Study Guide for Abnormal Behavior Psy.
Study Guide for Abnormal Behavior Psy. PSY 3213
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dana Bramlitt on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 3213 at Mississippi State University taught by Taban Salem in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
Abnormal Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide Key Terms Abnormal Psy. The study of abnormal behavior, which includes thoughts and emotions. Psychological Disorder Abnormal behavior pattern that involves a disturbance of psychological functioning or behavior and causes harm to the affected individual or others. Harmful Dysfunction Harmful: if it has negative consequences; causes suffering. (Wakefield, 1992) Dysfunction: Something is broken and not working the way it’s supposed to; negative to the organism. Genic The source; caused by Soma Body Psycho Mind Socio Society Supernatural Outside the natural; demons Trephining Supernatural/Demonological Model from the ancient times. The person possessed would have a hole drilled into their skull. Supposedly, it would allow the demon to get out. Or it could have been an ancient surgery to get shards of bone out. It was possible to survive the surgery. Dendrites A part of a neuron where signals are received. Axon Terminals Where neurons are released. Acetylcholine Associated with muscle movement (contractions) and memory (formation). It is affected in Alzheimer’s disease. Dopamine Pleasure, desire, reward. Involved in learning and attention. One actor of schizophrenia and addiction. GABA Slows down brain; inhibits signal; occurs after fight or flight situation. Norepinephrine Involved in learning and memory. May be involved in mood disorders (depression). Serotonin Governs sleep patterns and mood regulation; may also be involved in depression. Synapse Gap between neurons; receptors. Neurotransmitters Chemicals as messengers. Central Nervous System The body’s master control unit. Peripheral Nervous The body’s link to the outside world. System Spinal Cord A column of nerves between the brain and peripheral nervous system. Brain Stem Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Brain Divided into three major parts: the hindbrain (lower part), the midbrain, the forebrain The Autonomic NS Regulates involuntary bodily processes; including heart rate, respiration, digestion, and pupil contraction: without conscious direction. The Somatic NS Carries sensory information from sensory organs to the CNS and relays motor (movement) commands to muscles; controls voluntary movements. Sympathetic NS Prepares the body for action and stress. This is called “fight or flight”. Parasympathetic NS Calms the body and helps the body to conserve energy. Hindbrain Vital lifesupport functions Midbrain Links hindbrain and forebrain Forebrain Really important for abnormal behavior psychology. Includes the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Thalamus Sight, sound, and touch goes through this; relay station for senses. Hypothalamus Controls sex drive, hunger, fight/flight; internally releases hormones; Controls instincts/ drives. Cerebral Cortex Brain’s “Crowning Glory”. This is where indepth planning and creativity is produced. It's what makes us human. Prefrontal Cortex Handles impulse control and indepth concentration. It is the most advanced, and it is the last area to develop in humans. Psychodynamic Theory Freud’s theory of personality that states that personality and behavior are shaped by unconscious forces and conflicts. Conscious Corresponds to the state of present awareness. Preconscious Part of the mind where its contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention. Unconscious Part of the mind that lies outside of the range of ordinary awareness that holds troubling or unacceptable urges, impulses, memories, and ideas. Superego Internal moral guardian or conscience. Id Contains baser animal instincts and drives. Ego Attempts to balance instinctual demands of id with social realities and expectations. Defense Mechanisms Realitydistorting techniques used by the ego to avoid conscious experience of anxiety. Includes: repression, regression, displacement, and denial. Repression Motivated forgetting of anxiety evoking material. Regression Usually under high levels of stress, a person will revert to a behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development. Displacement An unacceptable sexual or aggressive impulse is transferred to an object or person that is safer or less threatening than the original subject. Denial Failure to recognize a threatening impulse or urge. Reaction Formation Behavior that stands in opposition to one’s true motives and desires so as to prevent conscious awareness of them. Rationalization The use of selfjustification to explain away unacceptable behavior, impulses, or ideas. Projection The projection of one’s unacceptable impulses, wishes, and urges onto another person. Sublimation Channeling of unacceptable impulses onto socially sanctioned behaviors or interest. Wilhelm Wundt was the first experimental psychologist and had the first experimental laboratory. Emil Kraeplin Father of psychiatry Biopsychosocial Combines three previous theories ( no supernatural) Perspective Sociogenic factors such as gender, culture, poverty, and somatogenic and psychogenic ( negative ways of thinking) factors Some researchers and clinicians lean more towards any one of these three factors. Rise of multicultural psychology Biological Perspective 1. Uses biologically bases approaches to treat psychological disorders. Drug therapy 2. Psychological disorders are caused by underlying biological disorder. Genes 3. Mind is viewed as an epiphenomenon of complex brain processes. Neurons Nerve cells that transmit signals or “messages” throughout the body. Archetypes (Jung) Primitive images contained in the collective unconscious that reflect ancestral or universal experience of human beings Phenomenological theory 1. Understanding each person’s subjective world experience. 