Biology 1000 & 1060 (UCCS)
Biology 1000 & 1060 (UCCS) BIO 1000 & 1060
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This 197 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hope Grigsby on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1000 & 1060 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by in Fall 2011. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Study Guide Bio 1000 Chapter 1 – Nature of Science and Characteristics of Life 1. Know and understand the 7 properties that define life (p8) All things are: composed of cells − cells are: 1. tiny 2. self contained units enclosed by a membrane − first organisms were single celled − organization of cells in human body: 1. cells → tissue → internal organs − ex. Bacteria reproduce using DNA − key characteristic of living organisms is Reproduction − DNA 1. Hereditary/ genetic 2. Transfers info from parents to offspring 3. Aka blueprint for building an organism 4. Shaped like a ladder with a double helix 5. Contains a wealth of info 6. Stored in every living cell of every living organism − ex. 1. Single celled organisms can divide into 2 genetically identical copies 2. Multicellular organisms reproduce by having “sex” 3. Plants exchange pollen 4. Sponges, spider plants bud grow and develop − organisms build themselves anew every generation 1. usually through DNA reproduction − all organisms go through some process of development/ evolution − ex. Babies (human) actively take in energy from their environment − all organisms need energy to persist − wide variety of methods used to obtain energy − ex. 1. Plants and some bacteria = photosynthesis 2. Animals and fungi = consume other organisms sense their environment and respond to it − sense: 1. direction of sunlight 2. presence of food 3. mates maintain constant internal conditions (homeostasis) − maintain body temperature 1. warm blooded mammals only − to release heat sweat occurs − to gain heat shivering occurs can evolve as groups − an organism can physically change over its life 1. ex. Seed → seedling→ tree 2. ex. Birth → childhood → teen years → adulthood − change is not evolution 2. (♣) Know the levels of biological organization and their relation to one another (p15) Molecules → cells → tissues → organs → organ systems → individual → population → species → community → ecosystems → biomes → biosphere Molecules Lowest level Found in all living organisms Ex. DNA Cells Basic unit of life Ex. Bacteria Tissues Multi cellular only Specialized Coordinated collections of cells Perform a specific function Ex. Human body – lung, heart, brain Organs Multi cellular only Carry out specialized functions Coordinated collection of cells Organ systems Collection of organs Benefit single individual Ex. Stomach, liver, intestines = form digestive system Individual Organisms of similar species Population A group of organisms of the same species living and interacting in a particular area Species Related by genes Community Made up of living organisms and the environment Ecosystems A community of organisms together with the physical environment in which an organism lives Ex. Air and water circulation patterns (♣) Biomes Defined by plant and animal life Ex. Terrestrial biomes − Classified according to their dormant vegetation EX. Aquatic Biomes − Classified on basis of physical and chemical features Biosphere All living organism on earth together with the environments in which they live 3. Define Theory and Fact: Theory – unproved explanation; it is a hypothesis to scientists Fact – things that are known to be true; scientists use this word to indicate a direct and repeatable observation 4. Know the steps in the scientific method. Be able to identify a hypothesis statement. Dr JoAnn M. Burkholder Scientific Method Example Observed a huge number of fish were being killed off in mysterious dieoffs Hypothesized that the tiny protest (Pfiesteria) that appeared to have killed the lab fish was also causing the fish dieoffs in local rivers Predicted “Pfiesteria is causing the fish to die” − led her to predict 2 outcomes 1. Pfiesteria found in abundance in river when dieoffs occur 2. Pfiesteria is capable of killing healthy fish Test/ experiment →observed Pfiesteria protest was in excess − Then cultivated protest and introduced it to a variety of lab fish − Hypothesis was proved 5. (♣) Is it the aim of science to prove a hypothesis? Do scientists ever disagree? 6. Know the limits to the scientific method Cannot test spiritual things 7. (♣) All living things on our planet encode and transmit genetic information by DNA molecules. 8. (♣) Know that energy flows through eco systems from the sun, to producers, to consumers, to decomposers, and is finally giver off in the form of heat Matter is cycled and recycled ???? anything else Chapter 4 – Chemical Building Blocks 1. Atomic numbers of the elements are consecutive as you read across the periodic Table Number signifies the # of protons (p ) and electrons in a neutral atom 3 components of an atom + − Protons (p ) is in the atomic nucleus a. Positive charge − Neutrons (n ) is in the atomic nucleus a. No electrical charge b. NEUTRAL − Electrons (e) are outside the nucleus and involved in bonding a. Negative charge b. Mass is 1/2000 of a proton/ neutron 2. An uneven number of protons and electrons in an atom results in an ion (negative or positive charge) Ions − Tend to have uneven numbers of