Study Guide for the first exam
Study Guide for the first exam HORT 3440
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This 37 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Shah on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants in Biology/Anthropology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
1.) Define herbs, spices, and medicinal plants. How do herbs and spices differ from one another? To a botanist (as opposed to a chef), what does the term “herb” mean? o Herbs A nonwoody plant; can be annual or perennial as long as stem forms no appreciable wood (botanical) o Herbs Leafy parts used in cooking (culinary); from temperate zone origin o Spice Usually nonleafy parts used in cooking, e.g. fruits, seeds (culinary); from tropical origin o Medicinal Plant Plants valued for their physiological, therapeutic, or psychoactive effects 2.)Name five tropical spices that were important in the early trade between Europe and the Far East. Explain from what part of the plant each spice is obtained. Describe how black pepper, green pepper, and white pepper are obtained from the same plant. Name one Old World spice plant and one New World spice plant that grow as vines. o Pepper we use the fruit Black pepper Dried, Unripe Seed Green pepper Pickle unripe seed in brine White pepper Peel outer layer off ripe seed. o Cinnamon – We use the bark o Nutmeg and Mace come from the seed/fruit Nutmeg is the seed Mace is the red webbing surrounding the seed called the aril o Cloves we use the flower bud o Ginger – we use the rhizome or underground stem o Vanilla – is new world vine spice and black pepper is old world vine spice 3.) Name two important anticancer drugs that we discussed in class that were discovered through random screening. What plants produce them? What regions of the world are these plants native to? o Vincristine and vinblastine Produced by Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus Also known as the rosy periwinkle Pantropical weed; grown around the world as an ornamental plant Native to Madagascar o Paclitaxel and Taxol Produced by the Pacific Yew Taxus brevifolia Native to pacific NW of USA Which one shares habitat with the endangered Spotted Owl? Pacific Yew How do the drugs derived from these plants interfere with cell division? Cancer is cells that are growing out of control. During cell division (supposed to make two exact copies of the cell) Microtubules form the spindles in a cell. Vincristine binds to the tubulin protein and inhibits the assembly of microtubule structures. Taxol stabilizes the microtubule polymer and protects if from disassembly. Taxol inhibits spindle function. 4.) Opium poppies, coca, willows, foxglove, and Indian snakeroot are all plants that have provided modern pharmaceutical medicines. For each of these species name: the active compound(s) or drug(s) obtained from the plant; and the therapeutic effect of the medicine obtained from each species. o Opium poppies Morphine and codeine pain relievers/powerful analgesics Heroin semisynthetic derivative of morphine o Coca Cocaine stimulant with anesthetic properties Used by Incas to relieve fatigue, thirst, and hunger o Willows Aspirin (drug) bark of the source of salicin (active compounds) Analgesic/pain relief, feverreducer, antiinflammatory Side effects include stomach pain, nausea o Foxglove Digoxin and digitoxin are the active compounds (leaves are used) Good for treating heart disease Slows down heart rate, but makes heart beats stronger Decrease edema o Indian snakeroot Reserpine is the active compound Good for treating psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, hypertension, dysentery, lowers blood pressure, effective as a sedative 5.) Name three tropane alkaloids and three plants that contain them. Atropine, Scopolamine, Hyoscyamine What feature of the tropane alkaloids makes it easy to apply them through the surface of the skin? It’s easy to apply because it’s fat soluble What plant family are they found in? The potato family What physical and chemical characteristics of the Mandrake plant contributed to its rich mythology? o Mandrake produces a dreamlike sleep and hallucinations. It’s believed to ward off evil and increase sexual fertility 6.)Briefly define the following terms: o Ebers papyrus Ancient Egyptian medical papyrus scroll of herbal knowledge; contains around 700 treatments; about 65 feet long o Spice Islands The Maluku Islands, Indonesia o Aril Fleshy appendage/lacy covering the seed; usually edible o Panacea a cureall; garlic is the most popular one o Analgesic Pain killer o Anesthetic Numbing, loss of sensation; reduces sensitivity to pain o Narcotic Compound with sleep inducing properties o William Withering Discovered Digitalis (drugged synthesized from Foxglove), Proposed it was a cure for dropsy (edema) o Zoopharmacognosy – The behavior nonhuman animals when they self medicate by selecting and ingesting or topically applying plants, soils, insects, and psychoactive drugs to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of pathogens and toxins. o Opium Dried latex obtained from opium poppies o “officinale” (when used as a species name) indicates that the plant is medicinally (at least traditionally) o Rhizome – Horizontal, underground plant stem capable of producing the shoot and root systems of a new plant o Peyote Small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids; mescaline o Taxol Anticancer drug found from the pacific yew o Hexing herbs Contain tropane alkaloids (Henbane, Belladonna, Mandrake) o Carminative Induces the expulsion of Gas from the intestinal tract (Ginger, Cinnamon) o Capsaicin The active component in chili peppers that gives us the “burning” sensation; it’s an irritant to mammals, but doesn’t seem to effect birds o Scoville scale measurement of spicy heat of pepper; very subjective o Curry powder Mixture of spices in South Asia. Turmeric is the main one o Myristicin found in the essential oils of nutmeg; it’s an insecticide o Reserpine an alkaloid that’s used as an antipsychotic and used to control blood pressure o Bioassay Scientific experiment testing the effect of a substance on a living organism o Hemiparasite a