AY 101 Midterm #1 Study Guide
AY 101 Midterm #1 Study Guide AY 101
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah L on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeremy Bailin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin in Astronomy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
AY 101 –MIDTERM #1 STUDYGUIDE MAIN OBJECTIVES DISCUSSED IN CLASS Geocentric- earth-centered model Heliocentric- sun-centered model Solar System- consists of the sun, planets and their moons, plus other smaller objects including asteroids and comets Galaxy- a great island of stars containing millions, billions, or trillions of stars GalaxyClusters-groups of galaxies with more thana few dozen largemembers Superclusters- clusters of galaxy clusters The universe is 13.8 billion years old We can only see objects in our horizon, which is13.8 billion light years in every direction The History of the Universe in 1 year: st January1 – Big Bang February –MilkyWayformed September 3 – Earth formed nd September 22 – Early life on Earth December 17 – Cambrian Explosion th December 26 –thise of the dinosaurs December 30 – Extinction December 31 - 9pm – Hominids evolve 11:58pm – Modern humans evolve 25 seconds ago – Agriculture arises 11 seconds ago – Pyramids built 1 second ago – Kepler and Galileo show that earth orbits the sun Earth rotates from East to West AstronomicalUnit (AU) – Earth’s average distance from the sun, which isabout 150 million km (93 million miles), usually used within solar systems Light Year (LY) – the distance that light, which is about 10 trillion km (6 trillionmiles), generally used for distances between stars and galaxies ObservableUniverse – the portion of the entire universe that we can potentially observe Solar Eclipse – moon blocks the sun (phase: new) Science is verifiable, repeatable, predictive, and self-correcting, whereas pseudoscience tries to appear as science, but doesn’t use the scientific method o Ex. Of Pseudoscience: astrology, psychokinesis, homeopathy, 2012 theory, ghost hunting, crystalhealing, crop circles, etc When we follow the scientific method, we try to prove theories wrong, not right We only see one face of the moon, meaning the earth rotates once a month o NOTE: Look back over the phases of the moon Aristarchus was the first Greek to throw out the idea of a heliocentric model The Greek’s solution to retrogrademotion was the idea of epicycles, but the theory required epicycles on epicycles and become far too complex Copernican Principle – we are not in a specialplace in the universe Tycho Brahe – responsible for the most precise naked eye observations of planets, moon, supernova, and comets Kepler – created model that could explain Tycho’s observations using elliptical orbits o First Law – planets orbit in elliptical orbits with Sun at the focus o Second Law – planets move faster when closer to the sun o Third Law –more distant planets orbit the sun at a slower pace Most orbits are nearly circular but not perfect Galileo’s discoveries include o We feel acceleration, not motion when it comes to the earth’smovement o Observations of all phases of Venus o Moons of Jupiter Gravity is veryweak and can only dominate very large objects Motion consists of speed, velocity, and acceleration Net force – total after balancing opposite forces Force – a push/pull that modifies the motion of an object Electromagnetism is responsible for most daily activities andactions, NOTgravity Conservation of Angular Momentum - the tendency for an object to go around, orbit, or rotate
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