KINE 301 - Exam 1 - Study Guide - Dr. Gibson
KINE 301 - Exam 1 - Study Guide - Dr. Gibson KINE 301
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jay Ko on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KINE 301 at Rice University taught by Dr. Brian Gibson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Kinesiology at Rice University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 Chapter 1: • Levels of Organization • Deconstructionist view o Emergent properties are hard to understand § Humans – emotions, cognition, etc. § Emergent properties are hard to understand. • Maps o Process maps – created for an ease of learning § Used to describe a process/structure • Organ systems o Table 1.1 o Function of one system to another, communication § To obtain homeostasis § Ex. Water intake = pressure o Some have openings to the outside – reproductive, integumentary § Need a good defense system for this. • Pathology o Internal + external § To protect us. § Ex. Mucous or thick barrier • Needs to get rid of viruses, lint o Stomach acid, etc. • These of physiology o Structure determines function o Bioenergetics – put in energy so its not chaotic o Information flow – genes -> protein § How cells communicate: • Electrical signals • Chemical signals o Need compartmentalization o Homeostasis § Things do not stay the same – body temperature goes up and down, acidity § Compensation • Sweat, dilation of blood vessels, conduction, convection • Body’s Internal + external o Extracellular fluid § High Na+ and Cl-, low K+ o Intracellular fluid § High K+, low Cl-, Na+ • Control system – Input – integrating center – output – response • Reflex o Can be local or very far • Feedback o Response can turn input off o Negative feedback turns loop off KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 o Positive feedback stimulates response § Ex. Childbirth o Circadian rhythms Chapter 3: • Cell Junctions o Cell adhesion molecules or CAMS are essential for normal growth and development. o Communicating – gap junctions – connexin (membrane protein) o Occluding – prevent things from moving § Tight junctions • Protein: claudin and occluding o Anchoring § Cell-cell junctions • Adherns junction and desmosome o Cadherin o Actin and intermediate filaments § Cell matrix junctions • Focal adhesion and hemidesmosomes o Integrin § Actin and Keratin o Blisters occur when sheets of tissue separate. Pemphigus is a disease were cell’s proteins are attacked by own body (autoimmune) causing blistering and pain o Gap junctions § Lots and lots • Fast transmission o Tight junctions § Occluding junctions § Hold cells together to prevent movement o Desmosome § Anchoring junction • Tissues o Four primary § Epithelial § Connective § Nervous § Muscle o Extracellular Matrix § Extracellular material synthesized and secreted by cells § Many functions § Disease states related to overproduction or disruption § Two basic components • Proteoglycans • Insoluble protein fibers § Nerve and muscle tissues have very little extracellular matrix KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 § Connective tissues have a lot of matrix, and consistency varies a lot • Watery in blood or calcium phosphate in bone § Epithelial tissues have a basal lamina or basement membrane • Epithelial tissues o Histology – study of tissue structure and function o Histologists – describe the tissues by physical features o One cell thick – simple o Several cells thick – stratified o Flat cells are called squamous and others are columnar or cuboidal o Five categories § Exchange • Leaky epithelial have pores that allow the passage of molecules § Transporting • One cell thick • Control what goes in and out o Not as easy to transport § Ciliated • Covered one cilia on one side to move fluid across surface § Protective • Cells tightly connected by many desmosomes § Secretory • Protein secreting cells • Endocrine and exocrine o Epithelial cells attached to the basal lamina through cell adhesions § Basal lamina – thin matrix later of collagen and laminin filaments embedded in proteoglycans • Types of Epithelia o Exchange § Thin, flat cells of exchange epithelium allow movement through and between the cells • Capillaries o Protective § Many stacked layers of cells constant being replaced – skin o Ciliated Epithelium § Beating cilia create fluid current that sweep across the epithelial surface o Secretory Epithelium § Secretory epithelial cells make and release a product. § Exocrine secretions such as mucous are secreted outside the body • Glands o Watery or sticky secretions § Endocrine secretions are hormones and released in the blood o Transporting Epithelium § Move substances between lumen and ECF KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 § Tight junctions in a transporting epithelium prevent movement between adjacent cells. § Substances must instead pass through the epithelial cells, crossing two phospholipid cell membranes as they do so. • Connective tissue o Extensive extracellular matrix referred to as ground substance o Cells often have suffix § Blast – young/growing • Fibroblast § Clast – older/removing • Osteoclast o Break bone down to release calcium § Cyte – mature/inactive • Osteocyte o Protein fibers § Fibronectin § Fibrillin § Elastin § Collagen