type of parasitic plant that gains some of its sustenance from other plants, but it also photosynthesizes; mistletoe is one o Myrrh aromatic resin from trees o Tussiemussie A flower bouquet; the different flowers have their own meaning; used to send a message o Dioecious a characteristic of organisms where the male and female reproductive organs occur in separate individuals, as opposed to both in one organism o Native American Church The only group that’s allowed to use peyote and mescaline. o Evil eye The belief that someone (person or animal) can cause you hardships by looking at you in a certain way. Garlic is used to ward it off and protects you, as well asJuniper, Fennel, and Savory. o Mescaline Hallucinogenic alkaloid found in Peyote o Microtubules form the spindle during cell mitosis o Dropsy Edema, buildup of fluid in tissue o Brugmansia Woody bushes with ornamental flower. Closely related to Datura, Used as a poison for black magic and as a ritualistic hallucinogen. Angels trumpets o Organoleptic Aspects of food or other substances experienced by the senses essential oils concentrated liquids containing aroma compounds from plants o Umbel Cluster of flowers on a short stalk o Antibiotic Medication that destroys or slows down the replication of a pathogen o Infection Invasion and multiplication of microbes like bacteria or viruses not normally present in the body o Entheogen Ingested chemical compound used to produce a nonordinary state of mind o Arachidonic acid Acid that reacts with prostaglandins in the body to feel pain o Vin Mariani Wine made with coca leaves; originally sold as a medicine that would restore health and energy o Eugenol Oil extracted from cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, and other plants. Used in perfumes, flavoring, antiseptic, and an anesthetic o Garam masala Blend of spices found in North India o Nociceptors Sensory nerves that respond to dangerous stimuli o Free radicals An uncharged molecule with an unpaired valence electron o Curare Alkaloid poison used to poison arrow tips and darts o Isothiocyanates Sulfur containing molecules found in the mustard family. Produces spicy flavors o The “lacrimatory factor” Crying effect, think of cutting onions. o primary vs. secondary metabolites: Primary: occur in the major metabolic pathways of plant; e.g., carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Secondary: serve diverse functions in plants, and are often the source of a plant’s medicinal or culinary value; toxins 7.) Name three herbs or spices that the Egyptians used in the preparation of mummies. How is frankincense harvested? What beast of burden do frankincense collectors use when they travel to and from their collecting sites? What event in 1096 reawakened European interest in the Old World spices? Ships from which European country were the first to successfully sail around the tip of Africa into the Indian Ocean? What two spices did the Dutch East India Company seek to monopolize when they took control of the islands in the Molucca Archipelago (the Spice Islands)? o Used in the preparation of mummies: Cumin, Anise, Marjoram o Frankincense is collected by slashing frankincense trees and “bleeding” the resin out o Travel by camel o The crusades reawakened European interest o Ships from Portugal were the first to sail around Africa o Monopoly on Mace and Nutmeg 8.) What are the three major areas of origin of herbs, spices, and medicinal plants? Name three examples of commercially important plants from each of these areas. o Old World Tropics: Black Pepper, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Clove, Ginger o New World Tropics: Vanilla, Allspice, Capsicum Peppers o Mediterranean Regions: Mint Family Rosemary, Oregano, Thyme, Marjoram, Sage, Basil Parsley Family Parsley, Dill, Cilantro and Coriander, Chervil, Anise, Cumin Mustard Family White & brown Mustard Seeds Vegetative breakdown of family Produces several varieties of vegetation for consumption 9.) What characteristics of the Old World spices (physical, chemical, etc.) made them particularly well suited to long distance trade between Europe and the Far East in ancient times? In the 21st century, spices are still important in commerce but they have declined considerably in value. Discuss three reasons why spices are relatively less expensive today than they were in ancient times. o Spices were well suited for long distance travel because: They could be dried out and long shelf life o Spices are less expensive because: Better transportation More places where they can be grown Large scale, efficient, methods of agriculture 10.) Which Old World spice plant produces two different spices from the same fruit? Which Old World spice is an important ingredient in cigarettes marketed in Indonesia? What is the difference between true cinnamon and cassia? What member of the ginger family is responsible for the yellow color of curry powder? What part of cardamom is used as a spice? Why does natural vanilla have a more complex flavor than artificial vanilla? How is vanilla pollinated in a commercial agricultural setting? o From the same fruit: Nutmeg and Mace o Cloves are an important part of cigarettes marketed in Indonesia o True cinnamon (Ceylon) comes from bark of evergreen trees and is native to Sri Lanka and is lighter in color. Cassia cinnamon comes from other parts of the world such as China and Indonesia. o Turmeric is responsible for the yellow color of curry powder o Seeds of cardamom is used o Natural vanilla has a more complex flavor because it is 100% pure vanilla flavor. Artificial vanilla is produced through bench chemistry, and other chemicals with other flavors mix together through the process o You sweat the vanilla bean for a prolonged period of time until the chemical compound vanillin is made o Vanilla must be pollinated by hand since the bees that naturally pollinate them cannot meet the high demand 11.) We discussed the characteristics of several plant families including the Ginger family, the Mint family, the Parsley family, and the Mustard family. Name three characteristics of each family (use can use vegetative and reproductive characteristics, or features of