MCB 150 - Exam 1 Study Guide
MCB 150 - Exam 1 Study Guide MCB 150
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiffany_C on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCB 150 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Bradley G Mehrtens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Biology in Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
MCB 150 – Exam 1 Study Guide By Tiffany Chu Chapter 1 (Freeman p.1) The Five Fundamental Characteristics of Life 1. Cells (basic unit of life) 2. Evolution (change of population characteristics) 3. Energy (Metabolism, photosynthesis) 4. Replication (Reproduction) 5. Information (DNA, and maintaining homoeostasis) 1. Cells 1858 – Ruloph Virchow’s cell theory (p.3) – all organisms are comprised of cells, all cells come from cells. This theory defied the then prevailing idea of spontaneous generation – organisms can arise spontaneously - Spontaneous generation was proven false by Louis Pasteur’s broth Understand why Pasteur’s experiment when no cells were observed in the sterilized flask (p.4) experimental set-up was effective. Control group§ experimental group 2. Evolution (p.5) § hypothesis § null hypothesis § 1859 – publication of The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin Evolution – the change in characteristics of a population: same species individuals living in the same area at the same time Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is a based on two key components - Species are related by a common ancestor, as opposed to each species being created separately (creationism) - Descent with modification – where characteristics of a species are changed from generation to generation Natural selection drives evolutionary change, and occurs when Remember! Natural selection - Heritable traits vary among individuals affects the individual, and evolution - Those heritable traits make certain individuals more fit – able to is about the wholepopulation. survive and reproduce, pass on genes Speciation occurs when natural selection causes a species to diverge and form a new species. A method of tracing the phylogeny – genealogic relationship of species is by analyzing RNA. The more similar RNA sequence, the more recent the common ancestor. RNA is effective in tracing phylogeny because it is A phylogeny tree is a visual representation of the relationships among species. Notice on p.7 that the Domain Archaea is more - Found in all organisms closely related to the Domain Eukarya than Domain Bacteria - Changes with evolution, but retains the same function in all species - Essential to cell growth and reproduction Taxonomy names and classifies organisms. In order from most broad to most specific is: Life, Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order Family, Genus, Species Genus and species make up the organism’s scientific name. Humans are Homo Sapiens. Take a look at p.9-13 for examples of experimental design and hypothesis testing involving giraffe neck length (different from what you might’ve learned before, it’s interesting) and ant navigation. Part I (Freeman): Ch 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, 7.1-2, 8.1-4, 21.2, and Part II (Becker): Ch 3.1, 3.3, 4, 6 (p.129-138) and 7 MCB 150 – Exam 1 Study Guide By Tiffany Chu Chapter 2 (Freeman p.18) The theory of chemical evolution - over time and with energy, carbon based molecules became more and more complex until the five characteristics of life were met Review! What are the 5 characteristics of life? Two possibilities of chemical evolution (p.35) 1. Prebiotic soup model – gases in the atmosphere accumulated in the oceans – Miller-Urey Experiment 2. Surface metabolism model – dissolved gases and minerals by deep-sea vents reacted Early earth atmosphere contained gases from volcanoes including water vapor, carbon Note the absence of oxygen. dioxide, and nitrogen. Small amounts of hydrogen and carbon monoxide as well. - Energy came in the form of high-energy photons from sunlight (Ozone was not present to block the energy) - Photons knocked electrons away from H and 2O , brea2ing them apart into highly reactive free radicals - more complex molecules such as formaldehyde (CH O) were made 2 ???????? ▯ (▯)+ 2 ???? ▯(▯) + ????????????????????????ℎ???? → ???????? ???? ▯ (▯)+ ???? ????▯ (▯) The Miller-Urey Experiment used methane, ammonia and hydrogen to simulate early earth conditions and was able to form complex molecules such as formaldehyde (CH O), Hy2rogen cyanide (HCN) and amino acids Deep-sea hydrothermal vents had heat, carbon dioxide, and reactive minerals such as copper and nickel The surface metabolism model concentrates reactants near the reactive minerals of thermal vents - a problem with the prebiotic soup model is the dilution of gases in the vast oceans, the surface metabolism model overcomes this by concentrating reactants on vent-walls - vent-minerals act as a catalyst, stimulating the formation of acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen 2???????? ▯(▯▯) + 4???? ▯(▯▯) → ???????? ????