protons and electrons − Negative atom – when an atom loses a positive charge − Positive atom – when an atom loses a negative charge Dissolve easily in water Noncovalent Atoms are formed and organized in a neat pattern Held together thorough ionic bonds 3. Covalent bonds are formed by sharing of electrons to make molecules Most biological molecules are covalently bonded and hydrophobic Basically electron sharing Exceptionally strong bond When 2 electrons are being shared Unlike charges attract Strongest chemical bonds in nature Contains at least 2 atoms held together by covalent bond Can hold 2 atoms of the same element or 2 atoms of different elements together Polarity − Partial negative charge − Partial positive charge − Partial is represented by Greek Delta Anything that is polar or ionic will dissolve in Water 4. Ionic Bonds result when one atom loses and electron(s) and another gains it Ions with unlike charges are attracted Attraction between negatively charged ions and positively charged ions Ex. NaCl (table salt) − Sodium (Na) a. 11 protons, 11 electrons, 11 neutrons b. Tends to lose 1 electron c. Therefore there are 11 protons, 11 neutrons, 10 electrons 5. (♣) Water molecules stick to each other (cohesion) by means of hydrogen bonds Noncovalent bonds 20x weaker than covalent bonds Basis of many of waters unique characteristics Forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge interacts with a partially negatively charged atom Critical to structure, organization, function of large molecules − Ex. DNA and protein Ex. Water molecules 6. (♣) Water is polar and so will dissolve ionic or polar molecules Molecules dissolved are hydrophilic 7. (♣) Molecules that do not mix with water are hydrophobic Ex. Lipids Chapter 4.5 – Building Blocks of Living Systems 8. Be able to recognize dehydration syntheses reactions Removal of a molecule to form (synthesize) a new molecule (p 85, 89, 92) Aka ANTABOLISM Build up of things requires energy Look for removal of H 2 Ex. Synthesis of a dipeptide by removing the parts of a water molecule fro two amino acid molecules (ICQ #2) 9. (♣) Know that hydrolysis reactions are essentially the opposite of dehydration syntheses Digestion of our food is accomplished by hydrolysis reactions An enzyme is always necessary Energy/ water is used to split/ lyse the bond Aka CATABOLISM Break down of things Gives off energy 10.(♣) Be able to recognize the amino, carboxyl (carboxylic acid), hydroxyl, and phosphate groups in biological molecules (p84) Carboxyl group o At the opposite end of a fatty acid chain o Polar o Hydrophilic Hydroxyl group o … Phosphate group 11.– 12. (♣) Know the 4 categories of biological/ macromolecules: and know the functions of each a. Carbohydrates − Monomer: glucose molecules − Function: short term energy storage in plants and animals, structure − Location: blood stream, in about any cell a. Specific examples: liver, muscles b. Nucleic Acids − Monomer: nucleotides − Function: usually encoded information storage, cell division, pass info from generation to generation, energy exchange in cells − Location: in DNA of nucleus itself c. Proteins − Monomer: amino acids − Function: form muscle for movement (actin and myosin), transport oxygen (hemoglobin), provide structure, create catalysts (facilitates a reaction – enzymes) − Location: everywhere a. Specific examples: i. keratin – hair and nails ii. HDL and LDL – carry lipids d. Lipids − Monomer: glycerol and 3 fatty acids for fats and oils a. Sterols contain the steroid nucleus b. phospholipids − Function: storage reserves for energy (triglyceride) − Location: all over the body a. Specific examples: blood, brain 13.(♣) Know the 4 polymers of glucose (carbohydrates), the function and where they are found: a. Starch −Monomer: glucose −Function: provide structure and support (cellulose) −Location: plants b. Glycogen −Monomer: glucose −Function: stored sugar and energy −Location: animals c. Cellulose −Monomer: glucose −Function: provide support −Location: plant cell walls d. Chitin −Monomer: glucose −Function: provides structure −Location: exoskeletons of insects 14.The sequence of amino acids constitutes the primary structure of a protein (p90) Before a polypeptide can function as a protein or part of a protein it must acquire a specific organization pattern 15.The secondary and tertiary structure involve the specific folding of a protein denaturation – a disturbance or change at these levels of the structure, protein loses its ability to function correctly o the destruction of a proteins 3D structure resulting in the loss of protein activity Secondary: o the alpha helix is the most common pattern seen in the secondary structure o alpha helix is maintained by hydrogen bonds o beta sheet is created when the polypeptde backbone is bent into ridges o beta sheet is stabilized by hydrogen bonding between the side by side beta sheets Tertiary: o Second level of folding o Structure of a polypeptide is a very specific overall 3D shape that is achieved through secondary folding patterns and stabilized by covalent links between distant amino acids 16.(♣) Quarternary structure Found only in proteins composed of more than one polypeptide chain with 2 or with 4 Must be achieved before the protein can become biologically active o Ex. Insulin Hemoglobin (assembled with 4 polypeptides) o 17.