the family’s geographical distribution). o Ginger Native to lowland rainforests of tropical asia Composed of rhizome (an underground stem) Is a perennial herb o Mint Vegetative: herbs and shrubs with square stems and opposite leaves Reproductive: flowers often in whorls around the stem and bilaterally symmetric with lip Geography: Mediterranean region o Parsley Vegetative: herbs with alternate leaves often with a sheath Reproductive: flowers arranged in "umbels" and usually small and inconspicuous individually but arranged in clusters Geography: Mediterranean region and temperate zones o Mustard Reproductive: flowers have 4 petals arranged in a cross All species of Mustard are edible cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and kale were all bred from a single species of mustard 12.) Some members of the Parsley family are used for their leaves (e.g., parsley), while others are used for the fruits and seeds (e.g., cumin). Name two members of this family that are used for both their leaves and seeds. o Coriander plant: Cilantro (leaves) and Coriander (seeds) o Dill leaves used for meats and fish while seeds are used for pickles (dill pickles) 13.) List five commonly used culinary herbs in the Mint family. o Rosemary, Basil, Marjoram, Thyme, Oregano, Sage 14.) Fill in the blanks: o The Aztecs used Vanilla pods to flavor chocolate. A spice that combines the flavors of cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg in one fruit is Allspice. Of the three New World spices, the one that made the greatest contribution to regional cuisines in Europe and Asia is Capsicum peppers. Peyote is the source of the hallucinogenic drug Mescaline. o De Materia Medica, written by Dioscorides, was an important medical reference book for more than a 1,000 years. 15.) How long do patents on pharmaceutical drugs last? o 20 years How do herbal OTC products differ from pharmaceutical medicines in terms of strength and composition? o pharmaceutical drugs are more potent, less toxic, and more easily administered. Approximately how many prescription drugs are derived from plants? o 120 What % of prescriptions written in the USA contain one or more plantderived ingredients? o 40 16.) Horseradish is obtained from what part of the horseradish plant? o From the root The plant that provides wasabi belongs to what family? o the Brassicaceae family What plant in the Parsley family has licoricescented seeds? o Anise has licorice scented seeds What culinary herb is an important ingredient in pesto? o Basil is an important ingredient in pesto What are two important therapeutic uses of garlic in modern herbal medicine? o Therapeutic uses of garlic: lower cholesterol and high blood pressure Collard greens, cabbage, Brussel sprouts, and broccoli were all derived from a single species in what plant family? o Cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, etc. come from the Brassicaceae family How do mammals and birds respond differently to the “hot” compounds in capsicum peppers? o Mammals are irritated; birds are immune Most “wasabi” in American restaurants and stores is actually made from what plant? o Most american wasabi is made from horseradish 17.) Mistletoe is being tested as a potential treatment for what disease? What ancient religious sect considered mistletoe sacred because it grew on trees? What culinary herb is associated culturally or symbolically with “remembrance”? o Mistletoe is being tested as a cancer treatment o The druids considered mistletoe sacred o Rosemary is associated with remembrance 18.) How do the names of alkaloids usually end (what suffix)? What class of plant secondary compounds consists of a sugar bonded to a nonsugar compound? What is the difference between naturally occurring salicin and aspirin? Heroin is produced from opium, but raw opium does not contain heroin ― explain! Why is henbane not a good salad herb? o Alkaloids end in ine o Glycosides consist of a sugar bonded to a nonsugar o Aspirin is made from salicin, except it isn't as harsh on stomachs o Heroin is synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy o Henbane is poisonous and contains tropane alkaloids 19.) Random screening is a relatively inefficient method of searching for new plant medicines. Describe four more targeted strategies that pharmaceutical prospectors are currently using in the search for new medicines. o Taxonomic targeting using organismal classifications o Ecologic targeting relationship between living organisms and the environment o Ethnobotanical targeting relationship between people and plants o Zoopharmacognosy animals choosing plants, soil, and insects to selfmedicate 20.) How have concerns over intellectual and genetic property rights affected bioprospecting? What is meant by “biopiracy”? What is “prior informed consent”? o These concerns have led to a fear of having discoveries stolen by others o Biopiracy is bioprospecting that exploits plant and animal species by claiming patents to restrict their general use. o Prior informed consent is the principle that a community has the right to give or withhold its consent to proposed projects that may affect the lands they customarily own, occupy or otherwise use. 21.) What role do prostaglandins play in the inflammatory response? What plant derived medicine inhibits prostaglandin production? What plantderived medicine reduced the need for electric shock in the treatment of psychiatric disorders? o Prostaglandins are hormones that bring upon inflammatory response by vasodilation, permeability of capillaries, and sensitizing nerve cells to pain o Aspirin o Reserpine 22.) Based on the information presented by “Dr. Ann” in her YouTube video on the health benefits of herbs (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8H3oAXSvfMA), what are the beneficial properties of the following herbs and spices that we discussed in class: rosemary, cinnamon, turmeric, and hot peppers? Why are antioxidants important for maintaining human health (remember the other video you watched on this subject)? o Rosemary: decreases chance of cancer when you eat red meat o Cinnamon: boost metabolism and helps lower cholesterol o Turmeric: powerful antioxidant