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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Akila Webb

Exam 1 Study Guide Pols 1101

Akila Webb

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These notes cover major topics from Chapter 1- Chapter 4 including review questions from the textbook, for our exam on Friday, Good Luck!
American Government
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Akila Webb on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Pols 1101 at Georgia State University taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1: Chapter 1-4 Study Guide What are Governments? Government- a set of institution that endures over time. Also defined as a set of institutions that in relation to the people of a particular territory, authoritatively makes and enforces laws. 1. A legislature called Congress which is composed of a Senate and House of Representatives. 2. An executive branch including the offices of the President and Vice President including bureaucratic agencies: organizational units within the executive branch of government responsible for implementing specific public polices and or providing public services 3. The judicial branch includes the supreme court of the U.S. and many lower courts. Territoriality  US governs its own territory  Federalism- authority is partly divided and partly shared between the federal government and the 50 state government  Basically, federalism means authority is partly divided and partly shared between the federal and state governments. Authoritatively Making & Enforcing Laws  Laws/rules require action, prohibit action or permit action. Require: If you drive a car you must have insurance. Prohibit: If you are under 16 you may not drive. Permit: IF you are 16 and older and have a license you can drive. Statutes: laws made by congress or state legislature Ordinance: law made by a city Separation of Powers: principle of government that means legislative executive and judicial powers are exercised by three separate branches of government consisting of distinct institutions that are staffed by officials who serve a term at a time  Legislative branch focuses on making laws, while the executive and judicial branches are concerned with the implantation or enforcement of law. Monopoly [controls what is based and allowed] on the Legitimate Use of Physical Force  The ability of the government to take away, “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”.  Americans are subjected not to a monopoly but to two authorities (state and federal) ie: a duopoly. w/a claim to legitimately use physical force and of the legitimate authority to make judge the law Government as Sovereign Sovereignty- to have sovereignty is to be the highest authority to rule over a given territory.  Sovereign government are understood to have a right to defend their sovereignty from foreign aggression Popular sovereignty- the idea that the people of a particular territory have the highest authority to rule over that territory, also defined as a right to defend one’s country from physical interference from foreign aggression.  Government authority is legitimate only if it derives from the consent of the people Power over the People  Governments make rules binding on all residents of a territory (and not just those who choose to be member of the organization) Political power: person or organization A has power over another person or organization B to the extent that A can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do Power of the purse: government ability to influence behavior by using money through taxing and/or spending; legislative branch controls  To get people to do things that they would not do otherwise  Governments rely on two basic kinds of methods besides the use of force 1. Affecting hearts and minds 2. Using the power of the purse as positive incentives (include benefit) negative incentives (provoke fear) Generic Power of Goods 1. Public goods: once provided no one is a group can be excluded from enjoying (non-excludable) the non- excludability of public goods creates collective action problems because of the temptation to free ride 2. Private good: excludable, things are for sale 3. Free riding: threatens to prevent a group from providing a public good Government the American Way *Protect our rights*  Securing rights: respect and protect  Promoting the happiness/welfare for the people Limited & Constitution Government CONSITUTION LIMITS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT  Bill of Rights made to protect our rights from the Government  Without a constitution, Americans seek to have a government that is adequately empowered Unaccepted Systems of Government?  Theocracy- government based on religion. -Laws should not be interpreted through religion  Racial supremacy- N/A: not even a valid from of government  State socialism: central government controls floe of revenue regardless of how much you make Role of Economic Systems  Market economy  State socialism  Social democracies: take public good make affordable and sometimes free Why do American favor market capitalism over state socialism?  Because it isn’t a commodity it’s a necessity. Constitutional Government Without a constitution, American seek to have a government that is adequately empowered and adequately controlled so that it does not become a threat to rights Constitution is the supreme law of the land Sham constitution- constitution written but government doesn’t follow it Rule of Law Citizens and government are subjected to the same laws Lawmakers are not above the laws create It’s important to maintain order, and credibility Democracy: Government for the people Everyone gets a voice Those in power act on citizens need How do we exert power over our government? Help elect serves in government Working outside the normal democratic process to improve it; petition, protest Seeking to influence the behavior of those serving government What do democracies prioritize? Sovereignty within our border is what he US protect the most Fear chastisement of other countries What is the difference between government and politics?  