(♣) Be able to recognize and name the three components of a nucleotide (the monomer of nucleic acids) (p 86) Function: information storage and energy transfer A nitrogen containing base o Covalently bonded to a 5 carbon sugar Covalently bonded to a phosphate group Ribose or Deoxyribose o Two different cells that nucleic acids are of o DNA A – adenine C – Cytosine T – thymine G – guanine o RNA A – adenine C – Cytosine U – Uracil G – guanine 18.Differentiate among fats and oils, phospholipids, and sterols (p94) Fats and Oils o Monomer: 1 molecule of glycerol (3 carbon molecule) o Fat Denoted by single bonds only Animal fat Saturated fat because it is linked with the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible Forms a solid at room temp o Oil from plants Denoted by double bonds Unsaturated because it is not bonded to the full maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible Liquid at room temp Phospholipids o Have a glycerol backbone o Have a fatty acid and a phosphate region o The phosphate region is the only hydrophilic region in the entire molecule o Phosphate region Part of phosphate group Hydrophilic Polar o Main/ major component of the plasma membrane Sterols o Basic molecule found in: Testosterone Progesterone Cholesterol o Most of the molecule is a hydro carbon Hydrocarbon – hydrogens attached to each carbon atom o Mostly hydrophobic o Nonopolar o All have same fundamental structure 4 hydrocarbon rings fused to each other o Differ in Number Type Position of fundamental groups 19.Understand the role and the orientation of phospholipids in the plasma membrane (ICA #3) Plasma membrane o Outermost boundary of a cell o Created when a phosphate group and 2 fatty acid chains form covalent bonds to glycerol o Plasma membranes are found in plant, animal, bacteria cells o Bilayer of phospholipids o Phospholipids – foundational molecules in all cell membranes o P 93 diagram Chapter 5 – The Cell 1. (♣) Review the 4 main components of a plasma membrane and their functions: Phospholipids Integral Proteins i. Channels and signal receptors Peripheral proteins Cholesterol 2. What is the essential function of the plasma membrane Lipid based boundary Separates cell from environment Many chemical reactions required for sustaining life happen within the cytoplasm Can enclose and concentrate necessary raw materials Determines what passes through and what doesn’t Composed of a mainly phospholipid bilayer Function: selectively permeable barrier and a communications center Components i. Phospholipid bilayer ii. Proteins − Embed in membrane − Can form channels to help certain things get through the membrane − Aka INTEGRAL PROTEINS i. If they are integrated into membrane then they go all the way across − Can be on one side or another of the cell a. PERIPHERAL PROTEINS i. On outside of cell ii. May have a small amount of sugar chain extending out 1. Aka glycoproteins a. Have a lot to do with signaling b. Aka receptor moleculesf i. Ex. Tcells/ white blood cells ii. Have a receptor iii. Recognized by HIV virus iii. Cholesterol − Solid hydrocarbon lipidy − Helps control fluidity of membrane − Hydrophobic − Has shape of sterol − Figure 5.1 3. Prokaryotic cells Tiny (approximately 1/1000 the size of eukaryotic cell) No true nucleus No membranebound organelles Divide by binary fission Have ribosomes Pro – means before a nucleus Live in very extreme environments i. Ex. Yellowstone ii. Boiling pools of water iii. Thrive in salty environments DNA is 1 long loop Cell wall is not made of cellulose Simple interior organization A tough cell wall outside cell membrane No compartments Parts i. Nucleoid − Region DNA is encompassed − Oid means “kind of/ like” − Single long strain that connects ii. Ribosomes − Organelle − Crucial for protein production − Carry out various functions within cell iii. Cytosol − Like cytoplasm − Holds all material within prokaryotic cell iv. Bacteria − Some have flagellum − Some have outer capsule that protects them Ex. i. Bacteria ii. archaea 4. Eukaryotic Cells Larger than prokaryotic cells Have a true nucleus i. Eu means true = true nucleus Has enclosed spaces where certain things take place which allows the cell to be more efficcient Organelles are membrane bound Organelles and nucles form compartments Divide by the process of mitosis followed by cytokinesis Membranes made of carbohydrates Ex. i. Plant cell ii. Animal cell 5. Be able to match the organelles we studied with their various functions Nucleus i. Has a double bilayer membrane ii. Has large pores which allow large molecules to enter and exit iii. Holds DNA in cell − Houses chromosomes − Can be tightly wound or loosely put together iv. Houses genetic material Endoplasmic Recitulium i. Rough ER − Looks rough because of ribosomes attached to ER − Ribosomes a. Protein synthesis ii. Smooth ER − Where lipid synthesis is created/ occurs Vesicle i. a small membraneenclosed sac found in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells ii. can form and disappear iii. surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer iv. can transport things within a cell v. can deal with waste matter of cell vi. specific function: transporting things with in cell to surface of cell for transport Golgi Apparatus i. “packaging” of molecules for export out of cell ii. Can label molecules Lyosome i. Lyso – deals with splitting; simply means body ii. Often found in digestion of cell waste iii. Digests − Toxins − Cell waste iv. Can