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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Briana Johnson

Exam 1 Study Guide SOC 1300 - DORSEY

Briana Johnson

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Study Guide over Exam 1 for Patricia Dorsey FA2016 Intro to Soc
SOC 1300
Patricia Dorsey
Study Guide
Studyguide, patricia, Dorsey, 13887, Introduction to Sociology, Exam 1
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Briana Johnson on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1300 - DORSEY at University of Houston taught by Patricia Dorsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views.

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Date Created: 09/11/16
Introduction to Sociology (SOC 13887) FA 2016: Patricia Dorsey EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Key Terms  Sociology can be defined as but not limited to the following o The study of society and the places people inhabit within them and the challenges they face when trying to uncover and analyze patterns within social worlds of individual lives o The study of the diverse contexts within which society influences individuals o The study of societies and the social worlds  Systematic study: research methods, patterns of behaviors, focus groups, observational studies, and social institutions.  Sociological Imagination – the capacity to think systematically about how things we experience as personal problems are really social issues that are widely shared  Stereotype – beliefs of a group that is typically false or more so exaggerated that are the undermining assumptions made by members of other groups  Discrimination – any behavior, act, or policy that harms, excludes, or disadvantages individuals based on their group membership  Social Theories – overarching framework that suggest certain assumptions and assertions  Social Interactions – the way people act together and how they modify behavior based on an individual  Social Structure – the flip side of social interaction refers to the external forces  Sociology originally meant the study social statics and social dynamics  Units of analysis – pieces of a topic that a researcher bites off when he or she studies it  Interdependency research – an increasingly central part of leaving about any topic in social sciences  Ethnographers – sociologist who enter the everyday lives of those they are studying in hopes of understanding how they navigate and give meaning to their world.  Quantitative research – research that relies on statistical analysis of data  Qualitative research – research that relies on words, observations, or pictures as data  Hypothesis – tentative prediction we have about what we are going to discover before we begin the research  Causality – belief that one factor is leading to changes in another that can’t be substituted with the data accessible to us  Epistemology – what we think we can know about the world  When we have discussions in our everyday lives we make epistemological decisions  Positivism – the belief that the only true way to gain knowledge about the world is to use the logic of the natural sciences to distance ourselves from what we study, using universal standards to advance truth claims, determining cause and effect and generalizing from part to whole  Interpretivism – those who believe that our objective of investigation is too difficult; to understand how people give meaning to social life, objectives, and process. How they make sense of social reality and navigate social interaction  Theoretical Traditions – the conceptual framework that sociologist use to imagine and make sense of the world  Values – the beliefs system that shape sociologist view of and perspectives on the world we study  Code of Ethics – set of guidelines that outlines what is considered moral and acceptable behavior  Informed Consent – the act of protecting those sociologist study and not doing them any harm. Also by making the study participation voluntary.  Institutional Review Board – operates at most universities and are required at all universities that receive research funds to help researchers foresee any potential dangers and to safe guard the ethical standards of their work  Operationalize – when you spell out the operations and techniques to be used to assess our key concepts  Surveys – asking standardized questions to a large group of people  Interviews – in-depth one on one questions  Ethnographic Research – observing peoples everyday lives  Experiments – creating artificial situations that enable people to watch how people respond to things  Historical Research – studying records and documents to understand how people, places, or things worked in the past  General Social Survey – a general survey which is done twice a year to cover a range of topics of interest to social sciences  Probability Sampling – creating samples to mirror a larger population and reflect its characteristics or dynamics  Reliability (in measurements) – looking to see if they used the same measurement technique in an additional study, they would end up with the same or similar results  Validity - whether the measurement a researcher uses is actually accurate  Sampling – deciding who or what to include in a study  Random Sampling – Everyone or everything being studied has an equal chance of being selected for study  Representative Sampling – making sure characteristics of a s ample reflect those of the total population they are studying  Respondent – person participating in the study  Demographic Data – Information on the size, structure, or distribution of the population  Comparative – Historical Perspective – a method of analysis that examines a social phenomenon over time or in a different place  Cross – National Comparisons – explaining the differences between countries and understanding why some outcomes are observed in one country but not another  Correlation – going beyond simply documenting that two social phenomenon’s appear together  Casual Inference – if it is likely that one thing caused another  Spurious Relationship – when two factors seem to move in the same direction but both are themselves caused by something else  Cross–Sectional – data collected all at one point in time  Longitudinal – data collected over a long period of time  Survey interviews – close ended exchanges from the basis of most quantitative data o Ex: U.S. Census  In-depth interviews – highly structured or unstructured in terms of precise order of wording of questions and seek to get at peoples perspectives on some aspect of social life  Life History and Ora History Interviews – taking respondents through different events and stages in their lives to elicit memories  Field Work – carrying on research in foreign countries  Extended Case Study – a way of doing ethnography that emphasizes its contribution to social theory  Empirical Generalization – applying conclusions from finding to a larger population  Theoretical Generalization – applying conclusions from findings to larger sociological processes  Bump Up a Level of Generality (Luker 2010) – to bring findings to bear on a broader concept or theme  Data Coding – organizing the data according to key categories and concepts  Data Display - visual images of patterns forming in the data  Research Memos – extended versions of research notes, usually organized analytically  Data Analysis – to make sense of what data is found and look for patterns across it  Work Heavily – great deal of work occurring