and antiinflammatory o Hot pepper: stimulate pain receptors and trigger the release of endorphins o Antioxidants: stabilize free radicals in the body before they can do any damage 23.) As a County Extension Agent in Georgia, you receive a call from a homeowner who wants to develop an herb and medicinal plant garden in her backyard. What recommendations would you give the client in terms of supplying proper conditions for drainage, soil pH, sunlight, mulching, and irrigation? What are the benefits of applying mulch to a garden? Why is the free flow or “drainage” of air beneficial in a garden? What do we mean when we refer to the “hardscape” of a garden? What elements of a garden design make up the hardscape? o Good drainage In terms of water and air o Need to add sand or composted bark o Positioning and pruning plants to keep air moving through them o Need to raise our soil pH so it’s less acidic o Ideally 6 to 7.5 o Use lime o Have soil test done o Sunlight o Mediterranean herbs 6 hours of sun/day o Mulching is a must o Suppresses weeds o Conserves water o Moderate soil temperature and erosion o Can be attractive o Use pine straw, bark, plastic, or other organic byproducts o Keep mulch away from base of plant stems o Irrigation: once or twice a week during the summer o Avoid wetting foliage o Fertilize only 23 times a season o Over fertilization results in soft growth, leads to many problems o Hardscape: nonnatural elements of the garden. This can be anything from a wall of a fully developed outdoor living room 24.) Most plant secondary metabolites belong to one of the following four major classes of compounds: terpenes, phenolics, glycosides, or alkaloids. Match each of the following with the major class they belong to: o Terpenes: essential oils (most of them) taxol, natural rubber o Phenolics: tannins, flavonoids, urushiol (from poison ivy) o Glycosides: digitoxin o Alkaloids: caffeine, morphine Which class of secondary metabolites always has an atom of nitrogen somewhere in the molecule? o alkaloids 25.) What chemical element is responsible for the strong taste of many plants in the Onion and Mustard families? What is the relationship between alliin, alliinase, and allicin? What enzyme converts the glucosinolate in mustard cells into spicy isothiocyanate? When you chew mustard seeds, why does it take a few seconds for the spicy taste to emerge? o Volatile sulphur compounds o Reaction of alliin in garlic powder with alliinase to form allicin o Substrate compound (glucosinolate) + enzyme (myrosinase) > spicy flavor (isothiocyanate) o The release of volatile sulphurcontaining compounds when cells are damaged My Notes Some Vocab. o Herb – (botanical definition) – a nonwoody plant; can be annual or perennial, as long as stems do not form appreciable wood. o Herb – (culinary definition) – leafy parts used in cooking; tend to come from temperate parts of the world. o Spices – usually nonleafy parts used in cooking (like fruit, roots, bark, seeds); usually from tropical regions [though there are several exceptions]. o Medicinal Plant – a plant valued for its physiological, therapeutic, or psychoactive qualities/benefits; specific parts of the plant are used. o Plant Nomenclature – the formal system of rules for giving scientific names to plants. [For this class we need to know three “ranks” of scientific names: Family, Genus, and species.] When a plant’s species name is offcinales, it means that that plant is/was used medicinally. Lemon Balm: Melissa officinales Dandelion: Taraxacum offcinales th (15 ) Horseradish o From temporal region o Root is the part that’s used o Mustard family o Wasabi (plant) is also part of the Mustard fam Grows in Japanese mountains Roots are used and grated Most wasabi products are actually made of horseradish Black Pepper o Family: Piperaceae – Pepper family o Piper nigrum (Genus species) o Kava (pepper) – Piper methysticum Some plants, herbs, and spices have mythical and religious affiliations. Herbs and spices were associated with power. Rosemary o Very common shrub plant o Used in gardens o Used to make essential oils and teas o Good for soothing upset stomachs o Aromatherapy o Energizing o Symbol for remembrance Lady’s Mantle, Alchemilla vulgaris o Rose family o European o Contains tanons – things that cause proteins to shrink up o Antistrigent o Good for stopping bleeding or runny phlegm o Alchemists believed the dew o Pathenogenetic [Pathenogenesis – the process of making seeds without fertilization] o Associated with the Virgin Mary as well as the fountain of youth Garlic, Allium sativum o Associated with white magic – had protective powers and was a defense against vampires and the plague. Protection against the evil eye. [Juniper, Fennel (carrot family), and Savory (mint family) are also protection against the evil eye] o A variable cultigen (a plant that has been altered or selected by on purpose by people; it came from artificial selection) that was probably derived from an Asiatic species o Onion family o Panacea – a cureall; possibly the most popular panacea of all time. o Today garlic is used to lower cholesterol and high blood pressure European Mistletoe, Viscum album o Hemiparasitic [a hemiparasite gets some, but not all, nutrients from its host, but it also photosynthesizes] o Feels leathery and plasticlike o Grows on oak trees o It has anticancer potential; currently going through clinical trials o Thick and small leaves o Little white berries that are poisonous: Cause abnormal heartrate, low blood pressure, seizures, and even death o Celts and Druids harvested Mistletoe with a golden sickle; wasn’t allow to touch the ground; was used to make special o A lot of potent medicines come from poisonous plants. Ghost Plant, Indian Pipes; Monotropa uniflora o A true parasite uses fungus to take its nutrients from trees o Blueberry family o It has no chlorophyll, so it can’t photosynthesize Mandrake o Potato family o Fruit and flower are used o Fruit kind of glows in moonlight when wet o Contains tropane alkaloids atropine, hyscyamine, and scopolamine (which gives it anesthetic properties. o Slightly hallucinogenic. Dioscorides (1 century doctorlike thing) wrote De