▯???????? (▯▯) + 2 ???? ▯ (▯) Functional Groups (are important!) Please reference page 27 for a full chart of structure and function. Amino group (NH ) –2acts as a base Carboxyl group (COOH) – acts as an acid (carboxylic acid) Carbonyl (C=O) – aldehydes have a carbonyl group on the end, while ketones have carbonyl in the middle Hydroxyl (OH) – alcohols, is highly polar Phosphate – multiple bonded together store large amounts of energy (think ATP) Sulfhydryl (SH) - can form covalent disulfide bridges in proteins Part I (Freeman): Ch 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, 7.1-2, 8.1-4, 21.2, aPart II (Becker): Ch 3.1, 3.3, 4, 6 (p.129-138) and 7 MCB 150 – Exam 1 Study Guide By Tiffany Chu Basic chemical principles (p.19-32) – (basically a lot of terms and definitions, be sure to know them though!) § proton (+) § electron (-) § neutron ( ) § valance electron § covalent bond § ionic bond § molecular formula § structural formula § Electronegativity – the tendency for an atom to attract electrons, Fluorine is the most electronegative element Know the following relative electronegativities: O > N > C ~ H. There is little difference between the electronegativity of C and H. They form non-polar covalent bonds. ex. Lipid hydrocarbon tails H and O, however have very different electronegativity. They form polar covalent bonds. ex. Water (H O)2 - The polarity of water molecules is fundamental to the many unique properties of water § hydrogen bonds § cohesion § adhesion § surface tension § high specific heat § high heat of vaporization § ice floats § - The O has a partial negative charge from electrons being more attracted to it due to greater electronegativity, while the two H atoms have a partial positive charge. - Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds formed by the attraction of the partial negative O to the partial positive H of another water molecule Reactions involved in chemical evolution probably occurred in water Water is able to dissolve many substances due to its polar nature and bent structure, it is an excellent solvent The solutes dissolved in water readily interact Hydrophilic molecules are able to dissolve in water; they are polar or charged ions Hydrophobic molecules do not dissolve in water; they are non-polar + Acids – release protons (H+), increases hydronium ion concentration (H O ), pH 3 7 Bases – take up hydronium ions, pH > 7 pH – a logarithmic sca+e to express concentration of protons in solution pH = -log[H ] Buffers help maintain a relatively constant pH Protons (H ), do not exist by themselves. Rather, they are bon+ed with water to form An endothermic reaction absorbs heat a hydronium ion (H3O ) An exothermic reaction releases heat Energy is used to do work § Potential energy § kinetic energy § chemical energy (stored in chemical bonds) § thermal energy § heat (transfer of thermal energy) § First Law of Thermodynamics – conservation of energy, neither destroyed nor created Spontaneous reactions occur with no continuous input of energy - Products are more disorderly then reactants, entropy (disorder) increases - Products have lower potential energy Second Law of Thermodynamics – entropy of the universe is always increasing Part I (Freeman): Ch 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, 7.1-2, 8.1-4, 21.2, and 2Part II (Becker): Ch 3.1, 3.3, 4, 6 (p.129-138) and 7 MCB 150 – Exam 1 Study Guide By Tiffany Chu Chapter 3 Section 1 (Freeman p.41) Protein Structure and Function Amino acids – are the building blocks of protein All amino acids have A central carbon (???? ????????????????????????) Covalently bonded to the alpha-carbon is 1. H – a hydrogen atom 2. NH – an amino group 2 3. COOH – an carboxyl group 4. An “R” group or “side-chain” – 20 types that define the specific amino acid At pH 7, the amino group acts as a base to form NH , the3carboxyl group acts as an acid, releasing a proton (H ) to become COO - Know how to categorize an amino acid by the structure of On page 43 is a chart of the 20 amino acids organized by charge and polarity. its R group. - A negative charge indicates that a proton was lost, the R-group is acidic - A positive charge indicates that a proton was gained, the R-group is basic - An oxygen atom my form a polar-covalent bond, the R-group is polar - The absence of charge and polar-covalent bonds indicates the R-group is non-polar Monomers come together to form polymers in a process called polymerization (p. 45) A protein is a macromolecule made up of amino acid monomers. Condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis takes out a water molecule to form a new bond, it is the reaction behind polymerization Specifically, the bond formed between two amino acids by dehydration synthesis is a peptide bond. A chain of amino acids can be called a polypeptide chain. In an amino acid chain, the end with the amino group is call the N-terminus or amino-terminus, and the end with the carboxyl group is called the C-terminus or carboxyl-terminus Part I (Freeman): Ch 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, 7.1-2, 8.1-4, 21.2, andPart II (Becker): Ch 3.1, 3.3, 4, 6 (p.129-138) and 7 MCB 150 – Exam 1 Study Guide By Tiffany Chu Chapter 5 (Freeman p.72) Carbohydrates or sugars is important in the Energy aspect of life - The molecular formula for carbohydrates is (CH O) 2 n Types of carbohydrates include monosaccharides (“one-sugar”), oligosaccharides (“few-sugars”), and polysaccharides (“many-sugars”) Examples of monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, mannose Monosaccharides can come together in a dehydration synthesis reaction to form a disaccharide, the covalent bond formed is a glyosidic linkage Examples of disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose The ending –ose indicates a sugar - An aldehyde sugar (aldose) contains a carbonyl (C=O) group at the end of the carbon chain - A