o Types of connective tissue § Loose § Dense § Adipose Blood § Cartilage § Bone o Loose § Very flexible with multiple cell types and fibers § Fibroblasts are cells that secrete matrix proteins o Bone and cartilage § Hard bones forms when osteoblasts deposit calcium phosphate crystals in the matrix. § Cartilage has firm but flexible matrix secreted by cells called chondrocytes. o Dense regular connective tissue § Collagen fibers of tendon are densely packed into parallel bundles o Blood § Blood consists of liquid matrix plus red and white blood cells and cell fragments called platelets o Adipose tissue § In white fat, cell cytoplasm is almost entirely filled with lipid droplets § Brown fat exists in infants to regulate temperature • Layers of the skin o Sensory receptors (nerve) o Hypodermis contains adipose tissue for insulation (connective) KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 o Sebaceous glands are exocrine glands that secrete a lipid mixture o Arrector pili muscles pull hair follicles into a vertical position when the muscle contracts, creating goose bumps (muscle) o Epidermis § The skin surface is a mat of linked keratin fivers left behind when old epithelial cells die § Melanocytes contain the pigment melanin • Characteristics of the Four Tissue Types o Why is cartilage so slow to repair? § Not a lot of blood flow • No oxygen o New alternatives § Take a sample, regrow in a lab, and implant it • Cell Death and Replacement o Necrosis § Trauma, toxins, lack of oxygen o Apoptosis § Normal cell replacement § Programed cell death • Breaks down into blebs and then engulfed cleanly o Skin between fingers and toes o Intestinal lumen cells o Stem cells § Role in cell replacement; research uses potential § Totipotent – can become anything § Pluripotent – 4 days into developing starting to narrow choices § Plasticity – ability to specialize into a cell of a different type from originally destined. Chapter 4: • Properties of Living Organisms o Emerging properties are ones that cannot be predicted o Table properties § See table 4.1 • Energy transfer in the environment o We take in 2000 calories in the day § Burn off the rest but some stores as fat and most goes in as protein • The relationships between kinetic and potential energy o Kinetic energy – the energy of movement § Motor protein § Moving something back and forth between a membrane § Muscle movement o Potential energy – stored energy § Concentration gradients • Cell membrane and on one side, lots of sodium and the other side doesn’t KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 o Utilizing this concentration gradient to do something o How much energy do you have to put in to keep sodium there? • ATPases move these things o Chemical bonds § Every split bond is energy released • Chemical reactions o Combination reaction = A+B à C o Decomposition = C à A+B o Single displacement o Double displacement • Activation energy and exergonic/endergonic reactions o Activation energy § Push needed to start a reaction o Exergonic reactions release energy because the products have less energy than the reactants § Large net free energy change o Endergonic reactions trap some activation energy in the products, which then have more free energy than the reactants • Energy transfer and storage in biological reactions o When energy is released, released as high energy electrons captured by NADPH, NADH, FADH2 o A lot of energy released is lost as heat energy • Some reactions have large activation energies o To lower the activation energy § Use enzymes § Need control • Diagnostically Important Enzymes o Specific increased levels of enzymes can lead to diseases • Effect of pH on enzyme activity o Most enzymes in humans have optimal activity near the body’s internal pH of 7.4 • Enzymes lower the activation energy of reactions • Classification of Enzymatic Reactions • Metabolic pathways resembles a road map o Metabolism – any reaction in the human body o Anabolism – Building things up o Catabolism – Breaking things down • Feedback Inhibition o When we finally accomplish a goal and have enough of whatever we’re producing, it will be shut off. • The Reversibility of Metabolic Reactions is controlled by enzymes o Some reversible reactions use one enzyme for both directions § Carbonic acid • Increasing CO2 will decrease carbonic anhydrase KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 • Increasing H2O will increase carbonic anhydrase o Reversible reactions requiring two enzymes allow more control over the reaction o Irreversible reactions lack the enzyme for the reverse direction • ATP Production o Aerobic Metabolism of Glucose § Glucose + O2 + ADP + Pi à CO2 + H2O + ATP § Glucose + 6O2 (30-32 ADP + Pi à 30-32ATP) à 6CO2 + 6H2O § Advantages • Fast • Anaerobic § Disadvantages • Low energy yield • Lactic acid § Occurs in the cell’s cytosol o Krebs § Aerobic § Occurs in the mitochondria § Dependent on the number of mitochondria o Glycolysis – FOR REAL § Key regulator enzyme • Phosphofructokinase o PFK § 6 carbon glucose become 2, 3 carbon pyruvates § 9 or 10 steps § First half of this process consumes energy § Get 2 ATP at a fast rate without oxygen § Glucose goes into the cell and cannot leave the cell when a phosphate attaches to it • Add an