Materia Medica; it was used as a medical text for centuries o Mandrake has thick roots that sometimes look like little humans o There’s a myth that if a mandrake cries (during harvest), it can kill you. Remember that Harry Potter scene when they were repotting mandrake babies? Peyote Cactus; Lophophora williamsii o Makes mescaline o Cacti have no leaves; they’re all stem For water storage o Native to Rio Grande Valley o Used by Aztec priests; banned by Spaniards o Used today by Native American Church in communion. o Belongs to a group of plants called entheogens That which generate God or the divine in a person; many hallucinogenic plants, like peyote, are considered entheogens. Incense o Burning aromatic plants Used in aromatherapy and given as offerings. o Sandalwood Popular incense scent Valued for fragrance and essential oils Name refers to a group of hemiparasitic trees The roots are parasitic Genus: Santalum Same family as mistletoe Indian Sandalwood: Santlum album Most herbs and spices (culinary) originate from 3 main geographic regions ○ Europe and the Mediterranean region ○ “Old World” tropics (India and the “Far East” particularly) ○ “New World” tropics (South America and the Caribbean) In antiquity (1000s of years BCE [BC]), spices were useful many different ways: ○ Flavoring foods ○ Medicines ○ Perfume ○ Ceremonies and rituals ○ Preserving foods (this was a huge issue before refrigeration; it was a matter of life & death) ○ Spices were associated with wealth Many herbs and spices are potent inhibitors of bacterial growth ○ Extracts from 30 herbs and spices were tested against several bacterial cultures ○ All of the inhibited or killed at least ¼ (25%) of the bacterial species ○ The 4 most potent killed every species tested – garlic, onion, allspice, and oregano. The active ingredients in Listerine are products of plants Ancient Egyptians mummies have been examined; a lot of plants are used in the process of mummification. ○ Some of the plants were local, others would’ve had to been traded for. ○ Mummy mix: ▪ Local: Cumin Anise Marjoram ▪ Imported: Cinnamon Myrrh Good for mouth sores Frankincense ○ There was an expedition funded by the Ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut in 1500 BCE to the land of Punt to get stuff ○ Spice have been highly valuable for a very long time Eber’s Papyrus is an old Egyptian scroll that’s 65 feet long ○ It contains around 700 prescriptions that Ancient Egyptians used ○ It’s from around 1500 BCE Spice trade routes have been around for over 5000 years. Many wars have been fought over spices and trade routes ○ From Gaul in Rome people went to Malabar (India) to get ginger and pepper Patterns of conquest in the Middle East resulted from onagain offagain flow of spices from the Far East to Europe ○ During the Dark Ages (478 – 1096 CE [AD]), the Arabs were in control of the spice trade and Europeans were essentially cut off from the supply ▪ Called the “Muslim Curtain” ▪ Arabs continued the spice trade for their own use. The Prophet Mohammed (570 – 632) was a spice trader as a young man ▪ The Dark Ages ended with the first Crusade in Europe (1096) Europeans were reintroduced to the luxuries of the Middle East This stimulated the desire to break the Arab trade monopoly. Over land, routes to India, China, and South East Asia were established and delivered spices to Venice and Genoa. ← These city states became very wealthy, which helped fund artistic and cultural achievements of the Renaissance ○ In the 1400s, expansions of the Turkish empire cut off Europe from control of the over land routes ▪ This led to the search for alternative sea routes to the Far East. ▪ In 1480, Vasco de Gama reached India by sailing around the South African Cape of Good Hope ▪ By 1560, direct sea routes and reopened land routes had been established (and reestablished) the flow of spices to Europe. ○ This led to the Age of Exploration ▪ The Portuguese were the first to dominate the Asian trade ▪ The Dutch displaced the Portuguese and had a virtual monopoly for the next 200 years. The Dutch were pushed out in 1796 when the British invaded ○ The Age of Exploration was followed by the Colonialism period. ▪ Many spices were transported around the world for cultivation Botanical gardens, such as the Jardín Botánico in Rio de Janeiro, served as centers for introduction. Sage is in the mint family. Black pepper: Piper nigrum ○ Pollinated by the wind ○ The flowers are basically the female parts ○ When the fruit is growing, it’s green; when it’s ripe and ready to spread its seeds, it’s red. ○ There’s a postharvest process to get black pepper. ▪ When the fruit is still green and not yet ripe, the fruit is dried in heat and we get black peppercorns; those are ground up so we get black pepper. ▪ There are a few other processing methods to get a few different kinds of pepper (white and green) Green pepper comes from unripe fruit They are treated so that the retain their green color and then are dried White pepper comes from ripe fruit Once harvested, the skin and fruit is removed and the naked seed is dried Cinnamon: Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon); also C. zeylanicum ○ Cinnamomum aromaticum (Cassium) ○ Sasafras is in the same family ○ True (Ceylon) cinnamon is from Southeast Asia (Shri Lanka) ○ What we use is the stem ▪ Cinnamon comes from the inner bark of Ceylon trees Copissing is the name for the process of cutting lengths to harvest. The roots are left behind, because cinnamon can regenerate its stems The bark is carefully harvested, rolled up, and then dried. A quil is the standard length ○ Cinnamon is used in many different types of food as well as many kinds of products Nutmeg and Mace – Myristica fragrans ○ Two spices derived from the same plant. ○ Originally from the Spice Islands (Moluccas/Maluku Islands of Indonesia) ○ They have yellow fruits that look like apricots ▪ They split open to reveal aril Aril – the fleshy cover over a seed; often edible, it encourages animals to eat and thereby transport the seeds; birds spread them over the islands Bloodroot (Sanguinaria Canadensis) is a local plant that produces aril In pomegranates, the red part around the seed