodiversity Enforces Federal wildlife protection laws Oversee Endangered Species Program o TVA: Tennessee Valley Authorities Allowed the development of resources in the Tennessee valley 3 major goals: navigation, flood control, and electrical power Fourth era: 1960-1975 - Marked by the recognition of pollution - Era of Pollution and population - Cyhooga River, Ohio… so polluted it caught on fire o 1972: Clean Water Act - Science Concept: Environment analysis o The study of the impact of pollutants on the environment - Naturalist Writers o Paul Erhlich (The Population Bomb) 1800: 1 billion 1960: 3 billion people o Rachel Carson: Silent Spring Took on the chemical companies (with no university back up) The negatives of DDT - New Conservation Institutions o Wilderness Act of 1964: Set aside wilderness reservations Roadless, no motorized anything Inside National parks, refuges, etc Represents a major shift in thought Originally protected 9 million acres now 106 million acres *most wilderness is managed by National Parks Services (over half)* o U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):safeguard human health and natural environment (1970) 1. Sets safe levels for contaminants in the environment 2. Work through specific legislation Fifth Era: 1990 to present - Marked by the loss of Biodiversity (disappearing faster than dinosaurs) - Biodiversity Crisis - New Science Concept o Emergence of computer-based technologies study the environment Remote sensing Seismographs GIS: Geographic Information Systems - Naturalist Writers o E.O. Wilson Diversity of Life World’s most important for the biodiversity crisis. Calls for spiritualizing the environmental movement as Earth endures the greatest mass extinction in 65 million years. Biophilia: love of life. (Innate, internal desire to be close to nature) - New Conservation Institutions o National Biological Service (1993): federal agency managing biodiversity o Society for Conservation Biology: professional organization Dedicated to promoting the scientific study of the phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity Meeting in Chattanooga, 2008 o Earth Summit: 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Largest international meeting on the environment Sustainable development: ecology, economy, equity Tried to solve the problems of both developed nations and developing nations International treaties 1. Convention on Climate Change (US wouldn’t sign until it was dramatically scaled back.) 2. Convention on Biodiversity (US refused to sign completely) Habitat destruction is what drives the Biodiversity Crisis, followed by invasive species and overexploitation. Microevolution: How Populations Evolve - Individuals do not evolve, populations evolve Population: group of individuals that mate with one another to produce viable offspring. Micro- vs Macroevolution - Microevolution: small scale changes in gene frequencies in a population over a few generations. - Macroevolution: large scale changes in gene frequencies in a population over a long period of time. May result in a new species.
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