have a very acidic pH Mitochondrion i. Means mighty ii. Where ATP is formed/ synthesized iii. Energy from food is broken down so a layer is put on ADP iv. Sometimes aka Power house of cell v. Seen in excess in cells that use ATP in excess Chloroplast i. Found in plants ii. Site of photosynthesis iii. Hold/ contains chlorophyll − Chlorophyll a. Makes plants look green b. Has hydrophobic tail c. Embedded in membranes in chloroplast d. Heads function as antennae e. Specific membrane here: Thykaloid membrane i. Thykaloid membrane 1. Phospholipid bilayer 2. Holds chloroplast 3. Where chlorophyll is embedded 4. Like an assembly line Cytoskeleton i. Microtubule − Provides scaffolding for structure − Help hold organelles into position − Help to transport vesicles Cillia/ Flagella i. Cilia – hairlike ii. Flagella – 1 – 2 tails iii. Aid in movement 6. Plant Cells Eukaryotic Have i. a cell wall ii. Large central vacuole − Contains water, salts and electrolytes iii. Chloroplasts − Place of photosynthesis − Build up of energy from light iv. Has cell walls composed of cellulose v. Has plasma membrane 7. Animal Cells No cell walls Have: i. Centrioles − Incolved in cell division (mitosis/ meiosis) − Helps sort out chromosomes to 2 daughter cells ii. Plasma membrane iii. Very small insignificant role playing vacuoles iv. Cyosomes v. Cilia vi. Small vacuoles Chapter 7 – Energy and Enzymes 1. Remember that energy flows and that matter cycles in ecosystems 2. Understand figure 7.4 as ATP is hydrolysed to give of ADP Inorganic phosphate Pi And some energy in the right currency for a cell 3. Understand the concept of a metabolic pathway (p152) Enzymes are needed at each step 4. Know the terms for buildup reactions which require energy Synthesis Anabolic Uphill 5. Know the terms for break down reactions which release energy Hydrolysis Catabolic Downhill 6. Know that coupled reactions (p148) are catabolic reactions coupled with anabolic reactions Energy derived from catabolism is immediately used for anabolism 7. Know that enzymes have specific substrates and must maintain their shape in order to function (p151) Denaturation will destroy the crucial stape 8. Uses of ATP Synthesis of molecules in cells For muscle contraction For active transport 9. Review the concept check and questions and the self quiz at the end of each chapter A little More… 1. –lyse/lysis = to split 2. Ose = sugar 3. Karyo – “kernel” = nucleus 4. Dehydration = loss of water 5. –ase = enzyme 6. philic = “love” 7. –phobic = “fear” 8. Deoxy = missing an oxygen 9. Photo light 10.Glycol = sugar 11.Mono = one 12.Poly = many 13.–mer = “part” 14.Chromo = color 15.–some = body Study Guide Bio 1000 Sample Questions: ___1. Of the three metabolic pathways used to break down glucose and produce ATP, the first takes place in the cytoplasm, breaking glucose into two 3carbon molecules. This metabolic pathway is called _________________________. a. glycolysis b. Krebs cycle c. electron transport chain d. citric acid cycle ___2. The reaction to bind an inorganic phosphate group, P , onto a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to produce ATP is phosphorylation, a(n) __ type of reaction. a. energy requiring b. anabolic c. buildup d. uphill e. all of these apply ___3. Energy (Sunlight) + 6 CO + 6 H O → C H O + 6 O is the overall 2 2 6 12 6 2 equation for __. a. cellular respiration b. glycolysis c. photosynthesis d. ETC e. mitosis ___4. Pigment molecules, including chlorophyll, are located in the __ membranes of chloroplasts. a. inner mitochondrial b. thylakoid c. plasma d. ER e. Golgi Answers: 1. A 2. E 3. C 4. B Chapter 8 – Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration 1. Know meaning of these words and their locations in a cell: thylakoid membrane −definition: the membrane that encloses the thylakoid space inside a chloroplast; houses both photosystems and their associated electron transport chains −location: refer to diagram chloroplast −definition: an organelle found in plants and algae and is the primary site of photosynthesis −location: refer to diagram stroma −definition: the space enclosed by the inner membrane of the chloroplast in which the thylakoid membranes are situated; similar to cytoplasm; is an aqueous fluid −location: refer to diagram granum −definition: a structure made up of a stack of membrane sacs called thylakoids that is part of the interconnected internal membrane system within a chloroplast; stack of thylakoids −location: refer to diagram chlorophyll −definition:a green pigment that is used to capture light energy for photosynthesis −location: spread throughout leaf cell photosystem −definition: a large complex of proteins and chlorophyll that captures energy from sunlight −location: photosystems I and II are present in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts carbon fixation −definition: the process by which carbon dioxide is incorporated into organic molecules −location: occurs in chloroplasts of plants and results in synthesis of sugars Stroma 2. Know the role played by… in the process. Plant pigments −Role: help intake sunlight in order to begin the photosynthetic process Chlorophyll a (114, 122, 681) −Role: primary donner in ETC; absorbs violetblue and orangered wavelengths ; green on chromatography paper Chlorophyll b −Role: form of chlorophyll; aids in photosynthesis; absorbs light; brown on chromatography paper Carotenoids (681) −Role: absorb blue light; are HYDROCARBONS; no oxygen 3. (♣) Energy from sunlight ends up as ATP and NADPH after light dependent reactions, so that light energy has now been converted to chemical energy This chemical energy is used in the Calvin Cycle to "fix" carbon from carbon dioxide, CO 2 into molecules of glucose (organic molecules), the "light independent" reactions. 