is aril Nutmeg is from the seeds – you grate/grind the seeds Mace is the aril. ○ Nutmeg trees are dioecious ▪ Dioecy is a characteristic of a species meaning that it has distinct female and male parts on individual organisms. Separate male and female trees Some plant species produce both reproductive parts on each individual. ○ Mace tastes like Nutmeg, but milder ○ Nutmeg contains a toxic chemical call myristicin ▪ It’s a hallucinogenic ▪ Nutmeg psychosis produces an unpleasant high with painful side effects It has a 12hour lag Side effects include convulsions, heart palpitations, nausea, and dehydration There’s no specific antidote ▪ In low doses, nutmeg is used medicinally for nausea, bloating, and diarrhea. Nutmeg oil is traditionally applied to the skin as a counterirritant to relieve aches and pains Cloves: Syzygium aromaticum ○ Comes from a type of evergreen tree ○ In the same family as eucalyptus ○ From Spice Islands originally ○ We use the flowers, specifically the flower buds ▪ Harvested by hand and dried out ▪ The commercial spice is obtained from the dried and unopened flower buds of the clove tree ○ The Portuguese were the first to get access to them ▪ The Dutch took over and kicked them out. The Dutch controlled all of the trade while they exploited and abused local natives Dutch East Indian Company ▪ In 17790 (200 years later), the French managed to smuggle seeds out and planted them in Tanzania ▪ Now cloves are widespread across the globe. ○ Clove oil is an anesthetic that’s used as a remedy for toothaches and sore teeth and gums Ginger: Zingiber officinale ○ From Southeast Asia ○ Grows in the shade ○ Evergreen and perennial plants ○ We harvest the base of the stem, the rhizome. ▪ Rhizome is the part of the stem that’s underground ○ Look like roots ○ Plant grows horizontally ○ One of the first spices of the “Orient” known to Europeans ○ It warms the stomach and aids digestion ○ Reduces nausea ○ It’s carminative ▪ It dispels gas from the intestinal tract ○ Characteristics of the Ginger family: ▪ Perennial ▪ Herbaceous (not woody) ▪ Aromatic ▪ Simple and alternating leaves ▪ Thick rhizomes ▪ Found all over the world ▪ Cardamom – Elletteria cardamomum (we use the seeds) ▪ Galangal – Alpinia officinarum ▪ Turmeric – Curcuma domestica Turmeric has antiinflammatory properties Curcumin is the primary component of turmeric Frankincense ○ Gum Resin from Frankincense trees is harvested ○ Harvested in the spring and fall; Autumn is the best ▪ If too much is taken, the trees will bleed to death. ○ White frankincense is the finest ▪ Frankincense quality depends on how high up on the tree it was taken from ○ Incense was very profitable in the past (BCE [BC]) ▪ Trade prospered for centuries ▪ Ancient Egyptians viewed frankincense the sweat of the Gods Spices from the Old World: ○ Cinnamon ○ Ginger ○ Cloves ○ Black pepper ○ Nutmeg/Mace New World Spices ○ Vanilla – Vanilla planifolia ▪ Orchid family It’s the only crop plant in the Orchid fam Orchid fam has over 18,000 different species member ▪ Vanilla is a tropical vine native to Central and South America ▪ Flavor comes from the fruit Vanilla “beans” each contain millions of tiny seeds The fruits look like green beans ▪ The Aztecs used vanilla as a flavoring for chocolate The Spanish introduced vanilla to the rest of Europe for the same purpose ▪ Vanillan – main flavor comes from this compound ▪ Getting the vanilla flavor requires 2 to 6 months of postharvest processing. Beans are put in the sun every day in order for them to sweat and grow vanilla crystals ▪ Vanilla needs to be pollinated by hand, otherwise there won’t be any seeds (or fruit) The flowers are extremely small ▪ A lot of vanilla is grown in Madagascar Madagascar is the main commercial producer 75% of vanilla product is used by ice cream and chocolate companies ▪ Vanilla Extract is made with vanilla beans It’s made by chopping the fermented beans and extracting vanillan with a waterethanol solution Artificial Vanilla is made from wood pulp, clove oil, or coal tar It’s not as good as the real thing ○ Allspice – Pimenta dioica ▪ Myrtle Family ▪ We use the dried fruit ▪ It’s kind of a combination of the flavors of cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg ▪ Evergreen trees, native to Central America and the West Indies ▪ The Mayans used its berries to embalm royalty ▪ It has good preservative qualities Sailors used it to preserve meat ▪ Eugenol is the dominant oil It’s also found in cloves and cinnamon ▪ Almost all horticultural development is in Jamaica, but it’s also collected from the wild in Guatemala ▪ It’s an important ingredient in Caribbean cuisine ○ Capsicum Peppers – Capsicum spp ▪ (Several different species are used) ▪ In the potato family Tomatoes are also in the potato fam ▪ C. annuum includes sweet peppers and many of the pungent varieties Most widely grown in temperate climates ▪ C. frutescens varieties are smaller and hotter They’re most widely grown in tropical climates The “burning heat” comes from a compound called Capsaicin Birds seem to not be affected by capsaicin, while most mammals find the burning sensation unpleasant Capsaicin triggers some of the same heatsensitive pain nerves as high temperatures, so it’s perceived to us as heat It’s an analgesic—a pain killer The placenta is the sterile tissues that the seeds grow on. It’s the pepper part ▪ The Scoville Heat Unit Scale is a super subjective evaluation of spiciness It’s an Organoleptic test It’s tested by using your sense ▪ Some commercial pepper products: Paprika – dried and powdered fruits of C. annuum Tabasco sauce – fruits of C. frutescens Ground pepper flakes – mixture of Capsicum species Chili powder – mix of dried red peppers, cumin, oregano, and garlic powder A few different ones: Lemon thyme; Rosemary; Mountain mint; Oregano; Lime basil; Parsley; Sage; Marjoram; Tulsi; Lamb’s ear; Spearmint; Lemon balm; Thai basil; Lavender; Japanese field mint; Savory; Fennell; Horseradish; Cat whiskers; Mace; Nutmeg; Cloves. The Mint Family – Lamiaceae ○ Vegetative Characteristics” ▪ Herbs & shrubs ▪ Square stems ▪ Opposite leaves (pairs) ▪ Aromatic oils ▪ Cosmopolitan – distributed all over the world, but