Natural World I: Exam I Study Guide
Natural World I: Exam I Study Guide Natural World I
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Frazier on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Natural World I at Baylor University taught by Sharon Conry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Natural World I in Science at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 09/11/16
NW Exam I, Fall 2016 The exam will have 45 multiple choice questions and one essay question. The essay question WILL COME FROM THE LIST BELOW. Information on the exam will come from : lecture power points, assigned readings, discussion in class, and previous quizzes (none from the Language of God readings). THIS IS NOT ANALL INCLUSIVE LIST OF POTENTIAL MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS, BUTASTARTING POINT. Geology/Physics review information: ➢ Bring a pencil and a calculator to class. In all likelihood any calculations that are required of you can be done without one, but in case you feel you need one, bring one with you. You may not use your cell phone calculator. ➢ While I am giving you a study guide for the exam, keep in mind everything we covered in class and in your book is fair game for the exam. Read assigned readings, review the power points, your notes, and previous quizzes. ➢ If you study all the essay questions, you will have a good grasp on most of the multiple choice questions as well. Essay Preparation 1. Read the question carefully. Determine the information needed to answer the question. Make sure you satisfy the requirements of the question but do not add unnecessary information. If I ask you to list three items (for example), don’t include more…I will only accept and grade the first three on your list. 2. Organize your thoughts before writing. Make an outline in the margin (or on back of exam) to make sure you cover all points you want to make in your answer. 3. Use complete sentences. 4. Write legibly. If your writing is large, make sure to down size your writing so your answer fits into the space provided. If your writing is small, make sure it is large enough for ME to read. 5. Use only the space provided to answer the question; no need to write on the back of the page as I will not grade it! ▯1 A NNA FRAZIER Potential Essay Questions 1. A) Explain what the plate tectonic model is and how it works. B) Discuss the key evidence (past and present) that validates the model, and C) describe the real world significance of the model on physical/ geological processes found today on earth. A) Plate Tectonic Model • Hot magma wells up at the mid-ocean ridges from gravity and convection, forming new ocean crust and shoving the plates apart (rifting leads to seafloor spreading). • At subduction zones, two tectonic plates meet and the less dense plate slides beneath the other back into the mantle (the layer underneath the crust) creating a trench and volcanic island chains. The cold, sinking plate pulls the crust behind it downward. • In the beginning of time, when Pangea existed (all the continents were connected), the continent-to- continent plates collided, forming mountains. • The distribution of volcanoes arises from the ocean-continent plate collision, where a more dense ocean plate collides with a less dense continental plate, forming volcanoes. (When the ocean plate subducts, there is partial melting of it as it slides back into the mantle, bubbling up through the less dense but thicker continental crust, pushing the crust up and erupting through the volcano). • Earthquake development occurs when rocks slip along transform fault boundaries, the boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other. B) Validating Evidence • WWII technology leads to new look at ocean floor. • Magnetic anomalies (stripes) • Sea floor spread •Association of earthquakes and volcanism •Mid-ocean ridges C) Real-world significance • Earthquakes — SanAndreas • Continent-Continent Plates — The Himalayas Ocean-Continent Plates —Andes Mountains, SouthAmerica • ▯2 A NNA FRAZIER 2. Explain the rock cycle in detail. Name the different rock types and how they are interrelated. Give examples where appropriate for each rock type. What are minerals? A) Mineral • naturally occurring (not synthetic) • generally inorganic • solid • has a characteristic chemical composition • highly ordered atomic structure B) Rock types • Igneous rock — forms by solidification of melted minerals • Metamorphic rock — Rocks metamorphose when they are in a place that is very hot and pressure is high • Sedimentary rock — The forces of wind, rain, snow, and ice combine to break down or dissolve (weather), and carry away (transport) rocks exposed at the surface. **Any rock exposed to the elements can become sedimentary rock** 3. Choose one of the convergent margin models (ocean-ocean, continent-continent, ocean-continent) and explain the process occurring in that model. Be sure to explain the tectonic activity fully and describe the important formations associated with the model. A) Ocean-continent • In an ocean-continent collision, the more dense ocean plate slides under the less dense continental plate, melting the oceanic plate partially the plate slides back into the mantle, creating a rise of magma through the continental plate. The combination of the rising magma and the plates converging pushes the crust up, forming volcanic island arcs along the shore. 