4. Recognize the parts of the equation for overall photosynthesis reaction, noting where the carbon is, and where the energy is. 6CO + 6H 0 + light (energy) → C H O + 6O 2 2 6 12 6 2 5. Understand that glucose can be polymerized to form starch, glycogen, chitin, and cellulose. 6. Recognize the overall equation for cellular respiration. Track the energy and the carbons. 7. (♣) glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves breaking the 6 carbon glucose into two (2) 3carbon pyruvates. Each of these loses one carbon (as a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO , be2ore entering Krebs cycle. 8. What is the fate of glucose when there is little oxygen available? i.e. during fermentation in yeast cells, and in human muscle cells? 9. (♣) Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix (innermost region) of a mitochondrion, and that this is where any remaining carbons of glucose will finally end up as carbon dioxide again. Krebs cycle is also known as the Citric acid cycle, and as the TCA (Tricarboxylic acid) cycle. 10.The energy from Krebs cycle now enters the electron transport chain as NADH or FADH. These energy carriers are derived from VITAMINS! The ETC is a series of enzymes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. After electrons complete this chain, most of their usable energy is now in molecules of adenosine triphosphate, ATP. 11.(♣) Oxygen is the “final electron receptor” after the ETC. 12.(♣) the number of ATPs produced by oxidative phosphorylation is over 30, comparedto only two, 2, from fermentation. Chapter 9 Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis 1. Understand that prokaryotes divide by asexual reproduction, called binary fission, p.183 2. Body/somatic cells a. All divide by mitosis and the result is two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell 3. Meiosis a. is seen only in reproductive organs b. From each parent cell, four daughter cells result that are different (haploid) from the diploid parent cell c. As long as chromosomes are still attached by centriomers they are referred to as a chromosome pair d. Chromosomes line up side by side −This does not occur in mitosis! e. Bivalent – 2 chromosomes lined up side by side 4. Define: a. Homologues: −The two members of a chromosome pair, one from each parent −One member, either of the paternal or maternal partner, of a pair of homologous chromosomes 5. Some similarities and differences of mitosis and meiosis. a. Similarities: −both mitosis and meiosis are preceded by duplication of the chromosomes in the Synthesis phase of the cell cycle −both involve the same phases (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) −both separate chromosomes −both involve cytokinesis, the partitioning of the cytoplasm b. Differences: −meiosis has two divisions while mitosis has only one −in metaphase I of meiosis homologous chromosomes line up together and may exchange homologous pieces of DNA: crossing over in metaphase of mitosis, each chromosome lines up individually, − in anaphase I of meiosis homologous chromosomes separate, but in anaphase of mitosis, sister chromatids are separate − in telophase I of meiosis, chromosomes consist of two sister chromatids, but in telophase of mitosis, chromosomes are single 6. DNA a. is replicated during the synthesis (S) phase of Interphase b. the two resulting new chromosomes from S phase are called sister chromatids c. (♣) chromosomes are composed of DNA in complex with proteins d. Duplicated chromosomes first become visible during prophase e. During Interphase, chromosomes are uncoiled and are called chromatin 7. Define: a. Fertilization – the fusion of two different haploid gametes (egg and sperm) to produce a diploid zygote (the fertilized egg) b. Zygote – the diploid (2n) cell formed by the fusion of two haploid (n) gametes; a fertilized egg c. Diploid (2n) – of or referring to a cell or organism that has two complete sets of homologous chromosomes (2n) d. Haploid (n) – of or referring to a cell or organism that has only one set (n) of homologous chromosomes e. Why is it important for gametes to be haploid? −Increase in diseases −Overload genetic information 8. Know the event(s) that characterize PMAT. Be able to recognize a cell in one of these phases. a. Prophase −Meaning by root Pro – before Phase appearance −Nucueus replicates its DNA −Chromosomes undergo a high level of compaction during the first stage of mitosis Chromosomes are 10x more tightly wound than interphase chromosomes −Chromosomes first become visible here −They centrosomes begin moving through the cytosol Centrosomes: Cytoskeletal structures Root: i. Centro – center ii. Some body Move towards poles of the cell in mitosis −Chromosomes attach to the miototic spindle −chromosomes condense Change from chromatin to chromosomes −Nuclear membrane breaks apart −Centrioles divide and move to “poles” of cell and start manufacturing spindles Connector in the middle of the chromosomes b. Metaphase −Root: Meta – after Phase appearance −The