most highly concentrated in the Mediterranean region ○ Reproductive Characteristics: ▪ The flowers have mostly the same look They often form in whorls around the stem(s) Circles around They’re bilaterally symmetrical (equal shapes on both sides) At the base, 3 petals make like a landing pad for pollinators Looks like a lip ▪ Fruit form 4 “nutlets” each ○ Essential Oils ▪ Responsible for aroma and taste ▪ Volatile – easily evaporated at normal temperatures ▪ Usually stored in special cells or little hairs (trichomes) on leaves ▪ Soluble in alcohol and fats—not so much in water ○ Menthol is present in most species of the mint genus ▪ It’s valued for its scent, taste, and healing properties ▪ Used in modern herbal medicine for stomach and intestinal discomfort as well as to relieve muscle pain and headaches ○ Main Family Members: ▪ Peppermint – Mentha Perennial Doesn’t require much water Mints tend to spread like crazy and can become weeds Peppermint oil has a lot of commercial applications Main chemical is menthol ▪ Rosemary Symbolizes remembrance Energizing Good with meats Evergreen ▪ Basil Annual plant – grown from seeds every year Many varieties Likes the sun Easy to grow Pesto: basil, olive oil, pine nuts, and parmesan cheese ▪ Oregano Has a more biting flavor ▪ Marjoram Has a milder flavor It’s in the same genus as oregano They’re closely related ▪ Sage – Salvia Salvia is Latin for life saving and healthy Popular medicinal plant in Europe Good with meat Several varieties ▪ Thyme Thymus vularis is one type Small leaves Grows in clumps and trails Many varieties, like English and chocolate Savory The Parsley Family Apiaceae ○ Carrots are in this fam ○ Vegetative Characteristics: ▪ Herbs ▪ Alternating leaves – often acts as a sheath ▪ Aromatic oils present ▪ Leaves are often dissected – divided in numerous sections ▪ Widely distributed, most diverse around the Mediterranean ○ Reproductive Characteristics: ▪ Flowers and fruits are inflorescenses In a flowering plant, groups or clusters of flowers grow on a branch or system of branches Each of the clusters of flowers come out from one point These points are called umbles – like umbrella ▪ Flowers are usually small and inconspicuous individually, but are often arranged in clusters ▪ Fruits produce two seeds with a little in the middle The seeds separate when the fruit is mature There are little canals in the fruit that contain oils Dry fruit composed of 2 oneseeded mericarps ○ Parsley/Carrot Family Members ▪ Cilantro and Coriander Cilantro is the leaves and stems of the plant Coriander is from the seeds The plant looks like parsley Has a lot of vitamins that improve health, like Vitamin A and Vitamin B ▪ Chervil Common in French cuisine Has a faint licorice flavor and a small, delicate taste ▪ Dill Leaves are used For fish and salad The seeds are important for pickling process Dill pickles ▪ Anise Contains Anaful/Anathol (?) giving it the strong licorice flavor and scent Ingredient in licorice Anise is used to make the alcohols Absinthe and Aguardiente ▪ Cumin The Mustard Family – Brassicaceae ○ Reproductive Characteristics: ▪ Flowers have 4 petals, arranged in a cross ▪ Fruit are a long or short pods Open along 2 sutures Capsule fruit type called sillqua (plural sillquae) ○ Members: ▪ All of these vegetables have been derived from one species, Brassica oleracea, by methodically selecting plants in cultivation that had the desired characteristics They are cultigens ▪ Grouped by parts of the plant Leaves: kale and collard greens Terminal buds – cabbage Terminal buds are located at the tip of the stem Axillary (lateral) buds – Brussel sprouts Axillary buds are located in the axil of a leaf Axil is the angle between the stem and the leaf –where the leaf connects to the stem Stem – kohlrabi Inflorescences – Broccoli and cauliflower Inflorescences here are the flower head of the plant Mustard comes from seeds – white, brown, and black Wasabi – Wasabia japonica ○ Grows along streams in Japan ○ A lot is grown in Oregon today ▪ Coastal Oregon has the perfect climate for wasabi plants ▪ They use greenhouses to mimic the streambeds wasabi plants like to grow in ○ Wasabi products are usually made out of horseradish, not actual wasabi ▪ For both wasabi and horseradish, we use the roots Antioxidants ○ You get them from lots of herbs, spices, and fruit ○ They counteract the effect of free radicals ▪ Free radicals are constantly produced in our bodies and they’re bad for you. They are destructive to other molecules and ultimately to our cells and tissues. Antioxidants neutralize them before they can do damage ▪ Free radicals are molecules that have one unpaired electron Lacking one electron makes free radicals very chemically reactive towards other molecules and substances; they’re unstable They steal electrons from all sorts of different molecules, including the ones that make up our tissues, cells, and the ones that make up our DNA. This cause oxidation to occur in those molecules, which results in the creation of even more free radicals by the hijacked cells ▪ Antioxidants contain one extra electron They donate their extra electrons to free radicals, stabilizing and keeping the free radical from destroying other molecules They don’t become unstable from free radicals when supplying electrons ▪ Free radicals cause cancer, inflammation, heart disease, autoimmune diseases, and over 90 other diseases; free radicals are a factor in aging. ▪ Vitamin C is an important antioxidant. ▪ Antioxidants can reverse damage Health Benefits of Plants with Dr. Ann ○ Plants are full of phytochemicals ▪ Boosts our immune system ▪ Antiinflammatory properties ▪ Antioxidant properties ○ They have a wide range of health benefits ○ Parsley Contains Vitamins A and C, calcium, ○ Rosemary ○ Cilantro ○ Oregano – has 40 times the amount of antioxidants that apples do ○ Dried herbs aren’t as potent as fresh herbs, but they’re still powerful and beneficial ▪ Fresh herbs have the best/most flavors and the highest concentration of antioxidants ○ Garlic – natural antibiotic; has antifungal and antiviral powers ○ Cinnamon – can boost metabolism; helps regulate cholesterol and glucose; it’s a sweet spice; it’s