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Exam One Study Guide

by: Lauren Dennis

Exam One Study Guide 2300

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Microbiology > 2300 > Exam One Study Guide
Lauren Dennis

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About this Document

Overview of things to know for the first exam.
Microbiology 2300
Dr. Fuhua Lu
Study Guide
Microbiology, transcription, translation, prokaryote, eukaryotic, contributors, Microscopy
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Dennis on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2300 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Fuhua Lu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Microbiology 2300 in Microbiology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 Study Guide  Important contributions: o Leeuwenhoek:   1674; discovered bacteria  Microbiology as a science was created  Observed the bacteria in lake water through a magnifying glass o Jenner:   1796; vaccination for cow pox  The first vaccination o Koch:  Koch Postulates  Four techniques that showed that specific microorganisms  are linked to specific diseases  Gold standard in medical microbiology  1881 introduced pure cultures in the lab  1882: discovers tuberculosis o Pasteur:   Refuted Spontaneous Generation  Considered to be father of modern microbiology  1861 performed experiments disproving spontaneous generation  swan­necked flask  microorganisms in the air o Lister:   Aseptic technique  Medical microbiology  Clean and sterile environment to decrease post surgery  infection o Fleming:   1929: discovery of penicillin o Griffith:  1928: Genetic transformation in bacteria  Using rats o Ames:   Ames Test: a method that uses bacteria to determine whether a  chemical can cause mutations in DNA  Microscopy: o Total magnification: ocular x objective lens  o Refractive index: the ratio of the velocity to its velocity in a specified  medium  Microscope: going from glass to liquid o Resolution: quality of lens/ illuminating source   Shorter wavelength: better resolution  o Application of various microscopes:  Light Microscope  Bright­Field: dark images against a brighter background  Dark­Field: light is scattered by the sample  Visible objects are below the resolution  Unstained preparations  Fluorescence:  Absorb UV (short wavelength) and emit lower  energy light (long wavelength)  Differential Intereference:  3 beams of lights and prism to view image  Image: seen using refractive indexes and thickness  3D image  Scanner Laser: sends laser through sections of an organism  Computer constructs a 3D image  Details of the internal structure of the organism   Electron Microscope: electromagnetic lenses/ electrons/  fluorescent screen  Electrons have high frequent and short wavelengths  Great Resolution  TEM:   Fixed Sample, very thin, and stained with a metal  SEM:   Observe surface details, coated with a heavy metal,  no slices, only examines the surface  o Staining techniques: chemical compounds used to view organisms under a  microscope  Acid or base stains  Acid: negatively charged and stains the glass  Base: positively charge and stains the organism  Simple Stain: helps to determine size, shape, and arrangement   Uses only one stain  Gram stain: uses multiple stains, relying on peptidoglycan in the  cell wall of bacteria  Primary (crystal violet) ­ mordant (Gram’s iodine)­  decolorizing (alcohol)­ counter stain (safarnin)  Gram­positive: purple  Very thick layer of peptidoglycan  Gram­ negative: pink  Very thin layer of peptidoglycan  Acid fast stain: resistance to decolonization by acids during  staining procedures  Heat­ decolorizing­ counterstain  Acid­Fast: heavy waxy outer area  Non­Acid Fast: blue  Capsule stain:   Basic characteristics of bacteria, protists, fungi, virus, viroid, prion  Prokaryotic cell structure and function (cell wall, cell membrane,  ribosome, fimbriae, pili, flagella, endospores, nucleoid, plasmid) o Difference between G + and G­ bacterial cell wall  Difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes  Microbial nutritional types o Classification based on carbon and energy sources o Classification based on environmental factors (temperature, pH, oxygen  requirement, salt etc.) o Bacterial growth and calculation o Isolation and counting bacteria o Selective medium vs. differential medium  Genetic information flow o Vertical vs. Horizontal gene transfer 1.  DNA replication, transcription, translation 2.  Transformation, conjugation, transduction,  transposition o Mutation and Mutagens o Signal transduction, quorum sensing o Antibiotic resistance


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