ATP do start the process – a primer step § All turns into 2 Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate • This turns into 2 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate o NADH is produced – electron carrier § Worth about 2.5 or 4 ATP each § 2 Pyruvate is produced at the end of glycolysis o Pyruvate, Acetyl CoA, and the Citric Acid Cycle § If the cell has adequate oxygen, pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria § Pyruvate reacts with coenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA, one NADH, and one CO2 § Acetyl CoA has two parts: a carbon acyl unit, derived from pyruvate, and coenzyme A § Coenzyme A is made from the vitamin pantothenic acid. Coenzymes like enzymes are not changed during reactions and can be reused KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 § 2-Carbon acyl unit enters the cycle by combining with a 4-carbon oxaloacetate molecule § The 6-carbon citrate molecule goes through a series of reactions until it completes the cycle as another oxaloacetate molecule. § Two carbons are removed in the form of CO2. § Most of the energy released is captured as high-energy electrons on three NADH and one FADH2. Some energy goes into the high- energy phosphate bond of one ATP. The remaining energy is given off as heat. • Electron Transport System o Electrons moved from citric acid cycle. o Pumped H+ ions in the intermembrane space. o Hydrogen ions will lead back to the ATP synthase o Produces water and gains ATP o Some hydrogen that comes into the ETS can leak back into the matrix and lose a little bit of the 3-2 relationship. • Summary o Does not yield exactly 2 or 3 ATP as originally described in texts due to hydrogen leaks. o Cytoplasmic NADH sometimes yields only 1.5ATP/NADH instead of 2.5ATP/NADH o Aerobic metabolism § 0 NADH and 2 ATP o Aerobic § 6 H2O § 30-32 ATP § 6CO2 • Pyruvate is the branch point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of glucose o But what happens when oxygen supply cannot keep pace with ATP demand, such as often as if happens during strenuous exercise § It will get backed up o Does this depend completely and only on the levels of available oxygen within the cell? Why or why not? • The genetic code as it appears in the codons of mRNA o 20 amino acids can make over a million types of proteins o Proteins are key to cell function o One amino acid change like in sickle cell anemia will deform a red blood cell § Hemoglobin protein will change § Changes shape of the cell into a sickle and not a biconcave disk • Overview of protein synthesis o Gene activation § Transcribed and rewritten § Genes continuously transcribe to mRNA o mRNA processing KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 § Alternative splicing § Interference • mRNA can be silenced this way § Creation of isozymes is probably explained by alternative spicing § Happens in the nucleus o Translation § rRNA in ribosomes § tRNA § Amino acids • These three used to create the protein o Post transitional modification § Fold and cross links § Cleave protein into smaller parts or peptides § Addition of • Sugars • Lipids • -CH3 • Phosphate § Assembly into polymeric proteins o Overview of transcription § RNA binds to DNA § Section of DNA that contains the gene unwinds § RNA bases bind to DNA creating a single strand of mRNA § mRNA and RNA polymerase detach from the DNA and the mRNA goes to the cytosol after processing o mRNA processing § Introns removed and exons kept § More than one protein can be created if exons are split up o Overview of translation § Transcription § mRNA processing § Attachment of ribosomal subunits § Translation § Termination • Disease States o Sickle Cell Anemia § One substitution valine for glutamate § Negative effect on protein and cell § Functional consequences to organism o Tay Sachs Disease § Hexosaminidase A • These enzymes are supposed to be breaking things apart • Too low of a level or there but not acting properly § Which enzyme from which storage vesicle? § Normal activity of the enzyme? § Negative effects of malfunctioning enzymes? KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 § Function consequence to organism? Chapter 5: • Body fluid components o 70kg man is the model/standard o Intracellular fluid/extracellular fluid § Intra is much larger in water o Intracellular fluid has much more potassium o Water can follow protein and cause swelling • Water content differs between age, gender • Osmosis and osmotic pressure o Osmolarity is the number of particles in the solution, no molecules, that differs from molarity. • Comparing osmolarity o Osmolarity is the concentration of osmotically active particles o Osmolality is per kilogram or weight o When talking about a human body – aqueous solutions and the human body is so dilute that a liter of solution is about a kilogram. o Ex. § Solution A is 1 OsM Glucose and B is 2 OsM glucose. § A is hyposmotic to B § B is hyperosmotic to A o Ex. § Solution A is hypotonic when cell swells. § Solution C is hypertonic when cell shrinks • Penetrating and Nonpentrating o NaCL is the most important non penetrating • Intravenous solutions o Tonicity is usually never hypertonic. o Don’t want cells to shrink. • Map of membrane transport o Molecular motion without the use