2. Humanistic: selfactualization; different selves 3. If ideal = Real, then congruency 4. Unconditional positive regard Existential Theory Based on Existential philosophy 1. Sartre: to not choose is still a choice 2. Meaninglessness of existence Classical Conditioning Process in which responses to new stimuli are learned through association. Ex. Pavlov’s dogs Operant Conditioning Behavior is acquired and strengthened with reinforcement. Negative and positive reinforcement. Ex: B.F. Skinner Research stems from a A formulation of the relationships underlying observed Theory events. Institutional Review Groups of people that review procedures of experiments to Boards protect the participants and their information will be kept confidential. Naturalistic Observation Investigator observes behavior “in the file”. Ex: where it occurs naturally. Psychologists try to be unobtrusive when observing. Anthropologists engage in other culture of field. Coding Scheme What psychologists use to be objective. It is a set of rules that determine what counts in the behavior they are observing. Ex: what counts as aggressive play? They then try to make unbiased notes. However, there are always going to be biases and mistakes. Correlation Method Examine relationship between two or more variables. *Correlation does not equal causation.* Experimental Method Uses experimental and control group Very difficult to conduct a true experiment Usually analogue studies are conducted Independent and dependent variables Analogue Studies Where we create a mini version of a disorder in a lab and then draw conclusion for an actual disorder we want to study. Quasi Experiment Get people who are naturally in a category (of a disorder) that you want to study. Ex: depressed and not depressed Independent Variable Predictor; different levels; test how it’s affecting the outcome. Ex: sad movie Placebo Gets all the interactions but not the actual manipulation. Ex: drug studies Control Group People not watching the sad movie; left alone Experimental Group People watching the sad movie; gets the manipulation Blind 1. Single: person doesn't know which group they’re in but experimenter does 2. Double: Experimenters don’t know either Validity Are we actually studying what we’re trying to study? Reliability: should get the same outcomes; replication Internal Validity: Study design; have we ruled out alternate explanations for the outcomes? External Validity: We want to see that the effects not only happen to those in experiment but all people. Construct Validity: Have I defined my variables that actually captures what I’m trying to study? Make sure that what you use to measure the variable actually measures what I’m trying to measure. Ex: buzzfeed is an example of construct validity. Incidence Within a defined time frame Prevalence Over the course of an entire lifetime Genes Basic building blocks for heredity Chromosomes Rodshaped structures that house genes; found in cells; we have 46 of them in 23 pairs Proband Patient; index case; person who has disorder Genotype A set of traits that are coded for in your genes Phenotype A set of characteristics that are observable. Physical; behavior. Additive Genetic When two genes can blend together and have a mix and get some midpoint. The purpose of studying abnormal behavior is to understand psychological disorders. Describe: detail categories of symptoms Explain: What is the cause? Where does it come from? How does it work? Predict: What kinds of people, when, who’s at risk? Control: 1) Control symptoms; reduce them 2) Control the person Common Standards for defining abnormality: Unusualnessstatistical rarity Social deviance: violating the norm and transient nature of norms Faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality Significant personal distress Maladaptive or selfdefeating behavior: Selfdefeating is a good indication but also a bad one if someone just simply disagrees. Dangerousness Consensus does not equal truth: A bunch of psychologists agreeing doesn’t mean it’s true. In 500 B.C.500 A.D., Abnormal behavior was considered a sign of a biological abnormality during the Greek and Roman rule. Hippocrates o Four humors Phlegm Black bile: melancholic Blood Yellow bile: angry In the Middle Ages, the return of the demonological model came. They usually treated with an exorcism. In 1963, Community Mental Health Centers was established by Congress, which came with the following: Deinstitutionalization: A lot of asylums were shut down. Aided by first successful antipsychotic drugs: helped stop halluncinations to get people out of institutions. 100,000 people now in mental institutions, as opposed to 559,000 in 1955. Still problematic: When Congress shut programs down, there wasn’t support for these people in transition from institutions to living independently. So people stopped taking medications and started jumping around from place to place living with family members. The Shortcomings of the Biological Perspective: Disorders with no biological cause: doesn’t allow for thought or disorders that aren’t biological Assumes minimal impact from environment. Could be different direction Genetic determination: assumes that we start out with certain biology Foster helplessness in patients Psychosexual Stages Oral: first year of life Anal: Second year of life Phallic: Beginning during third year of life Latency: From around age 6 to age 12 Genital: Beginning in puberty Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories First theory to explore qualities of unconscious life Defense mechanisms and motivation outside of awareness has research support Falsifiability Sexist and culturally specific Severe psychological disorders Evaluating Phenomenological Theories Hopeful and positive Little research Similarities in moral psychology Severe psychological disorders Evaluating Behavioral Theories Brought psychology into Experimental Age Conditioning principles still used Language acquisition device Lack of importance on inner determinants of behavior Cognitive Behavioral Models Cognitive theorists focus on cognitions Reality is colored by our expectations and attitudes Interpretations of events determine our emotional states. Research Methods Uses the scientific method 1. Formulate a research question 2. Create a hypothesis 3. Test the hypothesis 4. Draw conclusions Twin Studies 1. Concordance: How often do two twins come down with the same disorder? How much overlap do we see? 2. Types of varience a. Additive genetic b. Shared environment: same hometown c. Nonshared environment: different hobbies d. Nonadditive genetic: either or genes 3. Adoption Studies 4. Linkage Studies 5. Association Studies
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