4. Explain the convective cycle in detail. What physical processes here on the planet can be attributed to the cycle? What areas or our planet experience convection? A) Convection cycle • The earth’s crust is cool, but the inside is radioactive and releases heat to the mantle surrounding it. The nuclear core also causes the magnetic field. The thin crust is too far from the center to feel the heat, but acts as an insulator, keeping internal heat inside the earth. The core’s radioactive energy causes the lower mantle to get hot, less dense, and rise. The plastic basalt rock rises, cools, and becomes more dense, then falls. This is a convection current in the mantle. ▯3 A NNA FRAZIER B) Local processes showing convection • Sea floor spreading, which leads to plate movement, which leads to trenches and the creation of volcanoes. • Magnetic strips on the ocean floor C) Where does convection occur on earth? • Under the ocean floor, causing sea floor spreading. • In the mantle 5. Explain how the process of science has developed and changed since the early scientists and philosophers. Cite specific individuals as well as events that contributed to the development. A) Early scientists Questioning of popular belief • • Authority questioned • Nothing believed until proven • Strength of the renaissance came from the motion of the heavens • Aristotle — geocentric universe, circular orbits B) ScientificAwakening — • merging science, math, and technology experimentation • • science vs. philosophy • Ptolemy — geocentric universe, retrograde motion • Copernicus — heliocentric universe, circular orbits • Galileo — telescope, heliocentric universe, scientific method • Newton — three laws of motion, forces of nature 6. Name and describe the “four fundamental forces” of nature. Don’t forget strength and how far they reach. A) Four fundamental forces • Strongest Short — strong force binds the nucleus • Weak Long — electromagnetic force binds atoms • Weak Short — weak force in radioactive decay • Weakest Long — gravitational force binds the solar system ▯4 7. Describe and define the four types of seismic waves. Describe each wave’s particle interaction and behavior. How does each specific wave type contribute to the understanding of earthquakes and tsunamis? A) Four types of Seismic waves • Body waves — travel through the earth’s interior • Pwaves (longitudinal) — 1st wave you feel in earthquake because moves fast, 4x faster than S waves. Can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth. Pushes and pulls the rock it moves through just like sound waves push and pull the air. • S waves (transverse) — 2nd wave you feel in earthquake. Can only move through solid rock. • Surface waves — travel along the earth’s surface (like an ocean wave) • Love waves — fastest surface wave; moves the ground from side to side. Rayleigh waves — rolls along the ground (like an ocean wave), moving the ground up and down • and side to side (in the same direction as the wave). Most of the shaking felt from an earthquake is due to the Rayleigh wave, which can be much larger than the other waves. 8. List the evidence scientists have that the magnetic polarity of the earth has shifted. How does the sun effect the geomagnetic direction? A) Evidence • Paleomagnetism — youngest sea floor is at mid-ocean ridge; oldest sea floor away from mid-ocean ridge • Sea floor spreading and magnetic reversals B) The Sun • Earth’s geomagnetic direction — Ageomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged. The Earth's field has alternated between periods of normal polarity, in which the direction of the field was the same as the present direction, and reversepolarity, in which the field was the opposite. ▯5 A NNA FRAZIER 9. What is the structure and composition of the earth? How did scientists determine the structure of the core? A) Scientific evidence of earth’s composition • Seismological studies 10. Define absolute and relative dating. Give examples of the methods each one utilizes to date the earth. How is a radioactive isotope half-life calculated? A) Relative Dating • Principle of Horizontality — layers are initially deposited in horizontal layers B)Absolute Dating • Dendrochronology — uses the growth rings on trees • Radioactive decay — Radioactive parent elements decay to stable daughter elements. (Rocks contain radioactive minerals which are constantly disintegrating at a steady rate.) C) Half-life calculations • After a certain amount of time, there is a 50% chance that an atom will be in the process of nuclear decay, where the parent product releases half of itself to the daughter product and then again and so forth until the auto mis decayed entirely. 