Politics=Money  Politics: nonviolent, open, and free activates though which people, bound by the same stable democratic government, and who often have different opinions and interest, struggles to exert power over what government does  Ideology: range of ideas that are rooted in beliefs of how government should work when it comes to different policy area ie: healthcare, economy, foreign policy, education  Liberal: government involved in solving individual problems  More government, less problem= liberal: Democrats  Conservatives: no change, traditional individuals should solve their own problems  More government, more problem= conservatives: Republican Radicaction ary The Colonial Middle Period Liberal Moderate Conservativ e  General context of British colonialism in north America  Importance of self-rule and constitutionalism The French and Indian War  American colonist felt more secure from foreign threats and Britain began to impose taxes despite a lack of representation for the colonies parliament  Turning point in British colonial relations  British parliament enforces taxes on colonies to pay war debt  ISSUE: right to not be taxed without representation  NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRSENTATION Tax Initiatives on the Colonies  Sugar Act 1764 - tax on sugar  Currency Act 1764 - taxes on taxes  Stamp Act 1765 - tax for postage/mail  Quartering Act 1765 – can’t say no to military personnel Declaratory Act 1766 Townshend Acts 1767  Tea Act 1773 – Led to the Boston Tea Party The Declaration of Independence America’s Creed  All men are created equal  All are endowed with natural rights, including the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness  The purpose of government is to secure natural rights and to be legitimate government must derive it authority from the consent of the governed; and  The people have a right (and perhaps even a duty) to “alter or abolish” government that is destructive of their natural rights  Heart of the American Revolution: Done with Charles the 3 and his taxes. BASIS FOR THE CONSTITUITON The Revolutionary War  New State Constitution o Common Features  Tightly democratically controlled legislatures  Separation of powers in theory but legislative dominates government in reality  Declaration of legal rights Articles of Confederation *Pre-Constitution*  Confederal Structure: o No distinct branches of government (simply a unicameral legislature called congress) o Lack of clear supremacy of threats and other national laws o Tight control of congressional delegates by state legislatures o Supermajority voting in congress o No direct control by the people over congress o Shay’s Rebellion as a turning point Problems w/ The Articles  Central government powerless to gain revenue or get states to comply  Ultimately led to instability of the union  Challenging economic conditions  Shay’s Rebellion  Annapolis and Philadelphia Conventions, start to carry out the Constitutions The Constitution Preamble: Authority comes from the people; “We the people”. The primary purpose of the government is to secure rights and promote the welfare/happiness of the people. Article 1: The longest part of the constitution. Primarily discusses the legislative branch of government, establishes there will be a bicameral legislature called Congress that consists of the Senate and House of Reps. Article 2: Focuses on the executive branch and that the executive power is vested in the President, 35 years old, natural born citizen. Article 3: Federal court created by Congress. Judges serve until they die. Article 4: Discusses state laws and the responsibility that the federal government has to the states. Establishes Congress’ authority to regulate U.S. territories and to admit new states into the union. Article 5: This article describes the four different pathways by which the constitution can be amended. All states are represented in the Senate and may not be altered unless all states consent to it. Article 6: The federal law is supreme over the state law. The Constitution is “the supreme law of the land”. In effort to promote religious freedom, no more “religious test” for wo is eligible to serve in office. Article 7: The nine states that voted to ratify the constitution would then become established in those states. Amendments 1-10: Bill of Rights. Review: 1. Which of the following are part of the definition of government provided above?  A set of institutions that endure over time  A set of institutions that in relation to the people of a particular territory, authoritatively makes and enforces laws 2. What is a legislature?  An institution of government that makes laws 3. What are bureaucratic agencies?  Organizational units within the executive branch of government responsible for implementing specific public policies and/or providing public services 4. What is the name of the legislature of the federal government of the USA? Congress The government of Canada as authority over people who live in the USA.  False 5. Which of the following statements is true about the American system of federalism?  In American federalism there are some areas of public policy over which only the federal government has authority and some areas which only state government have authority. 6. Which of the following statements are true about the concept of government authority?  A government with a legitimate claim to authority is a government with a rightful or justified claim to authority  A government with authority over a people has a right to issue commands to the people and to expect those commands to be obeyed 7. Regulations are…  Rules made by the bureaucratic agencies that have the force of law 8. Which of the following statement are true about the principle of “separation of powers”?  In the American system of separation of powers, the legislative branch has primary responsibility of making laws.  It is the principle of government that means legislative, executive, and judicial powers are exercised by three separate branches of government consisting of distinct institutions that are staffed by officials who serve in only one institution at a time  In the American system of separation of powers, the executive and judicial branches are concerned with the enforcement of law 9. What reason of “a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force” is misleading for understanding American government?  Due to the American system if federalism over many areas of public policy, no single government has a monopoly over the legitimate use of force. 10.Which of the following statements are consent with what was said about the concept of sovereignty in America?  To have sovereignty is to be the highest authority to rule over a given territory  In the international system, it is understood that the US is sovereign in the sense that it has a right to defend itself from interference from the countries 11.Which of the following statements are consistent with that this section says about how government exercises power of the people?  To say that government exercises power over the people is to say that government can get the people to do what the people would not otherwise do.  Money is sued by governments, as well as other human organizations as a carrot and a stick in order to get people to of what they otherwise would not do.  Government are the only human organizations that seek to exercise power of affecting hearts and minds. 12.In American government the power of the sword is said to be lodged in the legislative branch of the government while the power of the purse is wielded by the executive branch.  False; power of the sword= executive branch, power of the purse= executive branch 13.What is true about Jane’s story?  A public good is a world w/o climate change 14.Which of the following claims are made in this section of the chapter? o Americans agree about which specific government policies most effectively promote happiness. o A longstanding American belief is that a legitimate purpose of government is to promote the happiness and welfare of the people.


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