of ATP § Diffusion – simple and facilitated o Requires energy § Endocytosis § Exocytosis § Phagocytosis § Primary active transport • Can set up second concentration gradient for secondary active transport. • Properties of diffusion o Diffusion of kinetic energy does not require an outside energy source. o Molecules diffuse from higher to lower amount of concentration o Diffusion continues until concentrations come to equilibrium o Diffusion is faster if § Along higher concentration gradients KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 § Shorter distances § Higher temperature § Smaller molecules o Diffusion is faster across a membrane if § Membrane surface area is larger § Thinner § More permeable § Concentration gradient is larger • Fick’s Law o Rate of diffusion = surface area x concentration gradient x membrane permeability • Membrane receptor proteins bind extracellular ligands o Ligands bind to a cell membrane receptor o Receptor-ligand complex triggers intracellular response o Triggers events in the cell • Membrane transporters o Channel proteins move tens of millions of ions per second. § Gated open and close depending on signals § Open – always open o Carrier proteins § Move 1000 to 1,000,000 molecules per second § Never form an open channel between the two sides of the membrane § Uniport § Symport § Antiport • Structure of channel proteins o Many channels are made of multiple proteins subunits that assemble in the membrane • Facilitated diffusion by means of a carrier protein • Facilitated diffusion of glucose o Facilitated diffusion brings glucose into the cell down its concentration gradient o Diffusion reaches equilibrium when the glucose concentrations inside and outside the cell are equal. o Conversion of imported glucose into glucose 6-phosphate G6P keeps intracellular glucose concentrations low so that diffusion never reaches equilibrium. • Primary active transporters o Na+ Ka+ ATPase = antiport o Ca2+ ATPase = uniport o H+ ATPase or proton pump o H+ K+ ATPase • Mechanism of the Na+ K+ ATPase • Examples of Secondary Active Transport o Many things do get moved through secondary active transport. KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 o SGLT is one of importance § Sodium glucose transporter § Relevant for normal homeostasis • Mechanism of SGLT o In the intestine or in the kidney o Glucose in the lumen is low and the NA+ is low in the protein o Sodium binds to the site and creates a high affinity site for glucose to bind. § Glucose needs to go against its concentration gradient • GLUT Family specificity o GLUT 1 – most cells o GLUT 2 – liver, kidney, intestine o GLUT 3 – Neurons o GLUT 4 – Insulin regulated in skeletal muscle o GLUT 5 – Intestine, fructose • Maltose o Maltose is a competitive inhibitor that binds to the GLUT transporter but is not itself carried across the membrane • Transport maximum o All of the carriers can be saturated and will reach a transport maximum o Need to create more transporters – DNA to RNA to AAs § But takes too long • Phagocytosis • Endocytosis o Not a bacterium or large molecule o Ligand binds to a receptor § Will migrate to a clathrin coated pit • This area will pinch in • Pulls both ligand and receptor into the vesicle. • Polarized cells of transporting epithelia o Different on one face than they are on the basal lateral side • Transepithelial transport of glucose o Blocked with Oubain – poison § GLU movement stops • Transcytosis across the capillary endothelium • Separation of electrical charge: the membrane potential difference o In the laboratory, a cell’s membrane potential is measured by placing one electrode inside the cell and the other in an extracellular bath o The voltmeter measures the difference in electrical charge between the inside of a cell and the surrounding solution. This value is the membrane potential difference or m . o Cells are more negative inside than outside § Due to Ca, N, K, Cl § 3 + 2 pump sodium potassium. • 3 positive move out and 2 positive move in • Resting membrane potential in an actual cell o Why is resting membrane potential due mostly to potassium K+? KINE 301 – Midterm Study Guide – Exam covers Chapter 1, 3, 4, 5 o Potassium is more permeable than the others • Membrane potential terminology o Moving toward 0 mV means you is depolarizing. o When mV increases, it is called repolarization. § Hyperpolarization can occur • Insulin secretion and membrane transport processes o Beta cell at rest § The KATP channel is open and the cell is at its resting membrane potential § When potassium channel is open, K+ is leaking out of the cell • Normal resting state § Voltage gated Ca2+ channel is closed o Beta cell secretes insulin § Closure of KATP channel and depolarizes the cell triggering exocytosis of insulin • Cystic Fibrosis o What is cystic fibrosis? o What is the mechanistic cause? § CFTR channel • Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator o Supposed to be able to move chloride ions § Cilia get stuck and mucous gets stuck there § Symptoms • Thickening of mucous in the respiratory system, airway mucous • Sweat is very concentrated with sodium • Can’t absorb nutrients – pancreatic issue o Which tissues does it affect and how?
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