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AY 101 Midterm #1 Study Guide

by: Savannah L

AY 101 Midterm #1 Study Guide AY 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Astronomy > AY 101 > AY 101 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Savannah L

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Cover the main objectives discussed in class
AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin
Jeremy Bailin
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah L on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeremy Bailin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin in Astronomy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
AY 101 –MIDTERM #1 STUDYGUIDE MAIN OBJECTIVES DISCUSSED IN CLASS Geocentric- earth-centered model Heliocentric- sun-centered model Solar System- consists of the sun, planets and their moons, plus other smaller objects including asteroids and comets Galaxy- a great island of stars containing millions, billions, or trillions of stars GalaxyClusters-groups of galaxies with more thana few dozen largemembers Superclusters- clusters of galaxy clusters  The universe is 13.8 billion years old  We can only see objects in our horizon, which is13.8 billion light years in every direction  The History of the Universe in 1 year: st January1 – Big Bang February –MilkyWayformed September 3 – Earth formed nd September 22 – Early life on Earth December 17 – Cambrian Explosion th December 26 –thise of the dinosaurs December 30 – Extinction December 31 - 9pm – Hominids evolve 11:58pm – Modern humans evolve 25 seconds ago – Agriculture arises 11 seconds ago – Pyramids built 1 second ago – Kepler and Galileo show that earth orbits the sun  Earth rotates from East to West AstronomicalUnit (AU) – Earth’s average distance from the sun, which isabout 150 million km (93 million miles), usually used within solar systems Light Year (LY) – the distance that light, which is about 10 trillion km (6 trillionmiles), generally used for distances between stars and galaxies ObservableUniverse – the portion of the entire universe that we can potentially observe Solar Eclipse – moon blocks the sun (phase: new)  Science is verifiable, repeatable, predictive, and self-correcting, whereas pseudoscience tries to appear as science, but doesn’t use the scientific method o Ex. Of Pseudoscience: astrology, psychokinesis, homeopathy, 2012 theory, ghost hunting, crystalhealing, crop circles, etc  When we follow the scientific method, we try to prove theories wrong, not right  We only see one face of the moon, meaning the earth rotates once a month o NOTE: Look back over the phases of the moon  Aristarchus was the first Greek to throw out the idea of a heliocentric model  The Greek’s solution to retrogrademotion was the idea of epicycles, but the theory required epicycles on epicycles and become far too complex Copernican Principle – we are not in a specialplace in the universe Tycho Brahe – responsible for the most precise naked eye observations of planets, moon, supernova, and comets Kepler – created model that could explain Tycho’s observations using elliptical orbits o First Law – planets orbit in elliptical orbits with Sun at the focus o Second Law – planets move faster when closer to the sun o Third Law –more distant planets orbit the sun at a slower pace  Most orbits are nearly circular but not perfect  Galileo’s discoveries include o We feel acceleration, not motion when it comes to the earth’smovement o Observations of all phases of Venus o Moons of Jupiter  Gravity is veryweak and can only dominate very large objects  Motion consists of speed, velocity, and acceleration Net force – total after balancing opposite forces Force – a push/pull that modifies the motion of an object  Electromagnetism is responsible for most daily activities andactions, NOTgravity Conservation of Angular Momentum - the tendency for an object to go around, orbit, or rotate


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