microtubules line up the chromosomes at the cell’s equator c. Anaphase −Root: Ana up Phase – appearance −The sister chromatids separate marks the separation of sister chromatids in mitosis Until anaphase, sister chromatids are held together by a centromere (“center part”) −New chromosomes move toward the poles −There are 2 short maternal chromosomes −There are 2 long maternal chromosomes −There are 2 short paternal chromosomes −There are 2 long paternal chromosomes −Chromosomes go to the poles and prepare to split d. Telophase −Root: Telo – end Phase appearance −The separating of chromosomes reach the poles −Spindle microtubules break down −Nuclear envelopes reform around the chromosomes that have arrived at each pole −Chromatin decondenses −Last stage of mitosis −Chromosomes at poles −Chromosomes begin to unravel/ uncondensed −Nuclear membrane “reappears” −Entire cell contracts and begins cytokinesis −The cell is not at 1 e. Cytokinesis −Root: Cyto – cell Kinesis – movement −Begins plane of constriction forms −Marks end of cell cycle −Animal: furrowing divides the cytoplasm draw plasma membrane inward until it meets in the center of the cell −Plant: A cell plate forms 9. Centrosomes a. Root: −Centro – center −Somes body b. produce the microtubules called spindle fibers for sorting the chromosomes c. cytoskeletal structures in the cytosol that helps organize the mitotic spindle and defines the two poles of a dividing cell 10.The members of a homologous pair separate during meiosis I a. Anything to add? 11.What are two sources of genetic variation/diversity that occur during meiosis? p.195 a. Genetic Recombination −the creation of new groupings of alleles through the breaking and rejoining of different DNA segments, as in the crossing over that takes place between paired homologues during meiosis I −allows the production of at least 4 different types of gametes b. Independent Assortment of Chromosomes −the random distribution of maternal and paternal chromosomes into gametes during meiosis −random distribution of maternal and paternal chromosomes into daughter cells during meiosis I −contributes to the genetic variety of the gametes produced −allows the production of at least 4 different types of gametes 12.Recall that meiosis II looks very much like mitosis. p.194 13.How Sex of Baby is Determined: a. Female (p.654): −Begins with1 primary oocyte −There are 2 Xchromosomes −Process of oogenesis – origin of an egg cell Oo refers to egg Genesis refers to origins −Results: 4 potential egg cells that results in 1 actual egg cell and 3 polar bodies −Polar bodies form during oogenesis because: with each division, all the cytoplasm, with its many organelles, goes to only one of the two daughter cells results in one egg which, upon fertilization, has the needed support for the dividing embryo before it can implant in the uterus (womb) of the mother See me for diagram b. Male (p.652): −Begins with 1 primary spermatocyte −There is 1 Xchromosome and 1 Ychromosome The Ychromosome is much shorter than the X chromosome −Process of spermatogenesis −There are 4 potential sperm cells in the end See me for diagram 14.How does fertilization contribute to genetic variation? p.196 and 602 a. the fusion of two different haploid gametes (egg and sperm) to produce a diploid zygote (the fertilized egg) b. 2 haploid nuclei fuse to form 1 diploid nucleus c. All contained within egg d. Divides by mitosis e. Homozygous – same zygote; talking about a particular gene on a chromosome f. Heterozygous – different zygote; talking about a particular gene on a chromosome g. Form of variation h. Creates over 64 trillion genetically different offspring possibilities 15.Cancers are characterized by cells growing out of control. Define a. Protooncogene – a gene that promotes cell division in response of growth signals as part of its normal cellular function b. Oncogenes – a mutated gene that promotes excessive cell division, leading to cancer Chapter 10 – Mendelian Genetics and variations 1. Define: a. Allele – one of several alternative versions of a gene; each has a DNA sequence that is somewhat different from that of all other alleles of the same gene b. Dominant – an allele that determines the phenotype (dominant phenotype) when it is paired with a recessive allele in a heterozygous individual c. F1 generation – the first generation of offspring in a genetic cross d. F2 generations – the second generation of offspring in a genetic cross e. Gene – the smallest unit of DNA that governs a genetic characteristic and contains the code for the synthesis of a protein or an RNA molecule; located on chromosomes f. Genetic trait – an inherited characteristic of an organism, such as size, color, or behavior g. Genetics – the scientific study of the inheritance of characteristics encoded by DNA h. Genotype – the allelic makeup that is responsible for a particular phenotype displayed by an individual i. Heterozygote – an individual that carries one copy of each of two different alleles (ex. Aa) j. Homozygote – an individual that carries two copies of the swame allele (ex. AA or aa) k. P generation – the parent generation in a genetic cross l. Phenotype – the specific version of a genetic trait that is displayed by a given individual (ex. Black, brown, red, and blond are phenotypes of hair color) m. Recessive – an allele that does not have a phenotypic effect when paired with a dominant allele in a heterozygote n. “Truebreeding” – is one that will have a specific trait generation after generation from selffertilization; A kind of breeding in which the parents with a particular phenotype produce offspring only with the same phenotype 2. (♣) Pisum sativum a. scientific, genus and species name for the pea plants that the monk, Gregor Mendel used for his genetic studies b. One reason we call Mendel the “father of modern genetics” is because of his careful counting of traits among generations of peas 3. Know that Mendel’s new theory of inheritance differed from the earlier ideas of “blended” inheritance. He believed genes behave like separate units or particles. 