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by: Jourdin Bailey
Jourdin Bailey
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Study guide that will virtually prepare you for Leconto's first exam on September 15, 2016. Good Luck!
Introduction to Sociology
Dr. LoConto
Study Guide
Introduction to Sociology, sociology, Theory, socialist, theorist
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jourdin Bailey on Sunday September 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101G at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. LoConto in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views.


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Date Created: 09/11/16
CHAPTERS 1-3 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 1: What is Sociology? Who helped sociology?  John Dewey 1922 –philosopher- o Super into sociology o Went to Univ. Of Chicago  W.I. Thomas & Dorothy Swain Thomas 1928 o " If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences"  Albert Einstein 1940s o "The theory determines what we can observe"  AKA What you think can ultimately alter what you see   Herbert Spencer coined the term "social Darwinism", although Darwin didn’t like it. -The Promise by C. Wright Mills (1959).. ...conveys that people don’t realize how their lives are affected by things they can't control.... understand people's mindset one must know and account other factors. SOCIOLOGY= the study of human society and social life and the social causes and consequences of human behavior CREDITED to August Comte (1798-1857) Often sociologists may use the census to observe society (an official count of the number of people in a given area) Other sociologists may study racial & ethnic relationships, prejudice, discrimination, power and politics, jobs & income, social control, family life, etc. (a preconceived attitude or judgement about another group/person( usually negative stereotypes)) (overt unequal and unfair treatment of people on the basis of their membership of a particular group) (the ability to control or influence other's behavior) (having the ability to manipulate the actions of others) Chapter 2: Origins of Sociology: Europe  Sociology is less than 200 years old!  The origin is actually a bit of a mess, many of the people who studied early sociology didn’t identify as sociologists.  Sociology didn’t become a discipline in Europe until 1880s; the US was in the 1890s.  Schools of Thought: Functionalism, Conflict, Social Darwinism, Eugenics, & Objective Sociology. 1. 2. 3. FUNCTIONALISM: Each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society's stability and functioning as a whole.  Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim are often associated with functionalism's early origins.  Harvard created Structural Functionalism. Which is when society works as a system composed of roles, structures, and institutions. Everyone has their own role that ultimately contributes to society.  COMTES IDEAS: + dominated sociology in the 1800s- early 1900s + emphasis on the process- interrelatedness relativity- and purpose of sociology + Comte is known for the law of human progress and altruism Altruism= the principle or practice of unselfish concern for welfare of others  EMILE DURKHEIM  French Sociologist late 1880s-early 1900s  Very pessimistic about the direction of the world  Sociology could help make a utopia!!!!  He believed this so much when he realized his work failed, he died... people thought it was because of a broken heart.  If he would have done his job correctly.. There would have been no war.  His son joined the French army, and died.  Durkheim's Study on Suicide o This work was designed to demonstrate that sociology was necessary for the benefit of society o More suicides these days o He argued against: psychology and insanity, and imitation. o More women were called insane. But more men committed suicide. (EVEN TODAY) o IF people are copying others suicide, then there is something wrong with our culture. Conflict Theory: THERE IS NO REAL CONFLICT THEORY  Society has very diverse groups  Every sees wrong and right different  The superior groups enforce their beliefs as the norm  Society is constantly in competition and conflict KARL MARX:  Originally studied law, then got into philosophy.  Social conflict was the core of society!  All of history was influenced by peoples struggles  Marx made big contributions to sociology. MAX WEBER:  A very good writer,  Known for several written works in sociology.  Weber didn’t do well with authority.  He believed in personal beliefs, feelings, and perceptions. SOCIAL DARWINISM & LAISSEZ FAIRE Didn’t not want the gov't to interfere. When the gov't helps they create more problems Who is the more genetically superior people? Chapter 3: Origins of Sociology: United States  The first sociologists in America were Henry Hughes & George Fitzhugh.  They published books on their studies in 1854  In the South, they used sociology to define the way of life.  After the Civil War, when most of the southerners were depressed, sociology slowly vanished.  But then it reappeared in Yale, Columbia, Harvard, and Univ. Of Chicago, and for the next century they dominated the subject.  Lester Ward wrote the "Dynamics of Sociology" in 1883  The Univ. Of Kansas had the very first sociology dept... BUT the Univ of Chicago were the first people to really do research.  The Univ. Of Chicago's dept. Head was Albion Small (1913 Presidential Address)  Sociology= "a systematic study of society"… according to Small PRAGMATISM  The founders of pragmatism studied in Cambridge  Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Oliver Wendell Holmes...  There were people from all different types of research.  Realism is the opposite of nominalism.. o All matter has multiple possibilities of what they can be. o It is not the definition of the object, but the recognition of qualities within the object. o " Gravity exists rather we acknowledge it or not" o The first 7 presidents of the ASA taught or were schooled at the Univ of Chicago o They utilized the city of chicago as a laboratory.  THE SHIFT OF INFLUENCE TO THE EAST o Eventually Talcott Parsons (Harvard) became a leading theorist in America and the whole world. o Ascription versus Achievement. o Diffuseness versus Specificity. o Affectivity versus Affective Neutrality o Particularism versus Universalism o Collectivity versus Self-Orientation o Parsons also came up with AGIL o Adaptation, Goal attainment, Integration, Latency o It secured socialization and social control o His theory of action was utilized to study human behavior for 30-40 years. o Merton, a student of Parsons, created the middle-range theory that also affected sociology forever.  MAJOR THEORIES IN THE US STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL THEORY:  Assumes that society is a system. Everyone does their part and together maintains society  Manifest functions: are intended and recognized  Latent functions: are neither intended nor recognized CONFLICT THEORY:  Similar to the studies of Karl Marx!!!!  Society's makeup is determined by who owns the rights to every thing  But the difference between the theorists and Marx is that they don’t assume that class creates conflict.  Those who control goods will protect their own at the expense of others.  Conflict isn't always war it can be struggles. SYMBOLIC INTERACTION THEORY  Developed by Herbert Blumer-1969  Marco and micro  No separation between society and the individual!  Humans ability to utilize symbols is what sets apart from other living creatures  Looks more closely at everyday life. EXCHANGE THEORY:  Life is made up of several exchanges that include cost and rewards.  I.e. marriage..


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