good for diabetics ○ Ginger – has antiinflammatory properties; ▪ Dry ginger is actually more potent and healthy ○ Turmeric ▪ Contains curcumin – most powerful antioxidant compound ▪ It has strong antiinflammatory Alzheimer’s causes chronic inflammation of the brain; turmeric is good at helping fight it ○ Peppers ▪ Eating spicy things triggers the release of endorphins, which makes you feel happy ▪ Pepper stimulate pain receptors in your mouth 1.) Pharmaceutical Medicines – prescription and overthecounter; potent; highly targeted; Specific compounds 2.) Herbal Medicine – overthecounter products; dietary supplements; natural compounds; less refined and less potent 3.) Traditional and Folk Medicine – often used in the context of alternative belief systems Pharmaceutical Drug Development ○ The cost of developing and bringing a new prescription drug to market is about $350 million to $5 Billion ○ Drug patents extend 20 years from the date of filing; effective life is generally 7 to 12 years ▪ You need a patent to begin clinical trials ○ While under trademark, the drug companies make a lot of money, which justifies spending so much money to develop the new drugs PlantDerived Prescription Drugs ○ Approximately 120 prescription drugs are derived from plants ▪ 95 different species of plants ○ 40% of prescriptions written in the US contain one or more plantderived active ingredients ▪ Plants provide raw materials, templates, and building blocks Characteristics of Medicinal Plants ○ Plants valued for their physiological, therapeutic, or psychoactive effects. ○ Occur in many different plant families ○ Not limited to any particular geographic areas or habitats ○ Active principles often involve secondary metabolites ▪ Ex: tannins, alkaloids, terpenes ▪ These compounds often play important ecological roles in nature Defense, pollinations, dispersal, etc.) ○ Can be weedy or rare, widespread or narrowly distributed ○ Some have a long history of cultivation; most others have never been domesticated ○ Many medicinal plants have been used in crude form for 1000s of years ▪ They’re still very important today as pharmaceutical medicines ○ Often their chemical components have been structurally modified to make them more potent, easier to administer, and less toxic Opium Poppy – Papaver somniferum ○ Poppy family ○ Annual plant; native to the Mediterranean ○ Immature fruit capsules are the source of opium, a latex containing 25 different alkaloids ○ Morphine and Codeine are powerful analgesics made from opium ▪ Analgesics are pain relievers ▪ Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine that’s made in labs ○ 5% of all opium produced goes towards making medicine ▪ The rest is illegal Alkaloids ○ Compounds consisting of rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms ○ They cause physiological reactions in animals ○ They’re usually slightly basic on the pH scale ○ They’re chemically diverse and many of them are synthesized in plant cells by amino acids ○ Most of them end with the suffix “ine” ▪ Ex: caffeine, strychnine, morphine Coca – Erythroxylum coca ○ Coca family ○ Perennial, evergreen shrub ○ Native to the eastern slopes of the Andes (Peru and Bolivia) ○ Chewing coca leaves helps endurance ○ Source of cocaine – an alkaloid with stimulant and anesthetic properties ○ The Incas used it to relieve fatigue, thirst, and hunger ○ Coca Cola used to have cocaine in it ○ The shrub has been introduced to Indonesia where it’s now widespread ○ Cocaine: ▪ Popularized in Europe by people like Sigmund Freud and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ▪ Highly addictive and with dangerous cardiovascular side effects ▪ Was once used as a local anesthetic in eye surgery and dentistry ▪ Of little medical use today because the synthetics Novocain and Xylocaine were developed They don’t have the stimulatory effects on the Central Nervous System that cocaine does ▪ In the human body, synapses in the brain communicate via neurotransmitters Cocaine is similar to the neurotransmitter Dopamine, which is the feel good and pleasure hormone Dopamine is taken up by dopamine reuptake emitters If dopamine stayed in between synapse, you’d always feel good. Cocaine makes you feel good by blocking those reuptake emitters This results in the loss of dopamine, because since there’s so much in the brain, less is produced. Addiction is caused by this Pleasure is dulled without the cocaine Willow – Salix spp. ○ Willow family ○ Shrubs or trees ○ Widespread in temperate climates/regions ○ Bark is the source of salicin, the compound that led to the development of aspirin. ○ In Ancient Greece, the roots were used for pain and gout ○ Native American’s used it for headaches ○ Today aspirin is the most widely used drug after alcohol and nicotine Glycosides ○ Each molecule consists of a sugar (often the simple 6 carbon glucose molecule) bonded to a nonsugar molecule ○ The nonsugar portion is variable and often toxic and/or medically valuable ○ Cyanogenic glycosides (ex: amygdalin) produce hydrocyanic acid (HCN) when glycoside breaks apart ▪ This results in cyanide poisoning (in seeds of almonds, plums, etc.) ○ Other glycosides are useful in treating heart disease Salicin ○ It’s a glycoside that breaks down into salicylic acid and simple sugar when ingested. th ○ Salicylic acid was widely used in the 19 century for pain relief and for reducing fever & inflammation ○ Unpleasant side effect includes nausea and stomach pain ○ The German Bayer Company introduced a derivative, acetylsalicylic acid in 1899 and named it aspirin. ○ White Willow, Meadowsweet, and Wintergreen Aspirin and Prostaglandins ○ Aspirin works by blocking an enzyme that’s involved in the production of hormones called prostaglandins ▪ These are the chemical mediators that bring about the inflammatory response by vasodilation. Vasodilation happens by making capillaries permeable and sensitizes nerves to pain This keeps you from feeling all of the pain NonSteroidal AntiInflammatory Drugs – NSAIDs ○ These, along with aspirin, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fevers ○ Ibuprofen (Motrin & Advil) is another
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