4. Note the five points that summarize Mendel’s concepts. p.212213 a. Alternative versions of genes cause variation in inherited traits b. Offspring inherit one copy of a gene from each parent c. An allele is dominant if it has exclusive control over the phenotype d. The two copies (alleles) of a gene separate during meiosis and end up in different gametes e. Gametes fuse without regard to which alleles they carry 5. Be able to use a Punnett square to answer questions about monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. a. Monohybrid −??? b. Dihybrid −???? 6. Understand Mendel's two Laws of Inheritance: a. segregation of alleles −two copies of a gene separate during meiosis and end up in different gametes −law can be used to predict how a single trait will be inherited b. independent assortment −when gametes form the separation of alleles 1 gene is independent of the separation of the alleles of other genes 7. Define and know examples of the following extensions of Mendel’s laws a. Incomplete dominance (p218) −Ex: flower color in snapdragons −The situation in which heterozygotes (Aa individuals) are intermediate in phenotype between the two homozygotes (AA and aa individuals) for a particular gene −Neither allele is dominant over the other b. Codominance (p 208 & 218) −Ex: blood groups −The situation in which the effects of both alleles in a pair are equally visible in the phenotype of heterozygote In other words – the influence of each codominant allele is fully displayed in the heterozygote without being diminished or diluted by the presence of the other allele Think of two glasses one is filled with blue water and the other is filled with green. They both exist and are seen but they do not mix because they are in different glasses. c. Pleiotropy (p 219) −Ex: albinism −a single gene influences multiple traits −the situation in which a single gene influences a variety of different traits −parents affect a childs decisions until they believe the child is ready to make wise decisions of his/her own. d. Epistasis (p 220 & HW 4 #7) −Ex: coat color in mice −one gene “sits upon” another −a gene interaction in which the phenotypic effect of the alleles of one gene depends on which alleles are present for another independently inherited gene e. Environmental effects on the expression of genes (p.220) −Ex: coat color in Siamese cats −think of Africans and why their skin is darker than ours −think of how humidity or lack there of affects nose shape f. Polygenic inheritance −Ex. Skin color in humans −more than one gene affecting same trait −of or referring to inherited traits that are determined by the action of more than 1 gene −\think of height, weight, shape, color, and metabolic rate 8. What is it about the red blood cell that makes a person type A, or B, etc.? a. Inheritance punnett square Chapter 11 – Chromosomes and Human Genetics 1. Know which chromosomes from which parent determine the sex of a child. (p.231 and 646) a. Sex chromosomes determine the sex of a child 2. Understand difference between sex chromosomes and autosomes. a. Sex chromosome −Determines if one gets the X or Y chromosome −Determines your gender b. Autosome −Chromosome −Not sex chromosome −Equal number of copies of the chromosome in the males and females −Is any of the 23 chromosomes that is not X or Y chromosome 3. Review the four sources of genetic differences among individuals. p.234 Same as in Chapter 9. Note concept check questions. a. Mutation −Some type of permanent change in DNA b. Crossing over recombination c. independent assortment d. fertilization −Merging of 2 nuclei 1. Creates a diploid zygote 4. Interpret pedigree charts to determine the patterns of inheritance of a given trait, i.e. is this a dominant or recessive disorder, AND is it autosomal or Xlinked? a. Circle = female b. Square = male c. Colored in circle or square = disease d. Xlinked −Found only in men in a pedigree chart −Ex. 1. Hemophilia 2. Kleinfelter 3. Colorblindness 4. Turner e. Autosomal Dominant f. Autosomal Recessive 5. Define “carrier”. a. One who carries a recessive version of a genetic disease that is passed down 6. Know examples of human autosomal recessive disorders: a. Tay Sachs b. sickle cell anemia c. albinism d. cystic fibrosis 7. Know examples of human autosomal dominant disorders: p.233. a. Huntington b. polydactyly c. Understand how these recessive and dominant disorders are inherited. 8. Be able to construct a Punnett square illustrating an Xlinked trait, such as hemophilia, colorblindness, Duchenne muscular dystrophy ( p. 241), or eye color in fruit flies. 9. (♣) chromosomes may experience structural changes and possible results. 10.