before data is collected  Back Heavy – analytical worked saved for the post data collection phase  Status and Roles – Social position that one holds has expected behaviors (roles)  Dramaturgical Analysis – the process of using theater language to talk about social life  Social Isolation – theory that interdependency is key to all life forms  Ethnomethodology – study of peoples methods  Repair – a way one of the speakers helpfully acts to safe guard the interaction  Interaction Ritual Chain – How people fit their threats and gestures into a script of calls and counter calls when arguing  Civil Inattention – ignoring each other to an appropriate degree although noticing the other is present  Disaffiliate Gestures – signaling that you don’t want to continue a conversation through pauses and nonresponses  Interactional Vandalism – an offense that occurs but it is suitable  Significant Others – denote individuals close enough to us to have a strong capacity to motivate our behaviors o Doesn’t refer to a spouse in sociology; a significant other can be the relationship between a parent and child or even someone who always bring to parties  Reference Groups – referring whose social position and preferences makes them relevant to our sense of worth  Generalized Other – social control exercised by common sense understanding of what is appropriate in a specific time and place  Socialization – the process by which we come to understand the expectations and norms of our groups as well as the various roles we transition into over the course of our lives  Role Conflict – Conflict comes because we can’t make everyone happy  Status – a distinct social category that is set off from others and has associated with a set of expected behaviors and roles for individuals to assume  Deviants – people regarded as a problem by dominate members of society  Social Construction of Reality – the interactive process by which knowledge is produced in making it specific to a certain group or society Important People  C. Wright Mills – coined the term sociological imaginations and meant for it to mean “the enabling of humans to grasp history and biography while understanding relations between the two…”  Immanuel Wallerstein – created an influence of research to map the development of a world economy  Arum and Rosko – study on college students  Auguste Comte (1798 - 1859) o Coined the term “Sociology”  Emil Durkheim (1858 - 1917) o Father of sociology o First European sociology department/journal  Clifford Geertz – o Coined term “thick description”  “understanding of understanding”  Charles Tilly – developed a method for reconstructing new sources of data that allows for surveys and comparisons overtime  Edin 1997 o Team set out to study how low income single mothers viewed marriages  Mitchell Duneier o Ethnographer o Examined troubles between street people in New York City and those they bothered with request 1999  Erving Goffman (1959) o Coined Dramaturgical Analysis and presentation of self o said “the bathroom is a part of our backstage where we set up our presentation of self  Charles Horton Cooley o 1864 – 1929 o Looking-glass self o Symbolic interactionist o Believed that a person’s self-image was based on how  We imagine how we appear to others  We interpret the others reactions to us  We develop our self-image based on their reaction  George Herbert Mead o 1863 – 1931 o Symbolic Interaction o Coined “The Social Self”  Christena Nippert Eng o Wallets and pocket books are toolkits for managing the multiple faces we show to others o Props – business cards, drug prescriptions, etc.  Eng found that different people think differently on what they want to share  Max Atkinson – o British sociologist o Recorded speeches being made by British politicians at party rallies o Paid close attention to what the speaker was doing and how the audience reacted o The ability to work the crowd comes from knowing what people need to act together  Georg Simmel o Great social thinker o German theorist o “Inattention is dense places make social life possible”  Robert Merton (1949) – o Self-fulfilling prophecy o Something becomes true because people say it is true  David Rosenhan (1973) – o Sent researchers into mental hospitals for undercover research  The most important rules require human interpretation o Ex: first come first serve… however if a big celebrity came in it would be unrealistic for them to have to wait in line  Don Zimmerman (1970) – examined this theory at the welfare office o Those who had screaming children were attended to first no matter their position in line to keep everything running smoothly and their crying babies out of the office faster  Garfinkel (1967) – o “judgmental dopes” o People who follow every single rule even in the wrong context then turn around and judge others o Lack of proper discretion  Soloman Asch (1955) – o Gets people to give an obvious wrong answer to an obvious and factual question o 37% of the time, participants gave continuously wrong answer as they were trying to conform with the group Important Research and/or Experiments  Harley’s Stanford Prison Study o Began this study to experiment the theory of social interaction o Prisoners in solitary confinement o Experienced negative psychological and physical symptoms o Experimenters had to end the six month experiment on day six because of the effect it was having on participants  Spitz Orphanage Study o Lack of social contact and interaction impacted orphanage babies psychically, emotional, and mentally o Babies have a hard time surviving biologically without social stimuli o 40% of babies died within the first year of the observation  Emile Durkheim & the Suicide study – if certain groups have higher rates than others there must be a social issue  Mommy Baby Prison study – o one way to stop the familiar prison cycle of imprisonment was to keep women and children together o women/mothers in these types of facilities had lower repeat arrest rates than those who served traditionally. o The children did not suffer growing up in the prison. They received three nutritious meals a day, good childcare, education, healthcare, and had other kids to play with o It was the mothers suffering as they had no parental power/guidance over their children o No maternal authority and lack of privacy  Arlie Hochschild and the Second Shift Study o Household work in marriages o “second shift” – when women come home from work they start their second shift of work, or household task  Pat Sharkey and Neighborhood Violence and the Effects on School – o Studied the link between neighborhood violence and school performance o Violence can be absorbed and transmitted through the community o Children experiences effect their performance at school  Max Weber – o The Protestant Ethnic and the Spirit of Capitalism  The classic of social sciences  Wanted to know why capitalism as an economic system was thriving in some parts of Europe but not others  Noted that the regions of Europe in the early 1900’s that were the most economically successful tended to be areas where protestants were dominate  Theda Skocpol – o States and Social Revolutions  Asked why were revolutions from below that brought into existence new kinds of governments in France and China but not in other cases  A crisis in government institutions, further international pressures on the government caused by either failed or financial problems and wide spread revolts


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