ketone sugar (ketose) contains a carbonyl group in the middle of the carbon chain - A three-carbon sugar is a triose, five-carbon is pentose, and six-carbon is hexose Simple sugars are defined by 1. The location of the carbonyl (C=O) group 2. The number of carbon atoms 3. Arrangement of atoms, position of hydroxyl (-OH) groups Carbons are numbered in order from the end closest to the carbonyl group. Simple sugars form ring structures in aqueous solution (p. 74) - Glucose has two configurations as a ring: α-glucose or ß-glucose. α- glucose has the hydrogen atom on the first carbon above the ring ß – glucose has the hydrogen atom on the first carbon below the ring The α or ß of the bond is determined by the monomer to the left, and the numbers refer to the carbons (p.75) - Maltose is formed when two alpha-glucose molecules come together and form an α-1,4, glycosidic linkage - Lactose is formed when a ß-galactose and ß-glucose come together and form a ß- 1,4, glycosidic linkage Starch – in plants – storage polysaccharide (p.77) - Starch is completely made up of α- glucose monomers and has a helical structure - Amylose is an unbranched starch with α- 1,4, glycosidic linkages - Amylopectin is a branched starch with α- 1,4 but also α- 1,6 at the branching points (every 30 monomers) Glycogen – in animals – storage polysaccharide - Similar to amylopectin, with α- 1,4 and α- 1,6 at branch points, but more often, about every 10 monomers Cellulose – in plants – structural polysaccharide - Major component of the cell wall, comprised of ß-glucose monomers with ß-1,4, glycosidic linkages - Each glucose monomer is flipped allowing for linear chains and for hydrogen bonding to bind together multiple chains to form strong strands Chitin – in fungi and animals – structural polysaccharide - Cell wall of fungi, exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans (crab, lobster, shrimp, krill…) - Similar to cellulose in all ways but monomer, which is N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) bonded by ß-1,4 Peptidoglycan – in bacteria – structural polysaccharide Part I (Freeman): Ch 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, 7.1-2, 8.1-4, 21.2, and Part II (Becker): Ch 3.1, 3.3, 4, 6 (p.129-138) and 7 MCB 150 – Exam 1 Study Guide By Tiffany Chu - Cell wall of bacteria, two types of monomers bonded by ß-1,4, with amino acids bonding parallel strands While most organisms can break the α- 1,4 glycosidic linkages of starch (with the enzyme The ending -ase amylase) and glucose (with the enzyme phosphorylase), few can hydrolyze the ß-1,4 indicates an enzyme. linkage in cellulose, chitin and peptidoglycan. Glycoproteins (sugar + protein) can “tag” a cell’s specific identity on the plasma membrane surface due to carbohydrate’s ability to have many unique combinations of monomers and bonds. (p.79) Carbohydrates store energy as seen by photosynthesis ???????? + ???? ???? + ????????????????????????ℎ???? → (???????? ????) + ???? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ C-C and C-H bonds have higher potential energies because the electrons are shared evenly as opposed to a O-H bond where electrons are closer to the O atom. This means carbohydrates contain more chemical energy than carbon dioxide. When sugars are broken down, the released energy is stored in the form of ATP (adenosine triphospate), within the bonds between the phosphate groups Part I (Freeman): Ch 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, 7.1-2, 8.1-4, 21.2, anPart II (Becker): Ch 3.1, 3.3, 4, 6 (p.129-138) and 7 MCB 150 – Exam 1 Study Guide By Tiffany Chu Chapter 7 (Freeman p. 106) Components common to all cells are 1. Nucleic acids to store information 2. Proteins for cell function 3. Carbohydrates for energy storage, structure, carbon and identification 4. Plasma membrane this is selectively permeable Cells are divided into prokaryotic and eukaryotic based on morphology or structure Of the three domains, bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic while eukarya are eukaryotic Most prokaryotic cells have a single circular chromosome containing DNA which contains genes. The chromosome resides in the nucleoid region of the cell (NOT separated by any membrane) …Chapter 7 is optional please read on your own Chapter 21 Section 2 (Freeman p. 393) Characteristics unique to prokaryotic genomes - Very compact, little space between genes, few regulatory sequences There is a linear relationship between number of genes and genome length, this is not the case in eukaryotes (p. 394) - Most genes of a species are unique to that species. Only genes for DNA replication, transcription, translation are similar in a range of prokaryotic species - Even closely related species have few similarities in gene order due to rearrangement during evolution - Lateral gene transfer – movement of DNA between species, is common among prokaryotes This can be done by transformation – picking up pieces of DNA from the environment Viruses can also pick up and pass DNA from one bacteria to another Metagenomics /environmental sequencing catalogs all genes present in a community of bacteria and archaea Chapter 29 Section 1 (Freeman p. 529) There is a neat chart on page 529 comparing the three domain of life, take a look Part I (Freeman): Ch 1, 2, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, 7.1-2, 8.1-4, 21.2, andPart II (Becker): Ch 3.1, 3.3, 4, 6 (p.129-138) and 7
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