(♣) the failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis (p.242) is called nondisjunction. It results in changes in chromosome number, and may be fatal. p.241 a. Ex. −Kleinfelter −Jacobs −Turner −PolyX 11.What is a syndrome? What syndrome results from trisomy of Chromosome 21 in humans? a. Syndrome – combination of signs and symptoms that are indicative of a particular disease or disorder 12.Review SelfQuiz and the sample genetics problems. p.247ff Homework #3 1. The greatest challenge in fighting cancer is to selectively destroy cancerous cells without damaging healthy cells. 2. Every cancer begins with a single rogue cell that starts dividing with wild abandon, giving rise to a mass of abnormal cells. (B1) 3. The greatest challenge in battling cancer is the selective destruction of rogue cells while sparing healthy cells in the process. (B1) 4. A mutation is a change in the DNA sequence of a gene. (B4) 5. The solid cell mass formed by inappropriate proliferation of cells is known as a tumor. If this cell mass remains confined to one site, it is called benign tumor. If it breaks away and migrates to invade other tissues, it is now a fullfledged cancer. (B3) 6. Genes that code for positive growth regulators, that is, genes that promote cell division, are broadly classified protooncogenes. If these genes mutate and become overactive, they lead to excessive cell proliferation and tumor development and they are now known as oncogenes. (B34) 7. Genes that code for negative growth regulators are known as tumor suppressor genes. Their normal activity is to inhibit the cell cycle and prevent cell proliferation. Mutations of these genes in a cell make that cell capable of uncontrolled proliferation and tumor development. (B4) 8. Name three environmental influences that affect cancer risk. Viruses and bacteria, chemical toxins, and lifestyle choices. (B6) 9. What is the compound in both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes that is a powerful cancercausing agent? Benzopyrene. This substance suppresses a gene that controls the cell cycle. (B7) 10.An average marijuana cigarette contains about 50% more benzopyrene than a cigarette made of tobacco, so why is there more risk associated with tobacco cigarettes? There is a greater risk associated with tobacco cigarettes because much more addictive. (B7) Homework #4 D 1. Both husband and wife are heterozygous for freckles. Freckles, F, are dominant over nonfreckled, f. What are the chances that their children will have freckles? a. 0 out of 4 or 0% d. 3 out of 4 or 75% b. 1 out of 4 or 25% e. 4 out of 4 or 100% c. 2 out of 4 or 50% F B 2. Both you and your sibling have attached earlobes, yet both your parents have unattached earlobes. What are the genotypes of your parents? a. Ee and ee b. Ee and Ee c. EE and ee d. EE and EE D 3. Colorblindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A colorblind woman marries a man with normal vision. What are the chances will their sons be colorblind? Show all genotypes. a. 0% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% e. 100% Y B 4. What percent of the daughters in #3 could be colorblind? (choose from #3) E 5. What percent of the daughters could be carriers of colorblindness? (choose from #3) B 6. If a blue-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant and all the F1 offspring are white, which allele is dominant? Show genotypes a. allele for blue b. allele for white c. they are codominant d. neither C 7. In chickens, a dominant gene, I, inhibits color, while its recessive allele, i, allows color to be expressed. A separate, incompletely dominant gene also affects color. The combination iiBB gives black, iiBb yields blue, and iibb is splashed white. Starting with a parental cross IIbb with iiBB, first determine the F1 genotype. Then cross two F1 chickens and pick the correct phenotypic ratio from these choices. a. 9 black, 3 blue, 4 splashed white b. 9 plain white (no color expressed), 3 black, 3 blue, 1 splashed white c. 12 plain white, 1 black, 2 blue, 1 splashed white d. 3 plain white, 12 black, 1 blue e. 3 plain white, 4 black, 4 blue, 1 splashed white 12 16 E 8. In cats, yellow color is due to a gene, B, and black to its allele, b. These genes are X-linked. The heterozygous condition results in tortoise-shell coloring. What color offspring would be produced from the cross of a black male and a tortoise-shell female? Note the sex as well as the color. a. females 1:1 black to yellow; males 1:1 yellow to tortoise-shell b. females 1:1 tortoise-shell to yellow; males 1:1 black to tortoise-shell c. females 1:1 tortoise-shell to black; males 100% yellow d. females 100% tortoise-shell; males 1:1 black to yellow e. females 1:1 tortoise-shell to black; males 1:1 black to yellow ♂ Black D 9. A man of blood type A marries a woman of blood type B, and they have a child with blood type O. What are the genotypes of these three people? man woman child a. AA BO AO b. AO BO AB c. AB OO OO d. AO BO OO O D 10. A pea plant heterozygous for stem length. Ll, and for seed shape, Rr, is allowed to self- fertilize. What proportion of the offspring would you expect to be homozygous dominant for BOTH traits, if each trait is coded by genes which assort independently? a. 1/16 b. 3/16 c. 4/16 d. 9/16 e. 12/16 Extra Credit: Write the genotypes of all possible gametes that can be produced by an organism with genotype AAGg. AG, Ag Biology
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