11.When given a diagram of rock formation, list the oldest to the youngest rock formations. • Younger layers — at the top • Older layers — at the bottom 12.When given a set of parameters, be able to calculate the velocity of a wave. Describe the anatomy of a wave. A) Velocity of a wave (v) = frequency (f) × wavelength (λ) Name the geological principles/laws used in relative dating. 13. ▯6 A NNA FRAZIER A) Uniformitarianism — the geologic processes observed in operation that modify the Earth's crust at present have worked in much the same way over geologic time B) Original horizontality — the deposition of sediments occurs as essentially horizontal beds C) Cross-cutting relationships — pertains to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut D) Law of Superposition — a sedimentary rock layer in a tectonically undisturbed sequence is younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it E) Principle of Diastrophism — folding of rock layers F) Fault Lines — Afault is a break in Earth’s crust. Forces inside Earth cause movement of the rock on opposite sides of a fault. (Afault is always younger than the rock it cuts through.) G) Law of Unconformity — The underlying layers are first tilted, then erosion scours away a new, horizontal surface. New, horizontal layers form on top. H) Fossils and Faunal Succession — • Fossils: imprinted in rock and evidence of past life • Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order • Bones and shells make good fossils • Index fossils are widespread geographically, are limited to a short span of geologic time, and occur in large numbers. • If a strata in different outcrops contain the same fossil assemblages, then the outcrops represent the same interval of time. These strata correlate. 14.What makes a planet habitable to life as we know it? Give examples of other planets not habitable. A) The habitability of planets B) Other planets are inhabitable • Basic requirement/conditions for lifer • Mars — no convection (recycling of heat) • Source of energy • Life needs complex chemistry • Liquid water and carbon • Benign environments (esp. low UV) • Internal and external heat • Distance from its parent star • Size of the planet ▯7 A NNA F RAZIER 15.Explain the science behind Tsunamis. When and where do they occur? Relate this information to the March 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. A) Tsunami — a series of enormous waves created by an underwater disturbance such as an earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, or meteorite.Atsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in the open ocean and smash into land with waves as high as 100 feet or more. **A tsunami moves fast in deep waters and slows in shallow waters, compressing the energy and increasing the amplitude** B) Where — Atsunami can strike anywhere along most of the U.S. coastline, but can also occur in deep ocean, where the effects are highly reduced and possibly not even felt. This is because once the wave approaches the shore, it builds in height. C) Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan —Amagnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred on Friday, March 11, 2011 in Japan near the convergence of a continental and ocean plate (disturbance), causing waves to travel to the coastline, gaining speed and size as they traveled, and then compressing their energy as they reached the coastline, causing the amplitude to increase (height)… 16.Describe the different classifications of volcanoes, and their physical behaviors. What contributes to the explosiveness of each type? A) Shield Volcano — They are named for their large size and low profile, resembling a warrior's shield lying on the ground. This is caused by the highly fluid lava they erupt, which travels farther than lava erupted from stratovolcanoes. This results in the steady accumulation of broad sheets of lava, building up the shield volcano's distinctive form. The shape of shield volcanoes is due to the low-viscosity magma of their mafic lava. B) Cinder / Scoria Volcano — As the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as either cinders, clinkers, or scoria around the vent C) Explosiveness • Depends on the magma viscosity — gas content. • Viscosity controls the amount of gas that can be trapped in the magma. • The greater the viscosity the more gas in the magma. ▯8 A NNA FRAZIER 17.How do we measure the strength of an Earthquake? How is this information reported? A) Strength of an Earthquake • Determined by Richter Scale — accurate for small earthquakes; measures the height of the amplitude of the wave a specific distance from the epicenter B) Info reported by Tsunami Warning — ▯ ▯9
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